Dynamics of Peripheral Blood T-lymphocytes Have Predictive Values for the Clinical Outcome of COVID-19 Patients in Intensive Care Unit
Background/UNASSIGNED:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe disease had a high mortality rate. It's imperative to identify risk factors associated with disease progression and prognosis. Immune responses played an important role in the host's defense against the virus. We studied the dynamics of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in relation to the clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/UNASSIGNED:This cohort included 342 COVID-19 patients who were admitted to ICU between February 1 and May 30, 2020, with 178 having follow-up PBL analysis. The patients were divided into a group that survived and an expired group. PBL analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Results/UNASSIGNED:At time of initial flow analysis, there were no statistically significant differences in lymphocyte, T-cell and subsets, B-cell or natural killer (NK) cell counts between the 2 groups. However, during the ICU course, the surviving group demonstrated a full recovery of CD3+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells, and CD8+ T-cells, with no significant change in B-cells, and a slight upward trend in NK-cells. In contrast, the expired group showed no recovery in T-cells (and subsets) and no significant changes in B-cells and NK-cells. We identified the earliest time points and cut-off values for T-cell subsets that predict clinical outcomes. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:The results of this study suggest that evaluation of PBL in COVID-19 patients could be valuable in the study of the immune responses to the disease and the prognostication of outcome.
Primary follicular lymphoma of the bladder mimicking inflammatory condition: Case report and review of the literature [Case Report]
Primary lymphoma of the bladder is rare and may present with nonspecific symptoms and infection. Primary follicular lymphoma of the bladder is extremely rare with only a dozen reported cases. We present one case clinically mimicking an inflammatory process. A 79 year-old woman presents with recurrent urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence and frequency. Cystoscopic examination demonstrated a raised but flat lesion, suspicious for inflammatory lesion. Biopsy revealed a diagnosis of follicular lymphoma, grade 1-2. The presentation of primary follicular lymphoma of the bladder may be nonspecific, therefore it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients with unremitting symptoms.
Composite Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma/Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Follicular Lymphoma: A Clinicopathological Study of Six Cases
BACKGROUND:Composite small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) is extremely rare, and only 13 cases have been reported previously. METHODS:We identified 6 cases of composite SLL/CLL and FL in our database and studied their clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features. A literature review of the existing cases was also conducted. RESULTS:The patients included 4 males and 2 females, with a median age of 72 years. Four patients presented with lymphadenopathy and 2 with extranodal diseases. Lymphocytosis was seen in 2 cases. Serum lactate dehydrogenase levels were within normal range in all but one case. There were 2 histologic patterns: SLL/CLL predominant pattern (type I) and FL predominant or mixed pattern (type II). The type I pattern was exclusively associated with in situ follicular neoplasia (ISFN). The SLL/CLL showed typical morphology and immunophenotype in all the cases. The FL component included low grade (n = 3), ISFN (n = 2), and primary cutaneous FL (n = 1). Four cases had staging bone marrow biopsies including 3 cases with involvement by SLL/CLL and 1 case with involvement by SLL/CLL and FL. Four patients received treatments, one was under clinical surveillance, and one had no available information. All patients were alive after a median follow-up of 22 months. CONCLUSIONS:This is the largest case serial of composite SLL/CLL and FL. The CL affects elderly individuals, presents with advanced clinical stage, and appears to have a relatively indolent clinical course.
Using Heatmaps to Identify Opportunities for Optimization of Test Utilization and Care Delivery
Background/UNASSIGNED:When a provider orders a test in a pattern that is substantially different than their peers, it may indicate confusion in the test name or inappropriate use of the test, which can be elucidated by initiating dialog between clinicians and the laboratory. However, the analysis of ordering patterns can be challenging. We propose a utilization index (UI) as a means to quantify utilization patterns for individual providers and demonstrate the use of heatmaps to identify opportunities for improvement. Materials and Methods/UNASSIGNED:Laboratory test orders by all providers were extracted from the laboratory information system. Providers were grouped into cohorts based on the specialty and patient population. A UI was calculated for each provider's use of each test using the following formula: (UI = [provider volume of specific test/provider volume of all tests]/[cohort volume of specific test/cohort volume of all tests]). A heatmap was generated to compare each provider to their cohort. Results/UNASSIGNED:This method identified several hot spots and was helpful in reducing confusion and overutilization. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:The UI is a useful measure of test ordering behavior, and heatmaps provide a clear visual illustration of the utilization indices. This information can be used to identify areas for improvement and initiate meaningful dialog with providers, which will ultimately bring improvement and reduction in costs. Our method is simple and uses resources that are widely available, making this method effective convenient for many other laboratories.
CD5-Positive Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma in a Patient with Wilson's Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature [Case Report]
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare extra-nodal B-cell lymphoma that proliferates within small/intermediate blood vessels and capillaries while sparing large blood vessels and organ parenchyma. Clinical presentation is highly variable and may include B symptoms, neurological deficits, and/or cutaneous findings. The diagnosis of IVLBCL is difficult due to multiorgan involvement and nonspecific symptoms. We describe the case of a 68-year-old male who presented with progressive weakness, confusion, and falls. He had a past medical history of liver cirrhosis secondary to Wilson's disease. Physical exam and laboratory results revealed a lethargic man with jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, and abnormal liver/kidney function tests. He expired after a short hospital course in the setting of hepatic and renal failure. Postmortem examination revealed large neoplastic lymphoid cells involving multiple organ blood vessels; however skin and neurologic involvement was absent. The neoplastic cells demonstrated B-cells positive for CD5, rendering a diagnosis of IVLBCL. Our case represents the occurrence of IVLBCL with CD5-positivity in a patient with Wilson's disease, diagnosed at autopsy demonstrating the challenging nature of diagnosing IVLBCL.
A five-year-old child with a subcutaneous forehead nodule [Case Report]
We describe a case of a 5-year-old girl with onchocerciasis. The patient was recently adopted from Ethiopia and presented with a firm, raised nodule on the midportion of the forehead. Initially, Langerhans cell histiocytosis with bone involvement was suspected; however, histopathologic analysis of the excised nodule revealed the presence of a young-adult, female Onchocerca volvulus worm. This case exemplifies the importance of recognizing the key morphologic characteristics of adult O. volvulus worms isolated from pediatric patients in nonendemic areas to ensure adroit clinical management.
B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with isolated t(14;19)(q32;q13) abnormality involving the CEBPG gene [Case Report]
Photo Quiz. Appendicitis in a 4-year-old child [Case Report]