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Advanced MRI Techniques of the Shoulder Joint: Current Applications in Clinical Practice

Gottsegen, Christopher J; Merkle, Alexander N; Bencardino, Jenny T; Gyftopoulos, Soterios
OBJECTIVE: We are fortunate to live in a time when real advances in medicine are happening at an increasingly rapid pace. This is especially true in the field of radiology, and keeping abreast of these advances is one of the main challenges of clinical practice. Traditionally, cutting edge techniques in our field have been researched and validated at major academic medical centers before slowly making their way into the armamentarium of routine clinical practice. However, the improved ability to communicate and disseminate information in our modern age has facilitated more rapid implementation of new techniques to allow us to better serve our patients. CONCLUSION: As such, this article aims to review the current standards for MRI of the shoulder used in routine practice. Furthermore, we will discuss some of the most recent advances in shoulder MRI, with particular emphasis on the applicability of an additional axial 3D T1-weighted FLASH sequence with Dixon-based water-fat separation in routine clinical practice that can be useful in characterizing several commonly encountered pathologic processes of the shoulder joint.
PMID: 28829170
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 2676202

Inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) complex: anatomy, injuries, imaging features, and treatment options

Passanante, Giovanni J; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Schein, Aaron J; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Matcuk, George R Jr
The inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) complex is comprised of three components supporting the inferior aspect of the shoulder. It consists of an anterior band, a posterior band, and an interposed axillary pouch. Injuries to the IGHL complex have a unifying clinical history of traumatic shoulder injury, which are often sports or fall-related, with the biomechanical mechanism, positioning of the arm, and individual patient factors determining the specific component of the ligamentous complex that is injured, the location of the injury of those components, and the degree of bone involvement. Several acronyms are employed to characterize these features, specifying whether there is involvement of a portion of the anterior band, posterior band, or midsubstance, and if there is avulsion from the humeral attachment, glenoid attachment, or both. Imaging recommendations for the evaluation of the IGHL complex include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and injuries to this complex are best visualized with magnetic resonance arthrography. Additionally, a brief description of clinical management of inferior glenohumeral ligament injuries is included.
PMID: 27530740
ISSN: 1438-1435
CID: 2219352

Stress fractures: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options

Matcuk, George R Jr; Mahanty, Scott R; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J
Stress fracture, in its most inclusive description, includes both fatigue and insufficiency fracture. Fatigue fractures, sometimes equated with the term "stress fractures," are most common in runners and other athletes and typically occur in the lower extremities. These fractures are the result of abnormal, cyclical loading on normal bone leading to local cortical resorption and fracture. Insufficiency fractures are common in elderly populations, secondary to osteoporosis, and are typically located in and around the pelvis. They are a result of normal or traumatic loading on abnormal bone. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the hip or knee may cause acute pain that may present in the emergency setting. Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of stress injury of the tibia related to activity and is a clinical syndrome encompassing a range of injuries from stress edema to frank-displaced fracture. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is also a recently discovered entity that needs early recognition to prevent progression to a complete fracture. Imaging recommendations for evaluation of stress fractures include initial plain radiographs followed, if necessary, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is preferred over computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. Radiographs are the first-line modality and may reveal linear sclerosis and periosteal reaction prior to the development of a frank fracture. MRI is highly sensitive with findings ranging from periosteal edema to bone marrow and intracortical signal abnormality. Additionally, a brief description of relevant clinical management of stress fractures is included.
PMID: 27002328
ISSN: 1438-1435
CID: 2052032

A Review of Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) [Review]

Trebino, Christopher R; Matcuk, George R., Jr; Patel, Dakshesh B; Christianakis, Stratos; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; White, Eric A
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) is an extremely common and treatable cause of acute and chronic arthritis. Its radiographic presentation should be recognized in order to suggest the diagnosis to the clinician. This review encompasses its broad variety of radiographic presentations as well as its appearance on CT, MRI, and ultrasound. A review of its nomenclature, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical presentation is included as well.
ISI:000372107900005
ISSN: 1875-6603
CID: 2064612

Posteromedial Corner of the Knee: The Neglected Corner

Lundquist, Ryan B; Matcuk, George R Jr; Schein, Aaron J; Skalski, Matthew R; White, Eric A; Forrester, Deborah M; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Patel, Dakshesh B
The posteromedial corner of the knee (PMC) is an important anatomic structure that is easily seen but often overlooked on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Whereas the posterolateral corner has been referred to as the "dark side of the knee" by some authors owing to widespread lack of knowledge of its complex anatomy, even less is written about the PMC; yet it is as important as the posterolateral corner in multiligament injuries of the knee. The PMC lies between the posterior margin of the longitudinal fibers of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the medial border of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The anatomy of the PMC can be complex and the literature describing it can be confusing, at times oversimplifying it and at other times adding unnecessary complexity. Its most important structures, however, can be described more simply as five major components, and can be better shown with illustrations that emphasize the anatomic distinctions. Injuries to the PMC are important to recognize, as disruption of the supporting structures can cause anteromedial rotational instability (AMRI). Isolated PMC injuries are rare; most occur in conjunction with injuries to other important stabilizing knee structures such as the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and PCL. Unrecognized and unaddressed injury of the PMC is one of the causes of ACL and PCL graft failures. Recognition of PMC injuries is critical, as the diagnosis will often change or require surgical management. ((c))RSNA, 2015.
PMID: 26172356
ISSN: 1527-1323
CID: 1668812

Turf toe and sesamoiditis: what the radiologist needs to know

Schein, Aaron J; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Lundquist, Ryan; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; Matcuk, George R Jr
The first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex is a critical weight-bearing structure important to biomechanics. An acute dorsiflexion injury, named "turf toe," is common among American football and soccer players. "Sesamoiditis" is a name often given for pain arising from the hallux sesamoids in the absence of acute trauma, and may result from a variety of causes. The first MTP joint complex can also be affected by degenerative or inflammatory arthritis, infarct, and infection. This review article will cover the anatomy and biomechanics of the first MTP joint complex, its patterns of injury and pathology, imaging techniques, and management.
PMID: 25482355
ISSN: 0899-7071
CID: 1393322

Hand infections: anatomy, types and spread of infection, imaging findings, and treatment options

Patel, Dakshesh B; Emmanuel, Neelmini B; Stevanovic, Milan V; Matcuk, George R Jr; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; White, Eric A
Infections of the hand are common, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and can lead to significant morbidity, including amputation, if not treated properly. Hand infection can spread far and wide from the original site of inoculation through interconnections between the synovium-lined and nonsynovial potential spaces. Because surgery is the mainstay of treatment, knowledge of the pertinent anatomy is imperative for accurately describing the presence, location, and extent of infection. The authors review the pertinent anatomy of the spaces of the hand and describe different types of infection-including cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, paronychia, felon, pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis, deep space infections, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis-and common causative organisms of these infections. They also describe various modes of spread; the common radiologic appearances of hand infections, with emphasis on findings at magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography; and the role of radiology in the management of these infections, along with a brief overview of treatment options. (c)RSNA, 2014.
PMID: 25384296
ISSN: 0271-5333
CID: 1348782

Superolateral hoffa fat-pad edema and patellofemoral maltracking: predictive modeling

Matcuk, George R Jr; Cen, Steven Yong; Keyfes, Vadim; Patel, Dakshesh B; Gottsegen, Christopher J; White, Eric A
OBJECTIVE. Superolateral Hoffa fat-pad edema is a frequent finding with patellar maltracking and may precede clinically significant chondrosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify which patellofemoral measurements are most highly associated and to develop a prediction rule to guide clinical decision making. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Twenty-three patellofemoral measurements were performed on 71 knees retrospectively identified as having superolateral Hoffa fat-pad edema at MRI (Hoffa group) and on 45 normal knees (normal group). Univariate analysis was performed to examine the association between these measurements and Hoffa fat-pad edema. Classification and regression tree analysis with 10-fold cross validation was used to generate a prediction model. RESULTS. For 16 of the 23 patellofemoral measurements, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the Hoffa and normal groups. Classification and regression tree analysis identified a prediction model in which a patient is placed into the Hoffa group if one of three conditions is met: lateral patellar displacement greater than -3.6 mm and Insall-Salvati ratio greater than 0.99; lateral patellar displacement of -3.6 mm or less and Insall-Salvati ratio greater than 1.23; or lateral patellar displacement of -3.6 mm or less, Insall-Salvati ratio of 1.23 or less, and lateral trochlear inclination of 16.5 degrees or less. In fitting of the original sample, this model had 91.6% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for identifying the Hoffa group. When 10-fold cross validation was applied, the estimated generalizable sensitivity and specificity were 85.9% and 75.6%. CONCLUSION. Superolateral Hoffa fat-pad is strongly associated with a number of measures of patellar maltracking. A prediction model based on these measurements is accurate for differentiating knees with superolateral Hoffa fat-pad edema from normal knees.
PMID: 25055295
ISSN: 0361-803x
CID: 1073602

Musculoskeletal manifestations of endocrine disorders

Boswell, Stephanie B; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; Masih, Sulabha; Matcuk, George R Jr
Endocrine disorders can lead to disturbances in numerous systems within the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Radiological evaluation of these conditions can demonstrate typical appearances of the bones and soft tissues. Knowledge of these patterns can allow the radiologist to suggest a diagnosis that may not be clinically apparent. This review will highlight the typical musculoskeletal findings of acromegaly, hypercortisolism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pseudo- and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. The radiological manifestations of each of these endocrine disorders, along with a brief discussion of the pathophysiology and clinical implications, will be discussed.
PMID: 24642251
ISSN: 0899-7071
CID: 920442

Madura foot: two case reports, review of the literature, and new developments with clinical correlation

White, Eric A; Patel, Dakshesh B; Forrester, Deborah M; Gottsegen, Christopher J; O'Rourke, Emily; Holtom, Paul; Charlton, Timothy; Matcuk, George R
"Madura foot" or pedal mycetoma is a rare destructive infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the foot, progressing to involve muscle and bone. The infection can be caused by both bacteria and fungi. Infection typically follows traumatic implantation of bacteria or fungal spores, which are present in soil or on plant material. Clinically, this entity can be difficult to diagnose and can have an indolent and progressive course. Early diagnosis is important to prevent patient morbidity and mortality. We present two cases of pedal mycetoma, review the literature, review new developments in diagnosis, and discuss magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this unusual entity.
PMID: 24150831
ISSN: 0364-2348
CID: 586852