Prenatal and Pediatric Primary Care-Based Child Obesity Prevention Program: A Randomized Trial
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine impact of a primary care-based child obesity prevention intervention beginning during pregnancy on early childhood weight outcomes in low-income Hispanic families. METHODS:-scores (WFAzs) from clinical anthropometric measures, obesity prevalence (weight for age â‰¥95th percentile), and excess weight gain (WFAz trajectory) from birth to age 3 years. Secondary outcomes included dose effects. RESULTS:= .02) decreased as attendance increased with low, medium, and high attendance. CONCLUSIONS:Mean WFAz and growth trajectories were lower for the intervention group through age 2 years, but there were no group differences at age 3. Further study is needed to enhance sustainability of effects beyond age 2.
AFRI_Starting Early Program Impacts on Feeding at Infant 10 Months Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Breastfeeding Behaviors and Maternal Interaction Quality in a Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Population
OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations between breastfeeding intensity and underexplored features of maternal-child interaction quality over and above the influence of breastfeeding initiation. METHODS:The current study leveraged an on-going, multisite randomized controlled trial of a tiered parenting program for 462 Medicaid-eligible mothers and their infants in the United States. We examined whether breastfeeding intensity and exclusivity was associated with observed maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness, and detachment, as well as self-reported maternal verbal responsiveness, 6 months infant age. Analyses controlled for breastfeeding initiation, demographics, and early parenting experiences. RESULTS:Higher intensity breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly related to higher maternal sensitivity (Î² = 0.12, p = 0.004) and lower maternal intrusiveness (Î² = -0.10, p = 0.045). There was no significant association between breastfeeding intensity at 6 months and detachment (Î² = -0.02, no significant [ns]) or self-reported verbal responsiveness (Î² = 0.11, ns). Results were the same when intensity was measured as a dichotomous indicator for exclusive breastfeeding. Effect sizes were small-to-moderate, ranging from Cohen's d = 0.26 to 0.31. Associations did not vary by site, race/ethnicity, infant difficultness, or household poverty. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The finding that breastfeeding intensity was significantly and independently associated with maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness is novel in the literature on low-income families from the United States. These findings have implications for breastfeeding promotion strategies and indicate that future research should explore synergistic or spillover effects of interventions aimed at maternal-child interaction quality into the infant feeding domain, particularly in the primary care setting.
Total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6Â months in low-income Hispanic families
OBJECTIVE:To describe total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain (GWG) among low-income Hispanic women and determine whether these GWG exposures are associated with infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6Â months. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:trimester GWG rates (kg/week) and categorized as inadequate, adequate, and excessive according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Multivariable linear and modified Poisson regressions estimated associations of infant anthropometric outcomes (birthweight, small-for-gestational age [SGA], large-for-gestational age [LGA], rapid weight gain, and weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length z-scores at 6Â months) with GWG categories. RESULTS:trimesters were associated with greater weight outcomes at birth and 6Â months (ÃŸ range for z-scoresÂ =Â 0.24 to 0.35, pÂ <Â 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Counseling women about health behaviors and closely monitoring GWG beginning in early pregnancy is necessary, particularly among populations at high-risk of obesity.
Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain in a Low-Income Hispanic Population: Sociodemographic Characteristics, Health Behaviors, and Psychosocial Stressors
Hispanic women have a higher prevalence of weight associated complications in pregnancy. This ethnic disparity is likely related to behavior patterns, social circumstances, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare, rather than biologic differences. The objective was to determine associations between sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and psychosocial stressors and gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income Hispanic women. During pregnancy, information on sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and psychosocial stressors were collected. Linear regression estimated mean differences in GWG by selected predictors. Multinomial logistic regression estimated odds of inadequate and excessive GWG by selected predictors. Five-hundred and eight women were included, 38% had inadequate and 28% had excessive GWG; 57% with a normal pre-pregnancy BMI had inadequate GWG. Compared to women with normal BMI, women with overweight or obesity were more likely to have excessive GWG (aRRR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.40 and aRRR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.62, respectively). Mean total GWG was higher among women who were nulliparous (ÃŸ = 1.34 kg, 95% CI: 0.38, 2.29) and those who engaged in â‰¥3 h of screen time daily (ÃŸ = 0.98 kg, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.94), and lower among women who were physically active during pregnancy (ÃŸ = -1.00 kg, 95% CI: -1.99, -0.03). Eating breakfast daily was associated with lower risk of inadequate GWG (aRRR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.83). Depressive symptoms and poor adherence to dietary recommendations were prevalent, but none of the psychosocial or dietary variables were associated with GWG. In this cohort of primarily immigrant, low-income, Hispanic women, there were high rates of poor adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations, and a majority of women did not meet GWG guidelines. Modifiable health behaviors were associated with GWG, and their promotion should be included in prenatal care.
Relationships Between Material Hardship, Resilience, and Health Care Use
Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Perceived Picky Eating in a Low-Income, Primarily Hispanic Sample
OBJECTIVE:Feeding concerns are common in the first 2 years of life and typically reflect maternal perceptions occurring within the larger context of the parent-child relationship. We aimed to determine whether (1) maternal depressive systems predicted perceived picky eating, mediated by maternal negative perceptions; (2) receipt of the Video Interaction Project (VIP) parenting intervention impacted perceived picky eating through this pathway; and (3) perceived picky eating was associated with child growth or subsequent dietary patterns. METHODS:We performed a partial longitudinal analysis of 187 low-income, predominantly Hispanic mother-child dyads enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the VIP. Mother-infant dyads were enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Participants randomized to the VIP met with an interventionist on days of well-child visits; sessions were designed to facilitate interactions in play and shared reading through provision of learning materials and review of videotaped parent-child interaction; the curriculum did not contain feeding-specific elements. We used structural equation modeling to determine direct, indirect, and total effects of maternal depressive symptoms, maternal negative perceptions, and the VIP on perceived picky eating. We then tested associations between perceived picky eating and (1) child growth, using multivariable linear regression and multilevel modeling; and (2) subsequent child dietary consumption, using multivariable multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS:Maternal depressive symptoms had significant total effects on negative maternal perceptions (Î² = 0.32, p < 0.001) and perceived picky eating (Î² = 0.21, p < 0.01) after controlling for potential confounders. This effect was partially mediated by maternal negative perceptions (indirect effect: Î² = 0.06, p = 0.04). When used in the model as the predictor, the VIP had a significant total effect on perceived picky eating (Î² = -0.16, p = 0.02), which was partially mediated by maternal depressive symptoms and negative perceptions (indirect effect: Î² = -0.05, p = 0.02). Perceived picky eating was not associated with child diet at age 2 years or adiposity from 6 months to 3 years. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Maternal concerns about picky eating may reflect deeper depressive symptoms and negative perceptions of her child's behavior. Interventions designed to facilitate positive parenting in general may lessen feeding-specific concerns, such as picky eating. Although reassurance about growth and nutritional outcomes for children perceived as picky eaters is appropriate, clinicians should also consider probing for underlying symptoms of depression that could lead to eating concerns.
Glyphosate exposures and kidney injury biomarkers in infants and young children
The goal of this study was to assess biomarkers of exposure to glyphosate and assess potential associations with renal function in children. Glyphosate is used ubiquitously in agriculture worldwide. While previous studies have indicated that glyphosate may have nephrotoxic effects, few have examined potential effects on kidney function in children. We leveraged three cohorts across different phases of child development and measured urinary levels of glyphosate. We evaluated associations of glyphosate with three biomarkers of kidney injury: albuminuria (ACR), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and kidney injury marker 1 (KIM-1). Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of glyphosate with kidney injury biomarkers controlling for covariates. We identified glyphosate in 11.1% of the total participants. The herbicide was detected more frequently in the neonate population (30%). Multivariable regression models failed to identify significant associations of log-transformed glyphosate with any of the kidney injury biomarkers, controlling for covariates age, sex, and maternal education. While we confirm detectability of glyphosate in children's urine at various ages and stages of life, there is no evidence in this study for renal injury in children exposed to low levels of glyphosate. Further studies of larger sample size are indicated to better understand putative deleterious effects of the herbicide after different levels of exposure.
Material Hardships and Health Care Utilization among Low Income Children with Special Health Care Needs
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Material hardships, defined as difficulty meeting basic needs, are associated with adverse child health outcomes, including suboptimal health care utilization. Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) may be more vulnerable to the effects of hardships. Our objective was to determine associations between material hardships and health care utilization among CSHCN. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study surveying caregivers of 2-12 year old CSHCN in a low-income, urban area. Independent variables were parent-reported material hardships: difficulty paying bills, food insecurity, housing insecurity, and health care hardship. Dependent variables were parent-reported number of emergency department (ED) visits, any hospital admission and any unmet health care need. We used negative binomial and logistic regression to assess for associations between each hardship and each outcome. RESULTS:205 caregivers were surveyed between July 2017 and May 2018, and data analyzed in 2018. After adjustment, difficulty paying bills (IRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08, 2.12) and health care hardship (IRR 1.72, 95% CI 1.08, 2.75) were associated with higher rate of ED visits. There were no associations between hardships and hospital admission. Difficulty paying bills (AOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.14, 3.98), food insecurity (AOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.02, 3.71), and housing insecurity (AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.36, 5.40) were associated with higher odds of unmet health care need. CONCLUSIONS:Material hardships were associated with higher rate of ED visits and greater unmet health care need among low-income CSHCN. Future examination of the mechanisms of these associations is needed to enhance support for families of CSHCN.
Correlates of Prenatal Diet Quality in Low-Income Hispanic Women
BACKGROUND:Low-income Hispanic women are at-risk of poor prenatal diet quality. Correlates associated with prenatal diet quality in this group of women are understudied. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to examine the associations between financial, cultural, psychosocial, and lifestyle correlates and prenatal diet quality in low-income Hispanic women. DESIGN/METHODS:This cross-sectional analysis used data from pregnant women enrolled in the Starting Early Trial, a randomized-controlled trial of a primary-care based child obesity prevention program beginning in pregnancy. The trial enrolled women from clinics affiliated with a large urban medical center in New York City from 2012 to 2014. Financial, cultural, psychosocial, and lifestyle variables were collected using a comprehensive baseline questionnaire. Usual dietary intakes over the past year were assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2005 bilingual version. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:The study enrolled low-income Hispanic women between 28 and 32 gestational weeks (N=519). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Prenatal diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating IndexÂ 2015. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED/METHODS:Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to determine independent associations between financial, cultural, psychosocial, and lifestyle correlates and Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score. RESULTS:Overall prenatal diet quality was poor (mean Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score=69.0Â±9.4). Most women did not meet the maximum score for total vegetables (65.3%), whole grains (97.1%), dairy (74.8%), fatty acids (84.4%), refined grains (79.8%), sodium (97.5%), saturated fats (92.9%), and added sugars (66.5%). Women who reported screen time â‰¤2 hours/day, physical activity before and/or during pregnancy, and being born outside the United States had higher mean Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score than women with screen time >2 hours/day, no physical activity, and those born in the United States. CONCLUSIONS:Prenatal diet quality of low-income pregnant Hispanic women was suboptimal. This cross-sectional study revealed associations between cultural and lifestyle factors and prenatal diet quality in low-income Hispanic women. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine long-term influences and specific behaviors to target for effective intervention studies.