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MR Imaging of the Knee Posterolateral and Posteromedial Corner Injuries

Khodarahmi, Iman; Alizai, Hamza; Alaia, Erin; Gyftopoulos, Soterios
The posteromedial and posterolateral corners of the knee are important areas to consider when assessing the patient with a possible knee injury. An understanding of the anatomy, associated biomechanics, and typical injury patterns in these regions will improve the value that the radiologist interpreting the MRIs brings to this patient population.
PMID: 35512886
ISSN: 1557-9786
CID: 5213892

Likelihood of hip infection with image-guided hip aspiration dry tap: a 10-year retrospective study

Serfaty, Aline; Jacobs, Adam; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Samim, Mohammad
OBJECTIVE:To determine the rate of infection in patients with suspected hip septic arthritis who underwent image-guided aspiration (IHA) resulting in dry-tap, diagnostic value of subsequent lavage and re-aspiration, and if pre-aspiration MRI can help prevent a dry tap. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Retrospective review between 2010 to 2020 identified native hip (NH) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients who had a dry-tap following aspiration for suspected infection or periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Serology tests, lavage/re-aspiration volumes, and aspirate cell-count/culture were assessed. On pre-aspiration MRI, presence/grade of joint effusion (JE), pseudocapsule dehiscence (PD), extraarticular fluid and sinus-tract were recorded. RESULTS:Out of 215 included dry-taps, 185 (86.0%) were non-infected and 30 (13.9%) infected. In subgroup analysis, 64/71(90.1%) NH and 121/144(84.0%) THA dry-taps were non-infected. Pre-aspiration MRI of THA group with dry-tap showed significant findings; PD with extraarticular fluid (8/12, 66.7%) and sinus tract (7/12, 58.3%) were higher in the infected compared to non-infected group (5/42, 11.9% and 0/42, 0.0%) (both p < 0.001). Among THA group, polymorphonuclear-leukocytes > 80% was present in 8/9 (88.9%) of infected versus 4/28 (14.3%) non-infected group (p < 0.001). Multivariable regression showed PD (p = 0.005) and JE (p = 0.042) being significant independent predictors of PJI, similarly the elevated CRP (p = 0.044) and JE (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Majority of patients suspected of hip joint infection with dry-tap were non-infected. Synovial PMN% following lavage maintains high sensitivity for detection of PJI. In patients with THA, PD and subsequent extraarticular collection can be associated with dry-tap therefore, pre-aspiration MRI can help determine their presence and plan the aspiration.
PMID: 35359220
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 5206042

Ultrasound-Guided Injection Treatments Versus Surgical Neurectomy for Morton Neuroma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Ross, Andrew B; Jacobs, Adam; Williams, Kathryn L; Bour, Robert K; Gyftopoulos, Soterios
PMID: 34523955
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 5152212

Imaging of Patients Suspected of SLAP Tear: A Cost-Effectiveness Study

Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Conroy, Jordan; Koo, James; Jones, Morgan; Miniaci, Anthony; Subhas, Naveen
PMID: 34406055
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 5152192

Adjunct diagnostic strategies in improving diagnostic yields in image-guided biopsies of musculoskeletal neoplasms-A cost-effectiveness analysis

Ramkumar, Dipak B; Kelly, Sean P; Ramkumar, Niveditta; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Raskin, Kevin A; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago A; Chang, Connie Y
BACKGROUND:Routine use of adjunct intraprocedural fresh frozen biopsy (FFP) or point-of-care (POC) cytology at the time of image-guided biopsy can improve diagnostic tissue yields for musculoskeletal neoplasms, but these are associated with increased costs. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to ascertain the most cost-effective adjunctive test for image-guided biopsies of musculoskeletal neoplasms. METHODS:This expected value cost-effectiveness microsimulation compared the payoffs of cost (2020 United States dollars) and effectiveness (quality-adjusted life, in days) on each of the competing strategies. A literature review and institutional data were used to ascertain probabilities, diagnostic yields, utility values, and direct medical costs associated with each strategy. Payer and societal perspectives are presented. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses evaluated model uncertainties. RESULTS:The total cost and effectiveness for each of the strategies were $1248.98, $1414.09, $1980.53, and 80.31, 79.74, 79.69 days for the use of FFP, permanent pathology only, and POC cytology, respectively. The use of FFP dominated the competing strategies. Sensitivity analyses revealed FFP as the most cost-effective across all clinically plausible values. CONCLUSIONS:Adjunct FFP is most cost-effective in improving the diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsies for musculoskeletal neoplasms. These findings are robust to sensitivity analyses using clinically plausible probabilities.
PMID: 34416016
ISSN: 1096-9098
CID: 5006412

Ultrasound-MRI Correlation for Healing of Rotator Cuff Repairs Using Power Doppler, Sonographic Shear Wave Elastography and MR Signal Characteristics: A Pilot Study

Nocera, Nicole L; Burke, Christopher J; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Adler, Ronald S
OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the healing response in rotator cuff repairs can be quantitatively characterized using a multimodality imaging approach with MR signal intensity, power Doppler and shear wave elastography (SWE). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients scheduled for rotator cuff repair were prospectively enrolled between September 2013 and June 2016. A 12 patient cohort with unilateral, full-thickness, supraspinatus tendon tears underwent MRI and ultrasound both preoperatively and postoperatively (at 3 and 6 months post-surgery). The MR signal intensity ratio of tendon-to-deltoid muscle (TMR), vascularity score by power Doppler (PD) and shear wave velocity (SWV) were measured. Repaired and asymptomatic control shoulders were compared over time and between modalities. RESULTS:TMR and vascularity of the tendon repair initially increased and then decreased postoperatively. Although not achieving statistical significance, postoperative SWV initially decreased and later increased, which negatively correlated with the TMR at 3 months (r = -0.73, p = 0.005). PD demonstrated a statistically significant change in tendon vascularity over time compared to the contralateral control (p = 0.009 at 3 months; p = 0.036 at 6 months). No significant correlation occurred between TMR and SWE at 6 months, or with PD at any time point. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite a small patient cohort, this prospective pilot study suggests a temporal relationship of MRI and ultrasound parameters that parallels the expected phases of healing in the repaired rotator cuff.
PMID: 33258512
ISSN: 1550-9613
CID: 4694042

Pectoralis Major Tendon Tear: A Critical Analysis Review

Magone, Kevin; Ben-Ari, Erel; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Virk, Mandeep
»:Pectoralis major (PM) tendon tears are predominantly seen in young men, and the majority of tears occur as tendon avulsions involving the sternal head. Weightlifting, specifically bench-pressing, and sporting activities with eccentric overloading of the PM tendon are the 2 most common activities that result in PM injury. »:Early surgical repair or reconstruction should be offered to younger, active patients with a complete PM tear; the majority of the patients undergoing surgical repair achieve good-to-excellent outcomes. »:Nonsurgical treatment of a complete PM tear is an option but will result in cosmetic deformity and a deficit in adduction strength of the arm. Outcomes after nonsurgical treatment of complete PM tears are less satisfactory than those obtained after surgical treatment. »:Currently, there is no consensus on the chronological definition of PM tears (acute versus chronic), the critical time limit for performing surgical repair, the ideal fixation device (cortical button, bone tunnel, or suture anchors), the indications for allograft use, and the ideal rehabilitation protocol after treatment of PM tears.
PMID: 34415856
ISSN: 2329-9185
CID: 5200062

Does image-guided biopsy of discitis-osteomyelitis provide meaningful information to impact clinical management?

Lim, Elisha; Walter, William; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Samim, Mohammad
OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study are to assess the diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsy for discitis-osteomyelitis (DO), identify factors associated with biopsy yield (laboratory, pre-defined MRI findings, and biopsy technique), and impact of biopsy on management of patients appropriately selected according to the Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines (IDSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent biopsy for suspected DO from 2011 to 2019. Reference standards to establish diagnosis of DO in order were histopathology/microbiology from biopsy or subsequent surgical sampling, positive blood culture or serology, and imaging/clinical follow-up. Laboratory markers, pre-biopsy antibiotics and MRI features, procedural-related variables, and impact of biopsy on management were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was also performed. RESULTS:Out of 97 included patients, 78 were diagnosed with DO. Overall sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0% (32/78), including 10 patients with positive histopathology only, 14 with positive biopsy culture only, and 8 with both. Elevated ESR (p < 0.001) and epidural collection on MRI (p = 0.008) were associated with higher biopsy yield (63.6% and 68.6%, respectively) in a multivariable model. Procedural variables were not associated with yield. Biopsy results impacted the management in 19/77 (24.7%) patients, of whom 15/19 (78.9%) had treatment de-escalation and 4/19 (21.0%) had treatment escalation including starting new anti-tuberculous and anti-fungal regimens. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0%. When IDSA guidelines are followed, biopsy provided impactful information that changed the management in 24.7% of patients. Evaluation for elevated ESR and epidural collection can help improve yield and patient selection for biopsy.
PMID: 33230728
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 4680502

3D MRI of the Shoulder

Daniels, Steven P; Gyftopoulos, Soterios
Magnetic resonance imaging provides a comprehensive evaluation of the shoulder including the rotator cuff muscles and tendons, glenoid labrum, long head biceps tendon, and glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joint articulations. Most institutions use two-dimensional sequences acquired in all three imaging planes to accurately evaluate the many important structures of the shoulder. Recently, the addition of three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions with 3D reconstructions has become clinically feasible and helped improve our understanding of several important pathologic conditions, allowing us to provide added value for referring clinicians. This article briefly describes techniques used in 3D imaging of the shoulder and discusses applications of these techniques including measuring glenoid bone loss in anterior glenohumeral instability. We also review the literature on routine 3D imaging for the evaluation of common shoulder abnormalities as 3D imaging will likely become more common as imaging software continues to improve.
PMID: 34547813
ISSN: 1098-898x
CID: 5061492

Assessment of myofiber microstructure changes due to atrophy and recovery with time-dependent diffusion MRI

Lemberskiy, Gregory; Feiweier, Thorsten; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Axel, Leon; Novikov, Dmitry S; Fieremans, Els
Current clinical MRI evaluation of musculature largely focuses on nonquantitative assessments (including T1-, T2- and PD-weighted images), which may vary greatly between imaging systems and readers. This work aims to determine the efficacy of a quantitative approach to study the microstructure of muscles at the cellular level with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM) applied to time-dependent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for varying diffusion time. Patients (N = 15, eight males and seven females) with atrophied calf muscles due to immobilization of one leg in a nonweight-bearing cast, were enrolled after providing informed consent. Their calf muscles were imaged with stimulated echo diffusion for DTI, T1-mapping and RPBM modeling. Specifically, After cast removal, both calf muscles (atrophied and contralateral control leg) were imaged with MRI for all patients, with follow-up scans to monitor recovery of the atrophied leg for six patients after 4 and 8 weeks. We compare RPBM-derived microstructural metrics: myofiber diameter, a, and sarcolemma permeability, κ, along with macroscopic anatomical parameters (muscle cross-sectional area, fiber orientation, <θ>, and T1 relaxation). ROC analysis was used to compare parameters between control and atrophied muscle, while the Friedman test was used to evaluate the atrophied muscle longitudinally. We found that the RPBM framework enables measurement of microstructural parameters from diffusion time-dependent DTI, of which the myofiber diameter is a stronger predictor of intramuscular morphological changes than either macroscopic (anatomical) measurements or empirical diffusion parameters. This work demonstrates the potential of RPBM to assess pathological changes in musculature that seem undetectable with standard diffusion and anatomical MRI.
PMID: 34002901
ISSN: 1099-1492
CID: 4876922