Differentiation of Jugular Foramen Paragangliomas versus Schwannomas Using Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Accurate differentiation of paragangliomas and schwannomas in the jugular foramen has important clinical implications because treatment strategies may vary but differentiation is not always straightforward with conventional imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of both qualitative and quantitative metrics derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging using golden-angle radial sparse parallel MR imaging to differentiate paragangliomas and schwannomas in the jugular foramen. MATERIALS AND METHODS:test. A univariate logistic model was created with a binary output, paraganglioma or schwannoma, using a wash-in rate as a variable. Additionally, lesions were clustered on the basis of the wash-in rate and washout rate using a 3-nearest neighbors method. RESULTS:< .001). All 30 lesions were classified correctly by using a 3-nearest neighbors method. CONCLUSIONS:Paragangliomas at the jugular foramen can be reliably differentiated from schwannomas using golden-angle radial sparse parallel MR imaging-dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging when imaging characteristics cannot suffice.
Fast, regional three-dimensional hybrid (1D-Hadamard 2D-rosette) proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the human temporal lobes
1 H-MRSI is commonly performed with gradient phase encoding, due to its simplicity and minimal radio frequency (RF) heating (specific absorption rate). Its two well-known main problems-(i) "voxel bleed" due to the intrinsic point-spread function, and (ii) chemical shift displacement error (CSDE) when slice-selective RF pulses are used, which worsens with increasing volume of interest (VOI) size-have long become accepted as unavoidable. Both problems can be mitigated with Hadamard multislice RF encoding. This is demonstrated and quantified with numerical simulations, in a multislice phantom and in five healthy young adult volunteers at 3 T, targeting a 2-cm thick temporal lobe VOI through the bilateral hippocampus. This frequently targeted region (e.g. in epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease) is subject to strong, 1-2 ppm.cm-1 regional B0, susceptibility gradients that can dramatically reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and water suppression effectiveness. The chemical shift imaging (CSI) sequence used a 3-ms Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) 90Â° RF pulse, acquiring eight steps in the slice direction. The Hadamard sequence acquired two overlapping slices using the same SLR 90Â° pulses, under twofold stronger gradients that proportionally halved the CSDE. Both sequences used 2D 20 Ã— 20 rosette spectroscopic imaging (RSI) for in-plane spatial localization and both used RF and gradient performance characteristics that are easily met by all modern MRI instruments. The results show that Hadamard spectroscopic imaging (HSI) suffered dramatically less signal bleed within the VOI compared with CSI (<1% vs. approximately 26% in simulations; and 5%-8% vs. >50%) in a phantom specifically designed to test these effects. The voxels' SNR per unit volume per unit time was also 40% higher for HSI. In a group of five healthy volunteers, we show that HSI with in-plane 2D-RSI facilitates fast, 3D multivoxel encoding at submilliliter spatial resolution, over the bilateral human hippocampus, in under 10 min, with negligible CSDE, spectral and spatial contamination and more than 6% improved SNR per unit time per unit volume.
MR spectroscopic imaging at 3â€‰T and outcomes in surgical epilepsy
For the spectroscopic assessment of brain disorders that require large-volume coverage, the requirements of RF performance and field homogeneity are high. For epilepsy, this is also challenging given the inter-patient variation in location, severity and subtlety of anatomical identification and its tendency to involve the temporal region. We apply a targeted method to examine the utility of large-volume MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in surgical epilepsy patients, implementing a two-step acquisition, comprised of a 3D acquisition to cover the fronto-parietal regions, and a contiguous parallel two-slice Hadamard-encoded acquisition to cover the temporal-occipital region, both with TR /TE =â€‰2000/40â€‰ms and matched acquisition times. With restricted (static, first/second-order) B0 shimming in their respective regions, the CramÃ©r-Rao lower bounds for creatine from the temporal lobe two-slice Hadamard and frontal-parietal 3D acquisition are 8.1â€‰Â±â€‰2.2% and 6.3â€‰Â±â€‰1.9% respectively. The datasets are combined to provide a total 60â€‰mm axial coverage over the frontal, parietal and superior temporal to middle temporal-occipital regions. We applied these acquisitions at a nominal 400â€‰mm3 voxel resolution in n =â€‰27 pre-surgical epilepsy patients and n =â€‰20 controls. In controls, 86.6â€‰Â±â€‰3.2% voxels with at least 50% tissue (white +â€‰gray matter, excluding CSF) survived spectral quality inclusion criteria. Since all patients were clinically followed for at least 1â€‰year after surgery, seizure frequency outcome was available for all. The MRSI measurements of the total fractional metabolic dysfunction (characterized by the Cr/NAA metric) in FreeSurfer MRI gray matter segmented regions, in the patients compared with the controls, exhibited a significant Spearman correlation with post-surgical outcome. This finding suggests that a larger burden of metabolic dysfunction is seen in patients with poorer post-surgical seizure control.
An integrative study of the microbiome gut-brain-axis and hippocampal inflammation in psychosis: Persistent effects from mode of birth
The mechanism producing psychosis appears to include hippocampal inflammation, which could be associated with the microbiome-gut-brain-axis (MGBS). To test this hypothesis we are conducting a multidisciplinary study, herein described. The procedures are illustrated with testing of a single subject and group level information on the impact of C-section birth are presented. Method: Study subjects undergo research diagnostic interviews and symptom assessments to be categorized into one of 3 study groups: psychosis, nonpsychotic affective disorder or healthy control. Hippocampal volume and metabolite concentrations are assessed using 3-dimensional, multi-voxel H1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRSI) encompassing all gray matter in the entire hippocampal volume. Rich self-report information is obtained with the PROMIS interview, which was developed by the NIH Commons for research in chronic conditions. Early trauma is assessed and cognition is quantitated using the MATRICS. The method also includes the most comprehensive autonomic nervous system (ANS) battery used to date in psychiatric research. Stool and oral samples are obtained for microbiome assessments and cytokines and other substances are measured in blood samples. Results: Group level preliminary data shows that C-section birth is associated with higher concentrations of GLX, a glutamate related hippocampal neurotransmitter in psychotic cases, worse symptoms in affective disorder cases and smaller hippocampal volume in controls. Conclusion: Mode of birth appears to have persistent influences through adulthood. The methodology described for this study will define pathways through which the MGBA may influence the risk for psychiatric disorders.
Preliminary Findings Associate Hippocampal 1H-MR Spectroscopic Metabolite Concentrations with Psychotic and Manic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Previous hippocampal proton MR spectroscopic imaging distinguished patients with schizophrenia from controls by elevated Cr levels and significantly more variable NAA and Cho concentrations. This goal of this study was to ascertain whether this metabolic variability is associated with clinical features of the syndrome, possibly reflecting heterogeneous hippocampal pathologies and perhaps variability in its "positive" (psychotic) and "negative" (social and emotional deficits) symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:, we examined the association of NAA and Cho levels with research diagnostic interviews and clinical symptom ratings of the patients. Metabolite concentrations were previously obtained with 3D proton MR spectroscopic imaging at 3T, a technique that facilitates complete coverage of this small, irregularly shaped, bilateral, temporal lobe structure. RESULTS:â€‰â‰¥â€‰ .055). CONCLUSIONS:These preliminary findings suggest that NAA and Cho variations reflect different pathophysiologic processes, consistent with microgliosis/astrogliosis and/or lower vitality (reduced NAA) and demyelination (elevated Cho). In particular, the active state-related symptoms, including psychosis and mania, were associated with demyelination. Consequently, their deviations from the means of healthy controls may be a marker that may benefit precision medicine in selection and monitoring of schizophrenia treatment.
Global brain volume and N-acetyl-aspartate decline over seven decades of normal aging
We characterize the whole-brain N-acetyl-aspartate (WBNAA) and brain tissue fractions across the adult lifespan and test the hypothesis that, despite age-related atrophy, neuronal integrity (reflected by WBNAA) is preserved in normal aging. Two-hundred-and-seven participants: 133 cognitively intact older adults (73.6 Â± 7.4 mean Â± standard deviation, range: 60-90Â year old) and 84 young (37.9 Â± 11, range: 21-59Â year old) were scanned with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T1-weighted MRI. Their WBNAA, fractional brain parenchyma, and gray and white matter volumes (fBPV, fGM, and fWM) were compared and modeled as functions of age and sex. Compared with young, older-adults' WBNAA was lower by ~35%, and fBPV, fGM and fWM were lower by ~10%. Linear regressions found 0.5%/year WBNAA and 0.2%/year fBPV and fGM declines, whereas fWM rose to age ~40 years, and declined thereafter. fBPV and fGM were 1.8% and 4% higher in women, with no sex decline rates difference. We conclude that contrary to our hypothesis, atrophy was accompanied by WBNAA decline. Across the entire age range, women's brains showed less atrophy than men's. Formulas to estimate WBNAA and brain tissue fractions in healthy adults are provided to help differentiate normal from abnormal aging.
Hippocampal metabolite concentrations in schizophrenia vary in association with rare gene variants in the TRIO gene [Letter]
Putamen Inflammation and its Association With Working Memory Impairments in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders [Meeting Abstract]
Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy for the identification of white matter abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury: Comparison between regional and global analysis
BACKGROUND:H MRS with the ability to separate tissue-type partial volume contribution(s). PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:H MRSI voxel averaging is sensitive to regional WM metabolic abnormalities. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. POPULATION/METHODS:Twenty-seven subjects: 15 symptomatic mTBI patients, 12 matched controls. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine, choline, and myo-inositol concentrations estimated in predominantly WM regions: body, genu, and splenium of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, frontal, and occipital WM. STATISTICAL TESTS/UNASSIGNED:Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare patients with controls in terms of regional concentrations. The effect sizes (Cohen's d) of the mean differences were compared across regions and with previously published global data obtained with linear regression of the WM over the entire VOI in the same dataset. RESULTS:Despite patients' global VOI WM NAA being significantly lower than the controls', no regional differences were observed for any metabolite. Regional NAA comparisons, however, were all unidirectional (patients' NAA concentrations < controls') within a narrow range: 0.3â€‰â‰¤â€‰Cohen's dâ€‰â‰¤â€‰0.6. DATA CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:H MRS studies, given that these results are confirmed in other cohorts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.
Erratum to "Whole brain neuronal abnormalities in focal epilepsy quantified with proton MR spectroscopy" [Epilepsy Res. 139 (2018) 85-91] [Correction]