Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean
Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies.
Utility of transesophageal echocardiography in the ICU: A preliminary US perspective [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction While TEE is providing a direct assessment of the cardiac function and volume status as a diagnostic tool, until recently it has been impractical to be continuously available for monitoring. A new disposable, monoplanar TEE probe (ImaCor) can remain in the patient for up to 72 hours, allowing repeated measures of ventricular function and volume status, parameters needed to monitor response to therapy. Methods We assessed the benefit these TEE data provided in the assessment of f ve domains: hypovolemia, right ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular dysfunction, sepsis, and valvular abnormality. Bedside practitioners listed their diagnoses before and after seeing primary TEE images perform by trained physicians. We used a 0 to 5 Likert scale to assess differential diagnosis before and after the TEE, comparing changes using a paired t test. Results All requests for TEE were to access hemodynamic instability. A total of 18 patients were screened and nine were eligible, in which 16 total TEE studies were performed. There were no complications with TEE and all patients tolerated the long-term placement of the probe well. Of the f ve diagnostic domains studied, right ventricular failure was the most commonly underdiagnosed contributor to the hemodynamic instability among patients prior to TEE (P = 0.054) (Figures 1 and 2). (GRAPH PRESENTED) Conclusion Our results suggest that having continuously available TEE for monitoring and management of hemodynamically unstable patients increases awareness of right ventricular dysfunction in the ICU