Capturing essentials in wound photography past, present, and future: A proposed algorithm for standardization
Development of a Method for Clinical Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence-Based Digital Wound Assessment Tools
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Accurate assessment of wound area and percentage of granulation tissue (PGT) are important for optimizing wound care and healing outcomes. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based wound assessment tools have the potential to improve the accuracy and consistency of wound area and PGT measurement, while improving efficiency of wound care workflows. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To develop a quantitative and qualitative method to evaluate AI-based wound assessment tools compared with expert human assessments. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This diagnostic study was performed across 2 independent wound centers using deidentified wound photographs collected for routine care (site 1, 110 photographs taken between May 1 and 31, 2018; site 2, 89 photographs taken between January 1 and December 31, 2019). Digital wound photographs of patients were selected chronologically from the electronic medical records from the general population of patients visiting the wound centers. For inclusion in the study, the complete wound edge and a ruler were required to be visible; circumferential ulcers were specifically excluded. Four wound specialists (2 per site) and an AI-based wound assessment service independently traced wound area and granulation tissue. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The quantitative performance of AI tracings was evaluated by statistically comparing error measure distributions between test AI traces and reference human traces (AI vs human) with error distributions between independent traces by 2 humans (human vs human). Quantitative outcomes included statistically significant differences in error measures of false-negative area (FNA), false-positive area (FPA), and absolute relative error (ARE) between AI vs human and human vs human comparisons of wound area and granulation tissue tracings. Six masked attending physician reviewers (3 per site) viewed randomized area tracings for AI and human annotators and qualitatively assessed them. Qualitative outcomes included statistically significant difference in the absolute difference between AI-based PGT measurements and mean reviewer visual PGT estimates compared with PGT estimate variability measures (ie, range, standard deviation) across reviewers. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 199 photographs were selected for the study across both sites; mean (SD) patient age was 64 (18) years (range, 17-95 years) and 127 (63.8%) were women. The comparisons of AI vs human with human vs human for FPA and ARE were not statistically significant. AI vs human FNA was slightly elevated compared with human vs human FNA (median [IQR], 7.7% [2.7%-21.2%] vs 5.7% [1.6%-14.9%]; Pâ€‰<â€‰.001), indicating that AI traces tended to slightly underestimate the human reference wound boundaries compared with human test traces. Two of 6 reviewers had a statistically higher frequency in agreement that human tracings met the standard area definition, but overall agreement was moderate (352 yes responses of 583 total responses [60.4%] for AI and 793 yes responses of 1166 total responses [68.0%] for human tracings). AI PGT measurements fell in the typical range of variation in interreviewer visual PGT estimates; however, visual PGT estimates varied considerably (mean range, 34.8%; mean SD, 19.6%). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:This study provides a framework for evaluating AI-based digital wound assessment tools that can be extended to automated measurements of other wound features or adapted to evaluate other AI-based digital image diagnostic tools. As AI-based wound assessment tools become more common across wound care settings, it will be important to rigorously validate their performance in helping clinicians obtain accurate wound assessments to guide clinical care.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress: treated cases versus propensity-matched controls
Objective/UNASSIGNED:Given the high mortality and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation of COVID-19 patients, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen for COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress. Methods/UNASSIGNED:This is a single-center clinical trial of COVID-19 patients at NYU Winthrop Hospital from March 31 to April 28, 2020. Patients in this trial received hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2.0 atmospheres of pressure in monoplace hyperbaric chambers for 90 minutes daily for a maximum of five total treatments. Controls were identified using propensity score matching among COVID-19 patients admitted during the same time period. Using competing-risks survival regression, we analyzed our primary outcome of inpatient mortality and secondary outcome of mechanical ventilation. Results/UNASSIGNED:We treated 20 COVID-19 patients with hyperbaric oxygen. Ages ranged from 30 to 79 years with an oxygen requirement ranging from 2 to 15 liters on hospital days 0 to 14. Of these 20 patients, two (10%) were intubated and died, and none remain hospitalized. Among 60 propensity-matched controls based on age, sex, body mass index, coronary artery disease, troponin, D-dimer, hospital day, and oxygen requirement, 18 (30%) were intubated, 13 (22%) have died, and three (5%) remain hospitalized (with one still requiring mechanical ventilation). Assuming no further deaths among controls, we estimate that the adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios were 0.37 for inpatient mortality (p=0.14) and 0.26 for mechanical ventilation (p=0.046). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Though limited by its study design, our results demonstrate the safety of hyperbaric oxygen among COVID-19 patients and strongly suggests the need for a well-designed, multicenter randomized control trial.
Regenerative Wound Surgery: Practical Application of Regenerative Medicine in the OR
Chronic nonhealing wounds cause significant morbidity and mortality and remain a challenging condition to treat. Regenerative wound surgery involves operative debridement of wounds to remove dead and healing-impaired tissue and bacterial contamination and, subsequently, the application of regenerative medicine treatments to accelerate healing. Regenerative treatments aim to restore native tissue structure and function by targeting biological mechanisms underlying impaired healing. A wide range of regenerative modalities are used for treating chronic and complex wounds, including decellularized scaffolds, living engineered donor tissues, autologous stem cells, and recombinant growth factors. Each of these modalities has specific and sometimes complex requirements for implementation. The advanced wound care team, including OR staff members, should be aware of how these products are used and regulated. This article highlights some of the common and emerging regenerative treatments that are applied in wound surgery and focuses on how the products are used practically in the OR.
Necrotizing Myositis: A Rare Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Involving Muscle
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Necrotizing myositis (NM) is an extremely rare necrotizing soft tissue infection involving muscle. Unlike similar infections (eg, necrotizing fasciitis, clostridial myonecrosis) that can be more readily diagnosed, NM can have a benign presentation then rapidly progress into a life-threatening condition with a mortality rate of 100% without surgical intervention. CASE REPORT/METHODS:A 74-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer with radiation therapy, seed implants, and 2 transurethral resection procedures presented to the emergency department after a fall. He was initially diagnosed and treated for urosepsis. Sixteen hours after presentation, he complained of pain and swelling of his right groin. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed gas findings suspicious for necrotizing infection of the bilateral thighs. Surgical exploration revealed NM. Separate cultures from the left thigh and bladder grew Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium clostridioforme, and Peptostreptococcus, suggesting a possible common source of infection from the prostate gland or the osteomyelitic pubic symphysis, which subsequently spread to the bilateral thighs. CONCLUSIONS:To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of S intermedius and C clostridioforme causing NM. A high index of suspicion is required for extremely rare conditions like NM, because early diagnosis and surgical intervention significantly reduce mortality.
A Framework to Assist Providers in the Management of Patients with Chronic, Nonhealing Wounds
GENERAL PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To describe the development of an evidence-based wound electronic medical record (WEMR) framework for providers to execute timely, protocol-based, best-practice care for patients with chronic, nonhealing wounds. TARGET AUDIENCE/BACKGROUND:This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES/UNASSIGNED:After completing this continuing education activity, you should be better able to: ABSTRACT: The care of patients with nonhealing wounds involves a host of treatment modalities. The authors developed a wound-specific framework to enhance provider management of these wounds and a summary sheet to involve patients and caregivers in their own healthcare to improve treatment adherence and outcomes. Implementing evidence-based practice for chronic wounds enables corrective actions to optimize care.
A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: An Unusual Presentation of Diabetic Myonecrosis
GENERAL PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To provide information about the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic myonecrosis (DMN).This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care.After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Cite the incidence and symptomatology of diabetic myonecrosis.2. Identify the diagnostic tests associated with DMN.3. Summarize the evidence-based treatments for DMN.Diabetic myonecrosis is a rare complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus that presents similarly to many common conditions such as cellulitis, abscess, and fasciitis. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the investigative test of choice. Treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and glycemic control.
An unusual presentation of Merkel cell carcinoma: a case report
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive carcinoma that usually arises in sun-exposed regions. MCC is a primary neuroendocrine tumor that arises in the skin. This report describes an unusual case of MCC on the buttocks that was treated with excision, radiation and chemotherapy. Physicians should consider MCC as a differential diagnosis when encountering a rapidly growing, painless lesion. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve patient survival rates.
Practical Application of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in Patients with Wounds
Rapidly evolving advances in wound-care technologies and treatment modalities, including locally injectable granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), are increasingly being used. Based on its role in the stimulation and recruitment of key contributors to wound healing, such as keratinocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts, GM-CSF is considered to play an essential role in the wound-healing cascade. Synthetic GM-CSF has been shown to have a positive effect on the healing of chronic wounds when given as a local injection in a small number of patients. Subsequent randomized, controlled trials demonstrated that GM-CSF accelerated the healing of chronic wounds. This paper reviews the proposed mechanism of action of GM-CSF in wound healing. We also describe its method of application in the operating room at a tertiary care center for patients with wounds. Key Messages: Many types of chronic wounds have an altered keratinocyte and macrophage function that can be potentially assuaged by the addition of locally injected growth factor therapy to standard-of-care treatment. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of chronic, non-healing wounds. This article reviews the data on GM-CSF, reports a proposed mechanism of action, and describes its use by a team of wound surgeons.
Wound Care Center of Excellence: A Process for Continuous Monitoring and Improvement of Wound Care Quality
GENERAL PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To provide information about a study using a new process for continuous monitoring to improve chronic wound care quality.This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care.After completing this continuing education activity, you should be better able to:1. Recognize problems associated with chronic wound care.2. Identify methods used in this project to improve care.3. Illustrate the findings from this and similar projects and implications for providing improved wound care.Patients with chronic wounds require complex care because of comorbidities that can affect healing. Therefore, the goal of this project was to develop a system of reviewing all hospitalized patients seen by the study authors' wound care service on a weekly basis to decrease readmissions, morbidity, and mortality. Weekly multidisciplinary conferences were conducted to evaluate patient data and systematically assess for adherence to wound care protocols, as well as to create and modify patient care plans. This review of pathology and the performance of root-cause analyses often led to improved patient care.