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Reducing Tourniquet Pressures in Hand Surgery: Are Lower Pressures as Effective?

Azad, Ali; Sager, Brian; Gupta, Salil; Ayalon, Omri; Paksima, Nader
PMID: 37223384
ISSN: 2163-3916
CID: 5543742

Anatomic variant of the inferior lateral cutaneous branch of the radial nerve during the posterior approach to the humerus: a case report

Sun, Li; Park, Brian K; Gupta, Salil; Capo, John T; Yoon, Richard S; Liporace, Frank A
Iatrogenic injury during the posterior approach to the humerus during operative fixation is not an uncommon occurrence. A comprehensive understanding of the normal anatomy and its variants is of paramount importance in order to avoid such injury. Typically, the inferior lateral cutaneous branch of the radial nerve originates towards the distal end of the humerus at the inferior portion of the spiral groove. Here, we report an important variant of this nerve, which originated significantly more proximal than expected, further emphasizing the importance of identification, dissection and protection of the radial nerve and its major branches.
PMID: 25972922
ISSN: 1754-9493
CID: 1578842

Anatomy and function of the thenar muscles

Gupta, Salil; Michelsen-Jost, Heidi
The four thenar muscles make up the intrinsic muscles of the thumb. They include the abductor pollicis, adductor pollicis, opponens pollicis, and flexor pollicis brevis. Thumb motion is facilitated through the coordination of these intrinsic muscles. The thumb musculature dynamically allows for precision pinching ad power gripping
PMID: 22117918
ISSN: 1558-1969
CID: 141985

An aggressive group a streptococcal cellulitis of the hand and forearm requiring surgical debridement

Bharucha, Neil J; Alaia, Michael J; Paksima, Nader; Christoforou, Dimitrios; Gupta, Salil
Group A streptococcus is responsible for a diverse range of soft tissue infections. Manifestations range from minor oropharyngeal and cellulitic skin infections to more severe conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and septic shock. Troubling increases in the incidence and the severity of streptococcal infections have been reported over the past 25 years. Cases of streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis have received significant attention in the literature, with prompt surgical debridement being the mainstay of treatment. However, cases of rapidly progressing upper extremity streptococcal cellulitis leading to shock and a subsequent surgical intervention have not been well described.This article presents a case of an 85-year-old woman with a rapidly progressing, erythematous, painful, swollen hand associated with fever, hypotension, and mental status change. Due to a high clinical suspicion for necrotizing fasciitis, the patient was rapidly resuscitated and underwent immediate surgical irrigation and debridement. All intraoperative fascial pathology specimens were negative for necrotizing fasciitis, leading to a final diagnosis of Group A streptococcal cellulitis. Although surgical intervention is not commonly considered in patients with cellulitis, our patient benefited from irrigation and debridement with soft tissue decompression. In cases of necrotizing fasciitis as well as rapidly progressive cellulitis, prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment may help patients avoid the catastrophic consequences of rapidly progressive group A streptococcal infections
PMID: 21210613
ISSN: 1938-2367
CID: 120797

Minifragment screw fixation of oblique metacarpal fractures: a biomechanical analysis of screw types and techniques

Liporace, Frank A; Kinchelow, Tosca; Gupta, Salil; Kubiak, Erik N; McDonnell, Matthew
The lag screw technique has historically been a successful and accepted way to treat oblique metacarpal fractures. However, it does take additional time and involve multiple steps that can increase the risk of fracture propagation or comminution in the small hand bones of the hand. An alternate fixation technique uses bicortical interfragmentary screws. Other studies support the clinical effectiveness and ease of this technique. The purpose of this study is to biomechanically assess the strength of the bicortical interfragmentary screw versus that of the traditional lag screw. Using 48 cadaver metacarpals, oblique osteotomies were created and stabilized using one of four methods: 1.5 mm bicortical interfragmentary (IF) screw, 1.5 mm lag technique screw, 2.0 mm bicortical IF screw, or 2.0 mm lag technique screw. Biomechanical testing was performed to measure post cyclic displacement and load to failure. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There was no significant difference among the fixation techniques with regard to both displacement and ultimate failure strength. There was a slight trend for a higher load to failure with the 2.0 mm IF screw and 2.0 mm lag screw compared to the 1.5 mm IF and 1.5 mm lag screws, but this was not significant. Our results support previously established clinical data that bicortical interfragmentary screw fixation is an effective treatment option for oblique metacarpal fractures. This technique has clinical importance because it is an option to appropriately stabilize the often small and difficult to control fracture fragments encountered in metacarpal fractures
PMID: 18780019
ISSN: 1558-9447
CID: 96553

Ligament reconstruction

Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil
Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction
PMID: 16701126
ISSN: 0749-0712
CID: 66070

Closed treatment of nonrheumatoid extensor tendon dislocations at the metacarpophalangeal joint

Catalano, Louis W 3rd; Gupta, Salil; Ragland, Raymond 3rd; Glickel, Steven Z; Johnson, Caryl; Barron, O Alton
PURPOSE: Acute sagittal band injuries at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint resulting in subluxation or dislocation of the extensor tendons may cause pain and swelling at the MCP joint and limit active extension of the MCP joint. These injuries often are treated with surgical repair or reconstruction. This article outlines a nonsurgical treatment protocol that uses a customized splint for acute, nonrheumatoid extensor tendon dislocations caused by injury to the sagittal bands. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients with 11 acute sagittal band injuries who were treated with a splint of thermally molded plastic that differentially holds the injured MCP joint in 25 degrees to 35 degrees of hyperextension relative to the adjacent MCP joints. All the sagittal band ruptures resulted in complete dislocation of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon-Rayan and Murray type III injuries. Active proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal motion was begun immediately at the time of initial splinting. The average follow-up period was 14 months. RESULTS: At the time of final evaluation all patients had full range of motion in flexion and extension. Eight patients had no pain and 3 had moderate pain. Four patients (5 digits) had no extensor tendon subluxations and 3 had barely discernable subluxations. Three patients had moderate subluxation of the EDC tendon and their treatments were considered failures. One of these patients had subsequent sagittal band reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show acute sagittal band injuries in nonrheumatoid patients resulting in dislocation of the EDC tendon can be managed nonsurgically in many patients with a customized splint called the sagittal band bridge. TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level IV
PMID: 16473685
ISSN: 0363-5023
CID: 66059

A biomechanical comparison of a dorsal 3.5-mm T-plate and a volar fixed-angle plate in a model of dorsally unstable distal radius fractures

Liporace, Frank A; Gupta, Salil; Jeong, Gerard K; Stracher, Michael; Kummer, Fredrick; Egol, Kenneth A; Koval, Kenneth J
OBJECTIVES: To compare the biomechanical stability of internal fixation of extra-articular, dorsally unstable distal radius fractures fixed by 1 of 2 methods, either a standard dorsal nonlocked T-plate or a volar locked fixed-angle plate. DESIGN: Biomechanical cadaveric study. SETTING: Biomechanical testing laboratory. INTERVENTION: In 6 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens, a simulated unstable extra-articular distal radius fracture was created. The fractures were stabilized with either a dorsal 3.5-mm stainless steel T-plate or a titanium locked volar fixed-angle plate. Specimens were axially loaded at 5 points (centrally, volarly, dorsally, radially, and ulnarly) and then cyclically loaded for 5000 cycles with an 80 N central load. Postcyclical loading, specimens were once again axially loaded at the 5 points. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial fixation stiffness and stiffness after midaxial cyclical loading was compared at the 5 points. RESULTS: With the volar locked fixed-angle plate, fixation was significantly stiffer than with the dorsal nonlocked T-plate for ulnar and volar loading in single-cycle testing. After cyclic loading, the locked volar fixed-angle plate maintained more of its initial stiffness than the dorsal nonlocked T-plate. The dorsal 3.5-mm stainless steel T-plate's stiffness when dorsally loaded significantly decreased after cyclical loading. CONCLUSIONS: The volar locked fixed-angle plate maintained a greater percentage of its initial stiffness after cyclic loading compared to the dorsal nonlocked plate. Also, the volar locked plate was stiffer than the dorsal nonlocked plate for all loading configurations tested except when subjected to a dorsally applied eccentric load
PMID: 15758672
ISSN: 0890-5339
CID: 55752

Heterotopic ossification of the quadriceps following distal femoral traction: a report of three cases and a review of the literature

Specht, Lawrence M; Gupta, Salil; Egol, Kenneth A; Koval, Kenneth J
SUMMARY: We present the previously unreported complication of symptomatic heterotopic ossification of the quadriceps following placement of a large-diameter Steinmann pin for the purpose of temporary skeletal traction. Following the development of distal quadriceps heterotopic bone formation in three patients, we conducted a comprehensive search of the literature using the Medline database from 1966 to the present. A variety of publications, including review articles, case reports, and randomized prospective studies, were used for the literature review. This potential complication should be considered when using a large-diameter Steinmann pin in the distal femur for skeletal traction
PMID: 15087970
ISSN: 0890-5339
CID: 44639

An antigen reacting with das-1 monoclonal antibody is ontogenically regulated in diverse organs including liver and indicates sharing of developmental mechanisms among cell lineages

Badve, S; Logdberg, L; Sokhi, R; Sigal, S H; Botros, N; Chae, S; Das, K M; Gupta, S
The monoclonal antibody designated mAb Das-1, which was generated against a colon epithelial protein, reacts with the normal biliary epithelium and keratinocytes, which are among targets of tissue injury in ulcerative colitis. Moreover, mAb Das-1 reacts with abnormal cells in Barrett's esophagus and chronic cystitis profunda, as well as so-called 'oval cells' in the adult liver, which are considered oncogenic progenitor cells. To establish ontogenic regulation of mAb Das-1 reactivity, we studied 7- to 24-week-old human fetuses by immunohistochemistry. In liver, mAb Das-1 reactivity was further correlated with glycogen, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, glucose-6-phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase expression. mAb Das-1 reacted with cells in organs arising from the pharyngeal cleft (thymus), primitive gut (oral cavity, pharynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, biliary tree, pancreas, liver, colon), ureteric bud (renal tubules, collecting duct), mesonephros (kidney, testis), mesoderm (muscle) and elsewhere (skin, adrenal cortex). In distinction from the adult liver, mAb Das-1 staining was more pronounced in hepatoblasts compared with biliary cells. In adult tissues, however, mAb Das-1 reactivity was restricted to the colon, biliary epithelium, keratinocytes, and ciliary body. These data indicated that the mAb Das-1 recognized epitopes in fetal cells of diverse ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal origin, compatible with sharing of lineage mechanisms in tissues. Reactivation of mAb Das-1 staining in epithelial precancerous conditions, including carcinomas arising in these organs, is compatible with oncofetal regulation of the antigen, which will facilitate analysis of cell subpopulations during organ development, regeneration and oncogenesis.
PMID: 10878504
ISSN: 1015-2008
CID: 167428