Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Publisher Correction: Dietary thiols accelerate aging of C. elegans

Gusarov, Ivan; Shamovsky, Ilya; Pani, Bibhusita; Gautier, Laurent; Eremina, Svetlana; Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Olga; Mironov, Alexander; Makarov, Alexander А; Nudler, Evgeny
PMID: 34873162
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5110162

Dietary thiols accelerate aging of C. elegans

Gusarov, Ivan; Shamovsky, Ilya; Pani, Bibhusita; Gautier, Laurent; Eremina, Svetlana; Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Olga; Mironov, Alexander; Makarov, Alexander А; Nudler, Evgeny
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular antioxidant. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely believed to promote aging and age-related diseases, and antioxidants can neutralize ROS, it follows that GSH and its precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), are among the most popular dietary supplements. However, the long- term effects of GSH or NAC on healthy animals have not been thoroughly investigated. We employed C. elegans to demonstrate that chronic administration of GSH or NAC to young or aged animals perturbs global gene expression, inhibits skn-1-mediated transcription, and accelerates aging. In contrast, limiting the consumption of dietary thiols, including those naturally derived from the microbiota, extended lifespan. Pharmacological GSH restriction activates the unfolded protein response and increases proteotoxic stress resistance in worms and human cells. It is thus advantageous for healthy individuals to avoid excessive dietary antioxidants and, instead, rely on intrinsic GSH biosynthesis, which is fine-tuned to match the cellular redox status and to promote homeostatic ROS signaling.
PMID: 34267196
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 4937562

Glycogen at the Crossroad of Stress Resistance, Energy Maintenance, and Pathophysiology of Aging

Gusarov, Ivan; Nudler, Evgeny
Glycogen is synthesized and stored to maintain postprandial blood glucose homeostasis and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply between meals. Although the regulation of glycogen turnover has been well studied, the effects of glycogen on aging and disease development have been largely unexplored. In Caenorhabditis elegans fed a high sugar diet, glycogen potentiates resistance to oxidants, but paradoxically, shortens lifespan. Depletion of glycogen by oxidants or inhibition of glycogen synthesis extends the lifespan of worms by an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Thus, glycogen is not merely an inert storage molecule, but also an active regulator of energy balance and aging. Its depletion by oxidants may be beneficial in the treatment of hyperglycemia and glycogen-related diseases.
PMID: 29897131
ISSN: 1521-1878
CID: 3155232

Protein S-Nitrosylation: Enzymatically Controlled, but Intrinsically Unstable, Post-translational Modification

Gusarov, Ivan; Nudler, Evgeny
Reports by Seth et al. (2018) and Wolhuter et al. (2018) in this issue of Molecular Cell highlight the enzymatic synthesis, functionality, and propagation of S-nitrosylation-based signaling and address its low stability due to the elevated reactivity toward other cellular thiols.
PMID: 29395059
ISSN: 1097-4164
CID: 2947432

Mechanism of biofilm-mediated stress resistance and lifespan extension in C. elegans

Smolentseva, Olga; Gusarov, Ivan; Gautier, Laurent; Shamovsky, Ilya; DeFrancesco, Alicia S; Losick, Richard; Nudler, Evgeny
Bacteria naturally form communities of cells known as biofilms. However the physiological roles of biofilms produced by non-pathogenic microbiota remain largely unknown. To assess the impact of a biofilm on host physiology we explored the effect of several non-pathogenic biofilm-forming bacteria on Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pseudomonas fluorescens induces C. elegans stress resistance. Biofilm also protects against pathogenic infection and prolongs lifespan. Total mRNA analysis identified a set of host genes that are upregulated in response to biofilm formation by B. subtilis. We further demonstrate that mtl-1 is responsible for the biofilm-mediated increase in oxidative stress resistance and lifespan extension. Induction of mtl-1 and hsp-70 promotes biofilm-mediated thermotolerance. ilys-2 activity accounts for biofilm-mediated resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing. These results reveal the importance of non-pathogenic biofilms for host physiology and provide a framework to study commensal biofilms in higher organisms.
PMID: 28769037
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 2655842

Glycogen controls Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and resistance to oxidative stress

Gusarov, Ivan; Pani, Bibhusita; Gautier, Laurent; Smolentseva, Olga; Eremina, Svetlana; Shamovsky, Ilya; Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Olga; Mironov, Alexander; Nudler, Evgeny
A high-sugar diet has been associated with reduced lifespan in organisms ranging from worms to mammals. However, the mechanisms underlying the harmful effects of glucose are poorly understood. Here we establish a causative relationship between endogenous glucose storage in the form of glycogen, resistance to oxidative stress and organismal aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that glycogen accumulated on high dietary glucose limits C. elegans longevity. Glucose released from glycogen and used for NADPH/glutathione reduction renders nematodes and human hepatocytes more resistant against oxidative stress. Exposure to low levels of oxidants or genetic inhibition of glycogen synthase depletes glycogen stores and extends the lifespan of animals fed a high glucose diet in an AMPK-dependent manner. Moreover, glycogen interferes with low insulin signalling and accelerates aging of long-lived daf-2 worms fed a high glucose diet. Considering its extensive evolutionary conservation, our results suggest that glycogen metabolism might also have a role in mammalian aging.
PMID: 28627510
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 2603802

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Nitric-oxide Synthase Affects Antibiotic Sensitivity and Skin Abscess Development

van Sorge, Nina M; Beasley, Federico C; Gusarov, Ivan; Gonzalez, David J; von Kockritz-Blickwede, Maren; Anik, Sabina; Borkowski, Andrew W; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Nudler, Evgeny; Nizet, Victor
Staphylococcus aureus infections present an enormous global health concern complicated by an alarming increase in antibiotic resistance. S. aureus is among the few bacterial species that express nitric-oxide synthase (bNOS) and thus can catalyze NO production from l-arginine. Here we generate an isogenic bNOS-deficient mutant in the epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 clone to study its contribution to virulence and antibiotic susceptibility. Loss of bNOS increased MRSA susceptibility to reactive oxygen species and host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides, which correlated with increased MRSA killing by human neutrophils and within neutrophil extracellular traps. bNOS also promoted resistance to the pharmaceutical antibiotics that act on the cell envelope such as vancomycin and daptomycin. Surprisingly, bNOS-deficient strains gained resistance to aminoglycosides, suggesting that the role of bNOS in antibiotic susceptibility is more complex than previously observed in Bacillus species. Finally, the MRSA bNOS mutant showed reduced virulence with decreased survival and smaller abscess generation in a mouse subcutaneous infection model. Together, these data indicate that bNOS contributes to MRSA innate immune and antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Future development of specific bNOS inhibitors could be an attractive option to simultaneously reduce MRSA pathology and enhance its susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics.
PMID: 23322784
ISSN: 0021-9258
CID: 231692

Bacterial Nitric Oxide Extends the Lifespan of C. elegans

Gusarov, Ivan; Gautier, Laurent; Smolentseva, Olga; Shamovsky, Ilya; Eremina, Svetlana; Mironov, Alexander; Nudler, Evgeny
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in multicellular organisms. Most animals produce NO from L-arginine via a family of dedicated enzymes known as NO synthases (NOSes). A rare exception is the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, which lacks its own NOS. However, in its natural environment, C. elegans feeds on Bacilli that possess functional NOS. Here, we demonstrate that bacterially derived NO enhances C. elegans longevity and stress resistance via a defined group of genes that function under the dual control of HSF-1 and DAF-16 transcription factors. Our work provides an example of interspecies signaling by a small molecule and illustrates the lifelong value of commensal bacteria to their host.
PMID: 23415229
ISSN: 0092-8674
CID: 223252

Nitric oxide produced by bacteria extends C. elegans lifespan [Meeting Abstract]

Gusarov, Ivan; Smolentseva, Olga; Gautier, Laurent; Nudler, Evgeny
ISSN: 1089-8603
CID: 174420

S-Nitrosylation Signaling in Escherichia coli

Gusarov, Ivan; Nudler, Evgeny
Most bacteria generate nitric oxide (NO) either aerobically by NO synthases or anaerobically from nitrite. Far from being a mere by-product of nitrate respiration, bacterial NO has diverse physiological roles. Many proteins undergo NO-mediated posttranslational modification (S-nitrosylation) in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli. The regulation of one such protein, OxyR, represents a redox signaling paradigm in which the same transcription factor controls different protective genes depending on its S-nitrosylation versus S-oxidation status. We discuss a structural model that may explain the remarkable stability and specificity of OxyR S-nitrosylation.
PMID: 22692422
ISSN: 1937-9145
CID: 169521