The relationship between dietary patterns and ophthalmic disease
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:There is a rising interest in the impact of diet on the pathogenesis of common ophthalmic conditions. The purpose of this review is to summarize the potential preventive and therapeutic power of dietary interventions described in recent basic science and epidemiological literature. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Basic science investigations have elucidated a variety of mechanisms by which diet may impact ophthalmic disease, particularly through its action on chronic oxidative stress, inflammation and macular pigmentation. Epidemiologic investigations have shown the real-world influence of diet on the incidence and progression of a number of ophthalmic diseases, particularly cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. A large observational cohort study found a 20% reduction in the incidence of cataract among vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Two recent systematic reviews found that higher adherence to Mediterranean dietary patterns was associated with a decreased risk of progression of AMD to later stages. Finally, large meta-analyses found that patients following plant-based and Mediterranean diets had significant reductions of mean haemoglobin A1c scores and incidence of diabetic retinopathy as compared with controls. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:There is a significant and growing body of evidence that Mediterranean diet and plant-based diets - those that maximize fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts; and that minimize animal products and processed foods - help prevent vision loss from cataract, AMD and diabetic retinopathy. These diets may hold benefits for other ophthalmic conditions, as well. Nevertheless, there is a need for further randomized, controlled and longitudinal studies in this area.
Transient Reticular Cystic Corneal Epithelial Edema With Topical Netarsudil: A Case Series and Review
PURPOSE:To describe cases in which netarsudil ophthalmic solution 0.02% precipitated reversible, reticular cystic epithelial edema. METHODS:A retrospective case review at the Brooklyn Veteran's Association Hospital of patients with corneal stromal edema that were treated with netarsudil and subsequently developed cystic epithelial edema. RESULTS:Four male patients with a mean age of 72 Â± 8.0 years developed a reticular, honeycomb-like pattern of epithelial edema located in the interpalpebral and inferior cornea. In 3 of 4 patients, epithelial edema arose within 1 month compared with 2 months in 1 patient. New epithelial cysts did not correlate with worsening central corneal thickness and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in every patient, which was likely due to the location of the cysts. Two of 4 patients developed increased central corneal thickness with worsening best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. In comparison, 1 patient had improvement in both parameters, whereas 1 patient had no significant change. In all cases, there was resolution of the epithelial cysts after discontinuation of netarsudil. CONCLUSIONS:Although rho-kinase inhibitors have been suggested to improve endothelial function, we have documented worsening epithelial cysts in a subset of patients with pre-existing corneal edema. These effects of netarsudil were transient and resolved after discontinuing treatment within 2 weeks in most patients. We hypothesize that the incidence of this adverse finding is more common than previously believed. Nevertheless, large-scale studies are needed to accurately report on the incidence and clinical significance of this novel finding.
Case report: The use of netarsudil to improve corneal edema after laser peripheral iridotomy and Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty [Case Report]
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:To report a case in which netarsudil ophthalmic solution 0.02% improved refractory corneal edema after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Observations/UNASSIGNED:A 63-year-old female presented with decreased vision due to corneal edema secondary to iatrogenic endothelial cell loss from previous YAG and argon laser peripheral iridotomy. Initial treatment with topical sodium chloride 5% solution was unsuccessful in resolving the edema. As a result, topical netarsudil was initiated off-label. Improvement in corneal thickness and visual acuity was noted, but after a few months, the left eye decompensated with worsening edema. Cataract surgery with DMEK was performed. Surgery was prolonged and intraoperative floppy iris was encountered. Post-operatively, the patient's best-corrected visual acuity (VA) fluctuated between 20/30 to 20/70 with persistent corneal edema. The central corneal thickness (CCT) ranged from 758 to 779 three months after surgery. Topical netarsudil was started again off-label for cornea edema once nightly. Over the next two months, visual acuity and CCT improved to 20/25 and 650, respectively. Stabilization of visual acuity and cornea edema has been maintained for eight months after initiation of topical netarsudil. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Netarsudil, a commercially available rho-kinase inhibitor, may be an effective, non-invasive adjunctive therapy for refractory corneal edema. Our case demonstrates improvement in BCVA and CCT using topical netarsudil, which has been maintained without any vision threatening side effects.
Evaluation of Three Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgeries (MIGS) Combined with Phacoemulsification for Treatment of OpenAngle Glaucoma and Visually Significant Cataract [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined cataract extraction (CE) and either excisional goniotomy performed with Kahook Dual Blade (K
Cystoid corneoscleral squamous cell carcinoma [Letter]