Beyond these walls: Can psychosocial clubhouses promote the social integration of adults with serious mental illness in the community?
OBJECTIVE:The study examined factors associated with community integration experiences of adults with serious mental illness who were members of psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses in New York City. METHOD/METHODS:Ninety-two clubhouse members completed an online survey. The study examined relative contribution of adults' reports of individual factors (self-reported psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem), community supports (self-reported employment status and perceived family support), and the clubhouse environment (self-reported time spent in the clubhouse, clubhouse supportiveness, and practical orientation) in accounting for variation in members' reports of social integration within the clubhouse and within the larger community. RESULTS:Hierarchical linear regression results suggest a differential pattern of variables associated with participants' experience of social integration within the clubhouse versus outside the clubhouse with the larger non-mental-health consumers. Adults' reports of more time spent in the clubhouse and perceptions of clubhouse environment as having a more practical orientation were associated with adults' reports of greater social integration within the clubhouse. In contrast, greater self-esteem and being independently employed were associated with greater social integration outside the clubhouse. Perceived family support was associated with higher levels of social integration both within and outside the clubhouse setting. Conclusion and Implication for Practice: Greater social integration of clubhouse members both in and outside the clubhouse environment is essential in understanding community integration. Recommendations for the clubhouse model to improve community integration experiences of its members are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Systematic Review of Interventions for Fatigue After Traumatic Brain Injury: A NIDRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the evidence on interventions for posttraumatic brain injury fatigue (PTBIF). METHODS: Systematic searches of multiple databases for peer-reviewed studies published in English on interventions targeting PTBIF as a primary or secondary outcome through January 22, 2014. Reference sections were also reviewed to identify additional articles. Articles were rated using the 2011 American Academy of Neurology Classification of Evidence Scheme for therapeutic studies. RESULTS: The searches yielded 1526 articles. Nineteen articles met all inclusion criteria: 4 class I, 1 class II/III, 10 class III, and 4 class IV. Only 5 articles examined fatigue as a primary outcome. Interventions were pharmacological and psychological or involved physical activity, bright blue light, electroencephalographic biofeedback, or electrical stimulation. Only 2 interventions (modafinil and cognitive behavioral therapy with fatigue management) were evaluated in more than 1 study. CONCLUSIONS: Despite areas of promise, there is insufficient evidence to recommend or contraindicate any treatments of PTBIF. Modafinil is not likely to be effective for PTBIF. Piracetam may reduce it, as may bright blue light. Cognitive behavioral therapy deserves additional study. High-quality research incorporating appropriate definition and measurement of fatigue is required to explore the potential benefits of promising interventions, evaluate fatigue treatments shown to be effective in other populations, and develop new interventions for PTBIF.
Consumer perspectives and mental health reform movements in the United States: 30 years of first-person accounts
OBJECTIVE:The present qualitative study examined 69 published first-person accounts written by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1979-2010 within the historical context of the four major mental health movements in the United States. METHODS:Content analysis techniques were used to identify major topics and overarching content categories in the first-person accounts written over the 30-year period. The frequency of topics in each content category was examined as a function of the decade and corresponding mental health movement in which accounts were published. RESULTS:Five overarching content categories emerged reflecting authors' conceptualizations of schizophrenia, their experiences with psychiatric hospitalization, medications, coping with social stigma, and achieving and maintaining valued social roles. Two summary categories emerged reflecting authors explicit views about what helped and what did not help in their experience of living with schizophrenia. With the exception of social stigma, frequency of topics within content categories did not change as a function of decade and corresponding mental health movement. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE/CONCLUSIONS:Despite changes in mental health policies, treatment, and systems of care, the overall lack of significant differences in the content of first-person accounts across the 30-year period suggests an enduring nature to the experiences of individuals coping with schizophrenia. Implications of present findings for research and practice are discussed.
What is post TBI fatigue?
BACKGROUND:Fatigue is among the most common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To summarize the empirical and theoretical literature on Post TBI fatigue (PTBIF) and identify some of the challenges that continue to confront clinicians, researchers and individuals with TBI. METHODS:Qualitative literature review. The epidemiology, characteristics, and correlates of PTBIF are described. Challenges in the operational definition and measurement of fatigue are discussed and the empirical literature on measurement of PTBIF and theoretical models of the potential etiology of PTBIF is summarized. Existing treatments of PTBIF and the research supporting them are reviewed. Future directions for clinical research are presented. RESULTS:Although PTBIF is a high incidence condition after TBI that is related to significant suffering and reduced quality of life, it remains inadequately measured and treated. Its etiology and precipitants are poorly understood and intervention research is inadequate. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Further research is necessary to develop psychometrically-sound objective and subjective measures of PTBIF and examine the efficacy of treatments for fatigue. Interventions shown to improve fatigue in other populations should be considered in treating PTBIF.
Quantitative and qualitative assessment of university students' definitions of binge drinking
This study was designed to assess undergraduates' (N = 424) definitions of binge drinking and to evaluate whether the number of drinks they said comprise a binge varied as a function of beverage type, respondent gender, and respondent binge drinking status. When asked to designate the specific number of drinks that comprise a binge for each of four beverage types, students reported that the number of beers constituting a binge was significantly larger than the number of glasses of wine, shots of hard liquor, and servings of any combination of alcoholic beverage types; men reported that a larger number of drinks constitute a binge than did women; and those who had engaged in 3 or more binges in the past 2 weeks reported that more drinks comprise a binge than those who had binged less often. Responses to an open-ended question asking their definition of a binge revealed that students sometimes characterize a binge in terms of motivations for and unhealthy consequences of drinking, in addition to defining a binge as comprising consumption of a large amount of alcohol in a limited (though often unspecified) time period. Furthermore, students attributed their open-ended definitions of binge drinking to informal sources of information and observation of others' drinking almost as often as they did to school-based or media-based sources. This suggests that educators might look for innovative ways to use both formal and informal social networking, and video illustrations of restrained drinking, as ways to influence young people's views of binge drinking.
Family ties in tough times: how young adults and their parents view the U.S. economic crisis
The present intergenerational study examined the perceived impact of the recent U.S. economic crisis on a sample of 68 young adult-parent dyads. The relative contribution of perceived economic pressure, reports of adult child-parent relationship quality, and concerns about the economic future in accounting for variation in self-reports of psychological distress for adult children and their middle-aged parents were examined. Parents' concerns about their children's economic future accounted for variation in their reports of anxiety and depressed mood above and beyond that of perceived economic pressures and their views of the parent-child relationship. In contrast, for young adults, reports of personal economic pressure were generally related to self-reported anxiety and depressed mood. Implications of findings for research and practice are discussed.