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Remotely Supervised tDCS for Persistent Post-Traumatic Headache in Veterans (ReStore) [Meeting Abstract]

Androulakis, M; Mangold, K; Harrison, A; Moore, R D; Guo, S; Zhang, J; Datta, A; Bikson, M; Charvet, L
Abstract Objectives: Evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of remotely supervised transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS) interventions for persistent post-traumatic headache (PPTH) secondary to mild TBI (mTBI).
Method(s): Veterans with PPTH completed a 28-day baseline observation of headache days and received either active or sham RS-tDCS paired with mindfulness meditation. This 4-week intervention of 20-minutes daily (M-F) RS-tDCS (anodal stimulation dlPFC) was monitored via VA Video Connect. Feasibility was determined by the number of participants completing >=80% of the intervention. Efficacy was measured by changes in number of moderate/severe headache days from baseline period to the end of treatment phase, and 4-week post-treatment follow-up. Secondary endpoints included total number of headache days, acute pain medication use, as well as headache- and mTBI-related disability.
Result(s): Twenty-six veterans (46.6+/-8.7 years) with PPTH completed baseline observations and were randomized to either active (n=13) or sham (n=13) treatment groups. A total of 22/25 (88%) participants fully completed either active (10/12) or sham (12/13) interventions (p=.0.59). Within-group analyses reveled significant reductions in moderate/severe headache days in the active (p=0.04) but not sham (p=0.54) groups. This resulted in a trend towards significant reductions in moderate/severe headache days in the active vs. sham groups (p = 0.07). Active participants also demonstrated a reduction in total number of headache days during treatment (p=0.04) where the sham group did not (p=0.70). There is statistically significant reduction in total number of headache days during treatment for active vs. sham participants (p=0.03). No significant differences were maintained during the 4-week post-treatment follow-up (p's>0.05).
Conclusion(s): RS-tDCS treatment feasible with high adherence and effective for veterans with PPTH. Findings suggest that active RS-tDCS via dlPFC reduce headache frequency and improve clinical outcomes. A larger phase II study is warranted to confirm these findings and inform evaluation for clinical use. Research Category and Technology and Methods Clinical Research: 9. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Keywords: tDCS, Persistent Post-traumatic headache, Veterans, mTBI
ISSN: 1876-4754
CID: 5511552

Immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer: Unleash its potential through novel combinations

Guo, Songchuan; Contratto, Merly; Miller, George; Leichman, Lawrence; Wu, Jennifer
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women in the United States, with poor response to current standard of care, short progression-free and overall survival. Immunotherapies that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death protein-1, and programmed death-ligand 1 checkpoints have shown remarkable activities in several cancers such as melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer due to high numbers of somatic mutations, combined with cytotoxic T-cell responses. However, single checkpoint blockade was ineffective in pancreatic cancer, highlighting the challenges including the poor antigenicity, a dense desmoplastic stroma, and a largely immunosuppressive microenvironment. In this review, we will summarize available clinical results and ongoing efforts of combining immune checkpoint therapies with other treatment modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy. These combination therapies hold promise in unleashing the potential of immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer to achieve better and more durable clinical responses by enhancing cytotoxic T-cell responses.
PMID: 28638792
ISSN: 2218-4333
CID: 2604022

Methylation profiling of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC): Exploration of potential predictive markers for neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NACR). [Meeting Abstract]

Guo, Songchuan; Melamed, Jonathan; Eze, Ogechukwu; Bowman, Christopher; Ahmed, Sunjida; Moore, Harvey G; Loomis, Cynthia; Heguy, Adriana; Brody, Rachel; Morrison, Debra J; Serrano, Jonathan; Du, Kevin Lee; Wu, Jennifer J; Ryan, Theresa; Cohen, Deirdre Jill; Gu, Ping; Goldberg, Judith D; Snuderl, Matija; Leichman, Lawrence P; Leichman, Cynthia G
ISSN: 1527-7755
CID: 2169652


Malieckal, Deepa; Guo, Songchuan; Wieczorek, Rosemarie L; Goldfarb, David S
ISSN: 1523-6838
CID: 2173082

Concurrent adjuvant systemic therapy and accelerated radiotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer: A feasibility trial. [Meeting Abstract]

Ashworth, Rene Eleanor; Adams, Sylvia; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Sacris, Erlinda; Speyer, James L; Leichman, Cynthia G; Janosky, Maxwell Dale; Guo, Songchuan; Goldberg, Judith D; Novik, Yelena; Formenti, Sylvia
ISSN: 1527-7755
CID: 2173092

Pharmacological characterization of chemically synthesized monomeric phi29 pRNA nanoparticles for systemic delivery

Abdelmawla, Sherine; Guo, Songchuan; Zhang, Limin; Pulukuri, Sai M; Patankar, Prithviraj; Conley, Patrick; Trebley, Joseph; Guo, Peixuan; Li, Qi-Xiang
Previous studies have shown that the packaging RNA (pRNA) of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor folds into a compact structure, constituting a RNA nanoparticle that can be modularized with functional groups as a nanodelivery system. pRNA nanoparticles can also be self-assembled by the bipartite approach without altering folding property. The present study demonstrated that 2'-F-modified pRNA nanoparticles were readily manufactured through this scalable bipartite strategy, featuring total chemical synthesis and permitting diverse functional modularizations. The RNA nanoparticles were chemically and metabolically stable and demonstrated a favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profile in mice (half-life (T(1/2)): 5-10 hours, clearance (Cl): <0.13 l/kg/hour, volume of distribution (V(d)): 1.2 l/kg). It did not induce an interferon (IFN) response nor did it induce cytokine production in mice. Repeat intravenous administrations in mice up to 30 mg/kg did not result in any toxicity. Fluorescent folate-pRNA nanoparticles efficiently and specifically bound and internalized to folate receptor (FR)-bearing cancer cells in vitro. It also specifically and dose-dependently targeted to FR(+) xenograft tumor in mice with minimal accumulation in normal tissues. This first comprehensive pharmacological study suggests that the pRNA nanoparticle had all the preferred pharmacological features to serve as an efficient nanodelivery platform for broad medical applications.
PMID: 21468004
ISSN: 1525-0024
CID: 2172942

Fabrication of stable and RNase-resistant RNA nanoparticles active in gearing the nanomotors for viral DNA packaging

Liu, Jing; Guo, Songchuan; Cinier, Mathieu; Shlyakhtenko, Luda S; Shu, Yi; Chen, Chaoping; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Peixuan
Both DNA and RNA can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures. A pioneering concept proposed by Ned Seeman 30 years ago has led to an explosion of knowledge in DNA nanotechnology. RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing noncanonical base-pairing, versatile function, and catalytic activity similar to proteins. However, standing in awe of the sensitivity of RNA to RNase degradation has made many scientists flinch away from RNA nanotechnology. Here we report the construction of stable RNA nanoparticles resistant to RNase digestion. The 2'-F (2'-fluoro) RNA retained its property for correct folding in dimer formation, appropriate structure in procapsid binding, and biological activity in gearing the phi29 nanomotor to package viral DNA and producing infectious viral particles. Our results demonstrate that it is practical to produce RNase-resistant, biologically active, and stable RNA for application in nanotechnology.
PMID: 21155596
ISSN: 1936-086x
CID: 2172952

Engineering RNA for targeted siRNA delivery and medical application

Guo, Peixuan; Coban, Oana; Snead, Nicholas M; Trebley, Joe; Hoeprich, Steve; Guo, Songchuan; Shu, Yi
RNA engineering for nanotechnology and medical applications is an exciting emerging research field. RNA has intrinsically defined features on the nanometre scale and is a particularly interesting candidate for such applications due to its amazing diversity, flexibility and versatility in structure and function. Specifically, the current use of siRNA to silence target genes involved in disease has generated much excitement in the scientific community. The intrinsic ability to sequence-specifically downregulate gene expression in a temporally- and spatially controlled fashion has led to heightened interest and rapid development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Although methods for gene silencing have been achieved with high efficacy and specificity in vitro, the effective delivery of nucleic acids to specific cells in vivo has been a hurdle for RNA therapeutics. This article covers different RNA-based approaches for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human disease, with a focus on the latest developments of non-viral carriers of siRNA for delivery in vivo. The applications and challenges of siRNA therapy, as well as potential solutions to these problems, the approaches for using phi29 pRNA-based vectors as polyvalent vehicles for specific delivery of siRNA, ribozymes, drugs or other therapeutic agents to specific cells for therapy will also be addressed.
PMID: 20230868
ISSN: 1872-8294
CID: 2172962

Targeted delivery of anti-coxsackievirus siRNAs using ligand-conjugated packaging RNAs

Zhang, Huifang M; Su, Yue; Guo, Songchuan; Yuan, Ji; Lim, Travis; Liu, Jing; Guo, Peixuan; Yang, Decheng
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common pathogen of myocarditis. We previously synthesized a siRNA targeting the CVB3 protease 2A (siRNA/2A) gene and achieved reduction of CVB3 replication by 92% in vitro. However, like other drugs under development, CVB3 siRNA faces a major challenge of targeted delivery. In this study, we investigated a novel approach to deliver CVB3 siRNAs to a specific cell population (e.g. HeLa cells containing folate receptor) using receptor ligand (folate)-linked packaging RNA (pRNA) from bacterial phage phi29. pRNA monomers can spontaneously form dimers and multimers under optimal conditions by base-pairing between their stem loops. By covalently linking a fluorescence-tag to folate, we delivered the conjugate specifically to HeLa cells without the need of transfection. We further demonstrated that pRNA covalently conjugated to siRNA/2A achieved an equivalent antiviral effect to that of the siRNA/2A alone. Finally, the drug targeted delivery was further evaluated by using pRNA monomers or dimers, which carried both the siRNA/2A and folate ligand and demonstrated that both of them strongly inhibited CVB3 replication. These data indicate that pRNA as a siRNA carrier can specifically deliver the drug to target cells via its ligand and specific receptor interaction and inhibit virus replication effectively.
PMID: 19616030
ISSN: 1872-9096
CID: 2172972

Crystallization of Phi29 spindle-shaped nano-bar anti-receptor with glycosidase domain

DiMauro, Alexander J; Lin, Dawei; Guo, Songchuan; Karr, Dale B; Tanner, John J; Guo, Peixuan
Bacteriophage phi29 is a small, well-characterized dsDNA virus that infects Bacillus subtilis. The anti-receptor of phi29 consists of oligomers of the 854-residue protein gp12 and plays an essential role in infection initiation by binding to the receptor on the host cell surface. Oligomers of gp12 exhibit a narrow spindle-shaped configuration 15 nm in length as revealed by electron microscopy and thus are potentially useful nanoscale tools, building blocks, or motor arms. To understand the mechanism of viral infection initiation and to provide a basis for engineering recombinant gp12 for nanotechnology applications, we have initiated structural and bioinformatics studies of gp12. We report here the growth of crystals of gp12 that diffract to 3.0 A resolution. The space group is P3(1)21 or P3(2)21 with unit cell lengths of a = 84.4 A and c = 167.6 A. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain one gp12 molecule and 32% solvent (VM = 1.8 A3/Da). Domain boundary analysis revealed that gp12 may harbor three domains besides a 24 residue auto-cleave region. The N-terminal half of gp12 contains a domain with about 400 residues that held 44% sequence identity to endopolygalacturonase, a fungal glycosyl hydrolase that catalyzes hydrolysis of the polygalacturonic acid alpha1-4 glycosidic linkage found in plant cell walls. Interestingly, the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis contains a polysaccharide component made from two sugar monomers, N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, which resemble alpha-galacturonic acid in that they possess a six-membered pyranose ring. Hence, polygalacturonic acid of plant cell walls and peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls may offer a similar topography in relation to the polysaccharides. These results suggest a function for gp12 as a cell-wall degrading enzyme in addition to its role in recognition of the host receptor.
PMID: 17685275
ISSN: 1533-4880
CID: 2172982