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Traumatic brain injury

Chapter by: Nielsen, Alexandra; Im, Brian; Hibbard, Mary R; Grunwald, Ilana; Swift, Patrick T
in: Medical aspects of disability for the rehabilitation professionals by Moroz, Alex; Flanagan, Steven R; Zaretsky, Herbert H [Eds]
[New York] : Springer Publishing Company, 2017
pp. 91-111
ISBN: 9780826133199
CID: 2558792

Traumatic brain injury

Chapter by: Im, B; Hibbard, M; Grunwald, I; Swift, P; Salimi, N
in: Medical aspects of disability : a handbook for the rehabilitation professional by Flanagan, Steven R; Zaretsky, Herbert H; Moroz, Alex [Eds]
New York : Springer, c2011
pp. 65-87
ISBN: 0826127843
CID: 223622


Chapter by: Freidenbergs, Ingrid; Grunwald, Ilana; Kaplan, Esin
in: Medical aspects of disability : a handbook for the rehabilitation professional by Zaretsky, Herbert H [Eds]
New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, 2005
pp. 159-178
ISBN: 0826179738
CID: 4101

Lexical emotional expression across the life span: quantitative and qualitative analyses of word list generation tasks

Tabert MH; Peery S; Borod JC; Schmidt JM; Grunwald I; Sliwinski M
The current study examined the effects of age and gender on emotional and nonemotional expression using an experimental word list generation (WLG) task (also referred to in the literature as verbal fluency) from the New York Emotion Battery (Borod, Welkowitz, & Obler, 1992). Subjects were 28 young ( M = 29.6 years), 28 middle-aged (M = 49.8 years), and 28 older (M = 69.9 years) healthy adults. The WLG task consists of 8 emotional (E; 3 positive and 5 negative) and 8 nonemotional (NE) categories. We developed and present here a detailed word error-type analysis that was used to evaluate the lexical output. In this study, both quantitative (amount of output and error-types) and qualitative (accuracy and intensity) analyses were used. While subjects produced more nonemotional than emotional words and more positive than negative words, the amount of error-free output and the number of errors did not change with age. An age group by error-type interaction indicated that older adults, especially men, produced more repetition errors than younger adults. The error-free output was subsequently rated for accuracy and emotional intensity. The rating data revealed that older women's overall lexical output was less accurate than that produced by younger women. Also, negative emotional words were more accurate and intense than positive emotional words. The procedures described here have implications for research assessing word list generation and emotional expression in clinical populations
PMID: 11935455
ISSN: 1385-4046
CID: 63790

Emotional versus nonemotional lexical perception in patients with right and left brain damage

Cicero BA; Borod JC; Santschi C; Erhan HM; Obler LK; Agosti RM; Welkowitz J; Grunwald IS
OBJECTIVE: This study examined lexical emotional perception in patients with unilateral brain damage. BACKGROUND: Hypotheses pertaining to laterality and emotion were tested. More specifically, we were interested in whether the right hemisphere is dominant for verbally-presented emotion. In addition, we examined whether emotional content improves the performance of patients with left brain damage (LBD) and language deficits. METHOD: Subjects were 11 patients with right brain damage (RBD), 10 patients with LBD, and 15 normal control adults. The subject groups did not differ significantly on demographic or basic cognitive variables; the patient groups were similar on neurologic variables. Parallel emotional experimental and nonemotional control tasks included word identification (or recognition), sentence identification, and word discrimination. There were eight emotional categories (e.g., happiness) and eight nonemotional categories (e.g., vision). RESULTS: A significant interaction among Group, Condition, and Task revealed that patients with RBD were significantly impaired relative to patients with LBD and normals within the emotional condition, particularly for the identification tasks. Furthermore, the performance of patients with LBD and language deficits was improved by emotional content for the sentence identification task. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the right hemisphere has a unique contribution in the identification of lexical emotional stimuli. Implications for rehabilitation of patients with LBD and language deficits and patients with RBD by means of emotion-based strategies are discussed
PMID: 10527110
ISSN: 0894-878X
CID: 47150

The effects of age and gender on the perception of lexical emotion

Grunwald IS; Borod JC; Obler LK; Erhan HM; Pick LH; Welkowitz J; Madigan NK; Sliwinski M; Whalen J
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the perception of lexical/verbal emotion across the adult life span. Secondary goals were to examine the contribution of gender and valence (i.e., pleasantness/unpleasantness) to the processing of lexical emotional stimuli. Participants were 28 young (ages 20-39), 28 middle-aged (ages 40-59), and 28 older (ages 60-85) right-handed adults; there were 14 men and 14 women in each age group. Age groups were comparable on demographic and cognitive variables. Participants made accuracy judgments and intensity ratings of emotional (both positive and negative) and nonemotional stimuli from lexical perception tasks from the New York Emotion Battery (Borod, Welkowitz, & Obler, 1992). Accuracy and intensity measures were not significantly correlated. When age was examined, older participants perceived emotional and nonemotional lexical stimuli with significantly less accuracy than did younger and middle-aged participants. On the other hand, older participants evaluated the nonemotional lexical stimuli as significantly more intense than younger participants. When gender was examined, lexical stimuli were processed more accurately by female than male participants. Further, emotional stimuli were rated more intense by female participants. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed
PMID: 10635437
ISSN: 0908-4282
CID: 47149

Right hemisphere emotional perception: evidence across multiple channels

Borod JC; Cicero BA; Obler LK; Welkowitz J; Erhan HM; Santschi C; Grunwald IS; Agosti RM; Whalen JR
Emotional perception was examined in stroke patients across 3 communication channels: facial, prosodic, and lexical. Hemispheric specialization for emotion was tested via right-hemisphere (RH) and valence hypotheses, and relationships among channels were determined. Participants were 11 right-brain-damaged (RBD), 10 left-brain-damaged (LBD), and 15 demographically matched normal control (NC) adults. Experimental measures, with analogous psychometric properties, were identification and discrimination tasks, including a range of positive and negative emotions. Nonemotional control tasks were used for each channel. For identification, RBDs were significantly impaired relative to LBDs and NCs across channels and valences, supporting the RH hypothesis. No group differences emerged for discrimination. Findings were not influenced by demographic, clinical, or control variables. Correlations among the channels were more prominent for normal than for brain-damaged groups
PMID: 9673999
ISSN: 0894-4105
CID: 47153

A test battery to assess lexical emotion in neurological disorders

Borod JC; Welkowitz J; Obler LK; Whalen JR; Erhan HM; Grunwald IS
ISSN: 1385-4046
CID: 63796

The effect of test element size on performance of the D-15 in age-related maculopathy and cogenital clor deficiency

Chapter by: Knoblauch K; Fischer M; Robillard N; Grunwald IS; Faye E
in: Color vision deficiencies X by Drum B; Moreland JD; Serra A [Eds]
Boston : Kluwer Academic, 1991
pp. 37-45
ISBN: 0792309480
CID: 3989

Reading with fixed and variable character pitch

Arditi A; Knoblauch K; Grunwald I
We compared the effects of fixed and variable (proportional) spacing on reading speeds and found variable pitch to yield better performance at medium and large character sizes and fixed pitch to be superior for character sizes approaching the acuity limit. The data indicate at least two crowding effects at the smallest sizes: one that interferes with individual character identification and one that interferes with word identification. A control experiment using rapid serial visual presentation suggests that it is the greater horizontal compression and consequently reduced eye-movement requirements of variable pitch that are responsible for its superiority at medium and large character sizes
PMID: 2231111
ISSN: 0740-3232
CID: 63789