Efficacy of Distraction for Reducing Pain and Distress Associated With Venipuncture in the Pediatric Posttransplant Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial
OBJECTIVE:Distraction can reduce pain and distress associated with painful procedures but has never been studied in children with solid organ transplants. We aimed to determine whether there is a difference in pain and distress associated with venipuncture in pediatric posttransplant patients who receive distraction compared with those who do not. METHODS:Randomized controlled trial of children aged 4 to 17 years with solid organ transplants undergoing venipuncture in the outpatient setting. Patients were randomized to receive distraction or no distraction. The primary outcome was the Faces Pain Scale-Revised. Secondary outcomes were the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised; Faces, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability; and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Exploratory outcomes included the number of venipuncture attempts, time to successful venipuncture, and satisfaction of phlebotomists and parents. RESULTS:Median age of the 40 children enrolled was 11.5 years. Type of transplants included the heart (67.5%), kidney (22.5%), liver (7.5%), and more than 1 organ (2.5%). There was no difference between the Faces Pain Scale-Revised scores in distraction and no distraction groups (1.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.9; and 1.3, 95% confidence interval, 0.5-2.1, respectively). There was also no difference in the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised; Faces, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability; and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores, number of venipuncture attempts, or time to successful venipuncture. Phlebotomists were more satisfied with the venipuncture when distraction was implemented. CONCLUSIONS:In children with solid organ transplants, there was no difference in pain and distress associated with venipuncture between those who did and did not receive distraction. There was also no difference in other procedure-related outcomes except for greater phlebotomist satisfaction when distraction was implemented.
Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at an Academic Women and Children's Hospital
BACKGROUND:Unsafe conditions (UCs) are circumstances that increase the probability of a patient safety event occurring. Each UC identified presents an opportunity to prevent a near miss or adverse patient event through proactive mitigation. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, characteristics, contributing factors, and potential for harm of reported UCs. METHODS:This is a retrospective descriptive analysis of UC incident reports voluntarily entered into an electronic medical event reporting system at a single tertiary care women and children's hospital. Reports were reviewed and categorized using a previously published classification scheme and a modified Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA). Reporter role, hospital location, and time to incident resolution were also described. RESULTS:Between July 1, 2016, and June 30, 2019, 348 UCs were entered, representing 3.4% of all reports. Predominant categories of UCs were equipment (43.7%), medication (20.7%), and environmental safety (14.4%). A contributing factor was identified for >99.4% of all UCs, with 77.6% having more than one. Nurses (70.1%) submitted the highest numbers of UCs. The majority of UCs were of mild severity (79.9%) but had the potential to recur frequently (73.3%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:UCs represented a small proportion of all reported events across the hospital. Equipment and medication issues were important causes of UCs, and most UCs had one or more contributing factors. Though most UCs were of mild severity, they had a predicted potential to recur frequently, representing significant opportunities for improvement.
Influence of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Coaching on Interruptions in Chest Compressions During Simulated Pediatric Cardiac Arrest
OBJECTIVES:To determine the impact of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation coach on the frequency and duration of pauses during simulated pediatric cardiac arrest. DESIGN:This is a secondary analysis of video data collected from a prospective multicenter trial. Forty simulated pediatric cardiac arrest scenarios (20 noncoach and 20 coach teams), each lasting 18 minutes in duration, were reviewed by three clinical experts to document events surrounding each pause in chest compressions. SETTING:Four pediatric academic medical centers from Canada and the United States. SUBJECTS:Two-hundred healthcare providers in five-member interprofessional resuscitation teams that included either a cardiopulmonary resuscitation coach or a noncoach clinical provider. INTERVENTIONS:Teams were randomized to include either a trained cardiopulmonary resuscitation coach or an additional noncoach clinical provider. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The frequency, duration, and associated factors with each interruption in chest compressions were recorded and compared between the groups with and without a cardiopulmonary resuscitation coach, using t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, or chi-squared tests, depending on the distribution and types of outcome variables. Mixed-effect linear models were used to explore the effect of cardiopulmonary resuscitation coaching on pause durations, accounting for multiple measures of pause duration within teams. A total of 655 pauses were identified (noncoach n = 304 and coach n = 351). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-coached teams had decreased total mean pause duration (98.6 vs 120.85 s, p = 0.04), decreased intubation pause duration (median 4.0 vs 15.5 s, p = 0.002), and similar mean frequency of pauses (17.6 vs 15.2, p = 0.33) when compared with noncoach teams. Teams with cardiopulmonary resuscitation coaches are more likely to verbalize the need for pause (86.5% vs 73.7%, p < 0.001) and coordinate change of the compressors, rhythm check, and pulse check (31.7% vs 23.2%, p = 0.05). Teams with cardiopulmonary resuscitation coach have a shorter pause duration than non-coach teams, adjusting for number and types of tasks performed during the pause. CONCLUSIONS:When compared with teams without a cardiopulmonary resuscitation coach, the inclusion of a trained cardiopulmonary resuscitation coach leads to improved verbalization before pauses, decreased pause duration, shorter pauses during intubation, and better coordination of key tasks during chest compression pauses.
Autoimmune hepatitis in a child presenting with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) [Case Report]
HPS has been described in 9-20% of children with end-stage liver disease. We present a case of a previously, asymptomatic nine-yr-old incidentally found to have low oxygen saturation. Physical exam was remarkable for digital clubbing, splenomegaly and orthodeoxia. Laboratory evaluation revealed a low platelet count, hyperammonemia, and prolonged coagulation studies. Sonography showed evidence of splenomegaly and portal venous hypertension. High resolution CT thorax and CTA were normal. HPS was confirmed by agitated saline contrast enhanced echocardiography and Tc-99m MAA scan with evidence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. Liver biopsy was performed and consistent with autoimmune hepatitis. A high clinical index of suspicion should be maintained for HPS in pediatric patients who have unexplained hypoxemia as typical signs and symptoms of severe liver disease are often absent. In this report, we discuss a case of HPS complicated AIH in a pediatric patient and review the relevant literature.