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Effect of Spatial and Temporal Resolution on the Calculation of Global Longitudinal Strain by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography [Meeting Abstract]

Gopal, Aasha S.; Toole, Rena S.; Cao, Jie J.
ISSN: 0009-7322
CID: 4590942

Right Atrial Reservoir and Booster Strain Correlate Better Than Right Atrial Area with Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion [Meeting Abstract]

Gopal, Aasha S.; Saha, Samir K.; Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Govind, Satish C.; Lindqvist, Per; Soderberg, Stefan
ISSN: 0009-7322
CID: 4590952

Role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: experience from a tertiary centre in India

Govind, Satish C; Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Gadiyaram, Varuna K; Gopal, Aasha S; Brodin, Lars-Ã…ke; Ramesh, Saligrama S; Saha, Samir K
BACKGROUND:Role of biomarkers in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is paramount, as they aid in diagnosis and gauge prognosis of the disease. In this project, we sought to study the short-term outcome and clinical associates of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the setting of STEMI at a tertiary center in India. METHODS:In all, 173 STEMI patients (mean age: 57 ± 12 years, 38 women) had their NT-proBNP assayed in addition to troponins and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Subjects were divided according to NT-proBNP levels into 2 groups: group 1 (NT-proBNP ≤100 pg/mL) and group 2 (NT-proBNP >100 pg/mL). RESULTS:NT-proBNP values (pg/mL) were elevated in group 2 (group 1: 61.7 ± 6.2; group 2: 1006.5 ± 990.6, P < 0.0001). Significantly greater number of females had elevated NT-proBNP (P < 0.05) that could be predicted by the duration of chest pain related to STEMI (area under the curve: 0.72), and age at presentation (area under the curve: 0.66). Multiple regression analysis showed a strong inverse association between NT-proBNP and left ventricular ejection fraction and a strong positive association between the peptide and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. A significant positive association was also noted between NT-proBNP and troponin I (all P < 0.05, Global R = 0.47). Diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension, and infarction localization showed no effect on NT-proBNP levels along with death, primary coronary intervention-related bleeding, and arrhythmias, (χ, P = ns). CONCLUSIONS:The data suggest that women are more likely to have increased NT-proBNP while presenting with STEMI. Duration of chest pain and age at presentation are the best predictors of elevated NT-proBNP, though without much bearing on short-term morbidity and mortality.
PMID: 22089274
ISSN: 1535-2811
CID: 4590842

Principles and clinical applications of strain imaging

Govind, Satish C; Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Gopal, Aasha S; Brodin, Lars Ake; Saha, Samir K
M-Mode echocardiography, 2-D grey scale imaging and standard Doppler that constitute conventional echocardiography has been used for over many decades now. Although these modalities form the backbone in routine clinical echocardiography, its inability to objectively quantify left ventricular function at regional and global levels as well as its loading and heart rate dependency make conventional echocardiography an incomplete tool in clinical situations. Tissue Doppler imaging (which includes myocardial velocity, displacement and strain) has been successfully used in a variety of clinical situations, from investigations of diastolic function to implantation of bi-ventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy and even in preclinical diagnosis of genetic diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Strain imaging has been found to be superior to velocity in a variety of clinical conditions and enables us to quantify deformation as a measurable number in terms of regional myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate have to be assessed together since they provide complementary information somewhat analogous to ejection fraction and contraction. This article has tried to simplify its principles, understand its limitations and know its utility to ensure having a better knowledge of this promising tool before one starts to actively use it. In this review, focus has been made on the physical, technical and also clinical aspects of strain imaging. In the new world of multi-modality imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and nuclear perfusion scintigraphy (NPS) are the competitors of echocardiography, but it would be of interest to note that even these modalities are also adapting concepts of strain imaging (in CMR) and left ventricular synchronicity (in NPS). This only emphasizes the role of advanced echocardiography as a more economical and stand-alone modality visa vis the other two related technologies. The sooner we adapt to these advanced applications, stronger would be the ground to resolve technical and clinical issues. Strain imaging in its present form cannot win the game alone in this era of multi-modality imaging, but it is almost certain that with continued advancement, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography based strain could play a pivotal role in a variety of clinical situations providing much needed incremental information.
PMID: 22734363
ISSN: 0019-4832
CID: 4590862

Evidence of Variability Of 2D Strain Measures in Human Subjects Referred for Routine Echocardiographic Examination [Meeting Abstract]

Kodali, Visali; Saha, Samir K.; Toole, Rena S.; Chukwu, Ebere O.; Govind, Satish C.; Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Brodin, Lars-Ake; Gopal, Aasha S.
ISSN: 0009-7322
CID: 4590932

Quantification of low-dose dobutamine stress using speckle tracking echocardiography in coronary artery disease

Govind, Satish C; Gopal, Aasha S; Netyö, Anita; Nowak, Jacek; Brodin, Lars-Ake; Patrianakos, Alexandros; Ramesh, S S; Saha, Samir
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:We sought to evaluate the utility of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for detecting left ventricular (LV) mechanical abnormalities during low-dose (20 microg) dobutamine stress (DSE). METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:Twenty-nine patients (56 +/- 12 years) with a history of recent acute coronary events (ACE) underwent STE-DSE. Left ventricular images, sampled at frame rates 70-100 Hz, were analysed off-line (Echopac BT 6.0.0). Velocity, strain, and rotational imaging were performed. Twenty patients had LV ejection fraction (EF) >40% (Group 1) whereas nine patients had LVEF <40% (Group 2). Average heart and frame rates were identical during DSE in the two groups (P = ns). Global circumferential strain (%) was significantly lower in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (10.65 +/- 5.30 vs. 16.82 +/- 6.61; P < 0.05) at rest and during peak stress (14.72 +/- 6.51 vs. 21.13 +/- 7.2; P < 0.05). The global peak rotation rate (degree/s) was, however, higher at rest in Group 2 (70 +/- 97 vs. 19 +/- 67; P < 0.05) and 20 microg stress. Peak systolic velocity increased in three of the four LV walls at 20 microg (in Groups 1 and 2). A global rotational rate increased significantly at 20 microg during systole in both the groups, but was unchanged in Group 2 during diastole. CONCLUSIONS:Speckle tracking echocardiography dobutamine stress appears to provide comprehensive information on LV mechanical status in the aftermath of ACE. The modality may help risk stratify such patients.
PMID: 19202146
ISSN: 1532-2114
CID: 4590832

Relative importance of errors in left ventricular quantitation by two-dimensional echocardiography: insights from three-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

Chukwu, Ebere O; Barasch, Eddy; Mihalatos, Dennis G; Katz, Alan; Lachmann, Justine; Han, Jing; Reichek, Nathaniel; Gopal, Aasha S
BACKGROUND:The accuracy of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) on two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is limited by image position (IP), geometric assumption (GA), and boundary tracing (BT) errors. METHODS:Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) were used to determine the relative contribution of each error source in normal controls (n = 35) and patients with myocardial infarctions (MIs) (n = 34). LV volumes and EFs were calculated using (1) apical biplane disk summation on 2DE (IP + GA + BT errors), (2) biplane disk summation on RT3DE (GA + BT errors), (3) 4-multiplane to 8-multiplane surface approximation on RT3DE (GA + BT errors), (4) voxel-based surface approximation on RT3DE (BT error alone) and (5) CMR. By comparing each method with CMR, the absolute and relative contributions of each error source were determined. RESULTS:IP error predominated in LV volume quantification on 2DE in normal controls, whereas GA error predominated in patients with MIs. Underestimation of volumes on 2DE was overcome by increasing the number of imaging planes on RT3DE. Although 4 equidistant image planes were acceptable, the best results were achieved with voxel-based RT3DE. For EF estimation, IP error predominated in normal controls, whereas BT error predominated in patients with MIs. Nevertheless, one third of the EF estimation error in patients with MIs was due to a combination of IP and GA errors, both of which may be addressed using RT3DE. CONCLUSIONS:The relative contribution of each source of LV quantitation error on 2DE was defined and quantified. Each source of error differed depending on patient characteristics and LV geometry.
PMID: 18765174
ISSN: 1097-6795
CID: 3519492

Left ventricular structure and function for postmyocardial infarction and heart failure risk stratification by three-dimensional echocardiography

Gopal, Aasha S; Chukwu, Ebere O; Mihalatos, Dennis G; Katz, Alan S; Mathew, Sunil T; Lachmann, Justine S; Toole, Rena S; Schapiro, William; Reichek, Nathaniel
PMID: 17555935
ISSN: 1097-6795
CID: 3519482

Normal values of right ventricular size and function by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

Gopal, Aasha S; Chukwu, Ebere O; Iwuchukwu, Chizor J; Katz, Alan S; Toole, Rena S; Schapiro, William; Reichek, Nathaniel
BACKGROUND:Assessment of right ventricular function by 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DECHO) is difficult because of its complex shape. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DECHO) may be superior. METHODS:End-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction obtained by 2DECHO, RT3DECHO short-axis disk summation (DS), and RT3DECHO apical rotation were compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in 71 healthy individuals. RESULTS:RT3DECHO DS showed less volume underestimation compared with 2DECHO and RT3DECHO apical rotation. Test-retest variability for RT3DECHO DS end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were 3.3%, 8.7%, 10%, and 10.3%, respectively. Normal reference ranges of indexed volumes (mean +/- 2SD) for right ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were 38.6 to 92.2 mL/m(2), 7.8 to 50.6 mL/m(2), 22.5 to 42.9 mL/m(2), and 38.0% to 65.3%, respectively, for women and 47.0 to 100 mL/m(2), 23.0 to 52.6 mL/m(2), 14.2 to 48.4 mL/m(2), and 29.9% to 58.4%, respectively, for men. CONCLUSIONS:RT3DECHO DS is superior to RT3DECHO apical rotation and 2DECHO for right ventricular quantification, and performs acceptably when compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in healthy individuals.
PMID: 17484982
ISSN: 1097-6795
CID: 4590822

Mitral annular remodeling with varying degrees and mechanisms of chronic mitral regurgitation

Mihalatos, Dennis G; Joseph, Satheesh; Gopal, Aasha; Bercow, Neil; Toole, Rena; Passick, Michael; Grimson, Roger; Norales, Aracely; Reichek, Nathaniel
HYPOTHESES/OBJECTIVE:Degree of mitral annular remodeling is directly associated with severity of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR). Mitral annular remodeling occurs in a symmetric fashion, regardless of MR severity. In addition to MR severity, MR mechanism plays a significant role in mitral annular remodeling. BACKGROUND:Limited data exists on mitral annular remodeling in patients with MR. Identification of annular changes may be important in aiding surgical repair. METHODS:Mitral annular dimensions (anteroposterior, intercommissural, surface area, and circumference) were measured in end systole and diastole using 3-dimensional reconstructive software in 83 patients: trace to no MR (23), mild MR (15), moderate MR (26), and severe MR (19). Annular sphericity indices were determined by dividing intercommissural by anteroposterior dimensions. Patients were further subgrouped by mechanism of MR. RESULTS:With increasing MR severity, there was a corresponding increase in all annular measurements, most pronounced in the anteroposterior dimension, circumference, and area. Larger increases were seen in patients with prolapse/flail and dilated mechanisms. Furthermore, the mitral annulus became more circular (sphericity index approached 1.0) with increasing MR severity. Patients with prolapse/flail mechanisms exhibited normal left ventricular volumes despite significant annular enlargement. CONCLUSIONS:Mitral annular remodeling is directly associated with MR severity and occurs in an asymmetric fashion, yet is not limited to one region of the annulus. Mechanism of MR plays a significant role in annular remodeling. Annular remodeling can occur independently of left ventricular remodeling.
PMID: 17400119
ISSN: 1097-6795
CID: 4590812