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An Exploratory Analysis of Preclinical and Clinical Factors Associated With Sleep Disturbance Assessed via the Neuro-QoL After Hemorrhagic Stroke

Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Olivera, Anlys; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara R; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:Sleep disturbance after hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage) can impact rehabilitation, recovery, and quality of life. We sought to explore preclinical and clinical factors associated with sleep disturbance after hemorrhagic stroke assessed via the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QoL) short form sleep disturbance inventory. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We telephonically completed the Neuro-QoL short form sleep disturbance inventory 3-months and 12-months after hemorrhagic stroke for patients >18-years-old hospitalized between January 2015 and February 2021. We examined the relationship between sleep disturbance (T-score >50) and social and neuropsychiatric history, systemic and neurological illness severity, medical complications, and temporality. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .046). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:This exploratory analysis did not demonstrate a sustained relationship between any preclinical or clinical factors and sleep disturbance after hemorrhagic stroke. Larger studies that include comparison to patients with ischemic stroke and healthy individuals and utilize additional techniques to evaluate sleep disturbance are needed.
PMID: 38895018
ISSN: 1941-8744
CID: 5672082

Structural and Functional Neuroanatomy of Core Consciousness: A Primer for Disorders of Consciousness Clinicians

Arciniegas, David B; Gurin, Lindsey J; Zhang, Bei
Understanding the structural and functional neuroanatomy of core consciousness (ie, wakefulness and awareness) is an asset to clinicians caring for persons with disorders of consciousness. This article provides a primer on the structural and functional neuroanatomy of wakefulness and awareness. The neuroanatomical structures supporting these elements of core consciousness functions are reviewed first, after which brief description of the clinically evaluable relationships between disruption of these structures and disorders of consciousness (ie, brain-behavior relationships) are outlined. Consideration of neuroanatomy at the mesoscale (ie, the mesocircuit hypothesis) as well as in relation to several large-scale neural networks is offered.
PMID: 37993192
ISSN: 1558-1381
CID: 5608752

Factors Associated With Anxiety After Hemorrhagic Stroke

Olivera, Anlys; Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:A significant number of patients develop anxiety after stroke. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for anxiety after hemorrhagic stroke that may facilitate diagnosis and treatment. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients admitted between January 2015 and February 2021 with nontraumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral [ICH] or subarachnoid [SAH] hemorrhage) were assessed telephonically 3 and 12 months after stroke with the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Anxiety Short Form to evaluate the relationships between poststroke anxiety (T score >50) and preclinical social and neuropsychiatric history, systemic and neurological illness severity, and in-hospital complications. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of 71 patients who completed the 3-month assessment, 28 (39%) had anxiety. There was a difference in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores on admission between patients with anxiety (median=14, interquartile range [IQR]=12-15) and those without anxiety (median=15, IQR=14-15) (p=0.034), and the incidence of anxiety was higher among patients with ICH (50%) than among those with SAH (20%) (p=0.021). Among patients with ICH, anxiety was associated with larger median ICH volume (25 cc [IQR=8-46] versus 8 cc [IQR=3-13], p=0.021) and higher median ICH score (2 [IQR=1-3] versus 1 [IQR=0-1], p=0.037). On multivariable analysis with GCS score, hemorrhage type, and neuropsychiatric history, only hemorrhage type remained significant (odds ratio=3.77, 95% CI=1.19-12.05, p=0.024). Of the 39 patients who completed the 12-month assessment, 12 (31%) had anxiety, and there was a difference in mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores between patients with (5 [IQR=3-12]) and without (2 [IQR=0-4]) anxiety (p=0.045). There was fair agreement (κ=0.38) between the presence of anxiety at 3 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Hemorrhage characteristics and factors assessed with neurological examination on admission are associated with the development of poststroke anxiety.
PMID: 37667629
ISSN: 1545-7222
CID: 5626372

Adjunctive Memantine for Catatonia Due to Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Kim, Katherine; Caravella, Rachel; Deutch, Allison; Gurin, Lindsey
PMID: 37415500
ISSN: 1545-7222
CID: 5539392

Unexplained Hemiplegia in Traumatic Brain Injury: An Atypical Presentation of Diffuse Axonal Injury [Case Report]

Koo, Siulam; Osterwald, Ariane; Spaventa, Sarah; Tsai, William; Gurin, Lindsey; Im, Brian
PMID: 36730422
ISSN: 1537-7385
CID: 5540742

Neurology faculty comfort and experience with communication skills

Zhang, Cen; Kurzweil, Arielle; Pleninger, Perrin; Nelson, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Zabar, Sondra; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:Neurology faculty care for complex patients, teach, and work within multidisciplinary teams. It is imperative for faculty to have strong communication skills. METHODS:We surveyed NYU neurology teaching faculty to determine levels of comfort and experience over the past year with providing negative feedback to a trainee; debriefing after an adverse clinical outcome; and assisting a struggling colleague. We examined the relationship between levels of comfort and experience with 1) faculty self-identified sex and 2) number of years since completion of medical training. RESULTS:The survey was completed by 36/83 teaching neurology faculty (43 %); 17 (47 %) respondents were female and 21 (58 %) were ≤10 years post-training. The proportions of faculty who reported feeling uncomfortable were 44 % (16/36) for assisting a struggling colleague, 28 % (10/36) for providing negative feedback, and 19 % (7/36) for debriefing an adverse outcome. Proportions of faculty who reported they had no experience were 75 % (27/36) for assisting a struggling colleague, 39 % (14/36) for debriefing an adverse clinical event, and 17 % (6/36) for providing negative feedback. Female respondents and faculty who were ≤10 years post-training were more likely to report feeling uncomfortable with assisting a struggling colleague and to have had no experience doing so in the past year. On multivariate analyses accounting for sex and experience, sex remained independently associated with feeling uncomfortable with assisting a struggling colleague (OR = 12.2, 95 % CI: 2.1-69.6, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Faculty development may be needed to improve comfort and experience with challenging communication-based interactions. Female faculty and faculty early in their careers may benefit most.
PMID: 36642032
ISSN: 1532-2653
CID: 5433622

Neurorehabilitation through a Neuropsychiatric Lens [Editorial]

Peters, Matthew E; Gurin, Lindsey J; Quinn, Davin K; Roy, Durga
PMID: 37638458
ISSN: 1878-6448
CID: 5609182

Psychological Outcome after Hemorrhagic Stroke is Related to Functional Status

Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Olivera, Anlys; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:To identify opportunities to improve morbidity after hemorrhagic stroke, it is imperative to understand factors that are related to psychological outcome. DESIGN/METHODS/METHODS:We prospectively identified patients with non-traumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage) between January 2015 and February 2021 who were alive 3-months after discharge and telephonically assessed 1) psychological outcome using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol, fatigue and sleep disturbance inventories and 2) functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index. We also identified discharge destination for all patients. We then evaluated the relationship between abnormal psychological outcomes (T-score >50) and discharge destination other than home, poor 3-month mRS score defined as 3-5 and poor 3-month Barthel Index defined as <100. RESULTS:73 patients were included; 41 (56%) had an abnormal psychological outcome on at least one inventory. There were 41 (56%) patients discharged to a destination other than home, 44 (63%) with poor mRS score and 28 (39%) with poor Barthel Index. Anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol and sleep disturbance were all associated with a destination other than home, poor mRS score, and poor Barthel Index (all p<0.05). Fatigue was related to poor mRS score and poor Barthel Index (p=0.005 and p=0.006, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Multiple psychological outcomes 3-months after hemorrhagic stroke are related to functional status. Interventions to improve psychological outcome and reduce morbidity in patients with poor functional status should be explored by the interdisciplinary team.
PMID: 35594604
ISSN: 1532-8511
CID: 5247722

Glutamate Antagonists in Catatonia Due to Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis [Meeting Abstract]

Kim, K; Caravella, R A; Deutch, A; Gurin, L
Background/Significance: Catatonia is common in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis (Espinola-Nadurille, 2019). The glutamate NMDAR antagonists amantadine and memantine are effective in catatonia (Beach, 2017), but data on their use in anti-NMDAR encephalitis is limited. We describe three patients with catatonia due to anti-NMDAR encephalitis treated with NMDAR antagonists and propose a possible mechanism underlying differential outcomes. Case 1: A 20-year-old woman presented with catatonic symptoms after successful treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with immunotherapy and salpingo-oopherectomy for ovarian teratoma. Initial Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) score was 22. Lorazepam 2.5 mg three times daily was partially effective, but increased doses caused sedation. Memantine was titrated to 10 mg twice daily with complete resolution of catatonia over two weeks. Case 2: A 26-year-old woman presented with catatonic with BFCRS score of 25, after successful immunotherapy for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Lorazepam 2 mg four times daily was partially effective, but further increase caused respiratory depression. Memantine 10 mg daily resulted in further improvement. Lorazepam titration to 4 mg four times daily was then possible, with complete resolution of catatonia over two weeks. Case 3: A 31-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis presented with catatonic symptoms with BFCRS score of 22, after a hospital course significant for limited response to immunotherapy with persistently elevated serum anti-NMDAR antibody titers. Lorazepam 2 mg three times daily was partially effective, but further increase caused sedation. Both amantadine 100 mg twice daily and memantine 10 mg were trialed but were discontinued due to agitation. Mutism and negativism persisted, with a discharge BFCRS score of 12.
Discussion(s): Memantine was effective for catatonia and well tolerated in two patients with successfully treated anti-NMDAR encephalitis, but both amantadine and memantine caused agitation in a third patient with active disease. NMDARs are reversibly internalized in the presence of anti-NMDAR antibodies, leading to a compensatory increase in downstream glutamatergic tone. We hypothesize that NMDAR reemergence after successful treatment, in the context of excess extracellular glutamate, creates a state of excitotoxicity contributing to catatonic signs for which NMDAR blockade can be effective. In the third case, where NMDARs presumably remained internalized in the presence of persistent anti-NMDAR antibodies and a state of NMDAR hypofunction persisted, further NMDAR blockade caused clinical worsening. Conclusion/Implications: NMDAR antagonists can be safe and effective in patients with residual catatonia following successful treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis but may be less useful during active disease. More work is needed to clarify best practices for patients with catatonia due to anti-NMDAR encephalitis. References: 1. Espinola-Nadurille M, Flores-Rivera J, Rivas-Alonso V, et al. Catatonia in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2019;73(9):574-580. 2. Beach SR, Gomez-Bernal F, Huffman JC, Fricchione GL. Alternative treatment strategies for catatonia: A systematic review. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2017;48(June):1-19.
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5291752

Early Neurorehabilitation and Recovery from Disorders of Consciousness After Severe COVID-19

Gurin, Lindsey; Evangelist, Megan; Laverty, Patricia; Hanley, Kaitlin; Corcoran, John; Herbsman, Jodi; Im, Brian; Frontera, Jennifer; Flanagan, Steven; Galetta, Steven; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:Early neurorehabilitation improves outcomes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) after brain injury, but its applicability in COVID-19 is unknown. We describe our experience implementing an early neurorehabilitation protocol for patients with COVID-19-associated DoC in the intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with recovery. METHODS:During the initial COVID-19 surge in New York City between March 10 and May 20, 2020, faced with a disproportionately high number of ICU patients with prolonged unresponsiveness, we developed and implemented an early neurorehabilitation protocol, applying standard practices from brain injury rehabilitation care to the ICU setting. Twenty-one patients with delayed recovery of consciousness after severe COVID-19 participated in a pilot early neurorehabilitation program that included serial Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) assessments, multimodal treatment, and access to clinicians specializing in brain injury medicine. We retrospectively compared clinical features of patients who did and did not recover to the minimally conscious state (MCS) or better, defined as a CRS-R total score (TS) ≥ 8, before discharge. We additionally examined factors associated with best CRS-R TS, last CRS-R TS, hospital length of stay, and time on mechanical ventilation. RESULTS:Patients underwent CRS-R assessments a median of six (interquartile range [IQR] 3-10) times before discharge, beginning a median of 48 days (IQR 40-55) from admission. Twelve (57%) patients recovered to MCS after a median of 8 days (IQR 2-14) off continuous sedation; they had lower body mass index (p = 0.009), lower peak serum C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.023), higher minimum arterial partial pressure of oxygen (p = 0.028), and earlier fentanyl discontinuation (p = 0.018). CRS-R scores fluctuated over time, and the best CRS-R TS was significantly higher than the last CRS-R TS (median 8 [IQR 5-23] vs. 5 [IQR 3-18], p = 0.002). Earlier fentanyl (p = 0.001) and neuromuscular blockade (p = 0.015) discontinuation correlated with a higher last CRS-R TS. CONCLUSIONS:More than half of our cohort of patients with prolonged unresponsiveness following severe COVID-19 recovered to MCS or better before hospital discharge, achieving a clinical benchmark known to have relatively favorable long-term prognostic implications in DoC of other etiologies. Hypoxia, systemic inflammation, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade may impact diagnostic assessment and prognosis, and fluctuations in level of consciousness make serial assessments essential. Early neurorehabilitation of these patients in the ICU can be accomplished but is associated with unique challenges. Further research should evaluate factors associated with longer-term neurologic recovery and benefits of early rehabilitation in patients with severe COVID-19.
PMID: 34611810
ISSN: 1556-0961
CID: 5067712