Administering mental health: Societal, coaching, and legislative approaches to mental health
[S.l.] : Springer International Publishing, 2020
Infographic: Mental health in elite athletes. An IOC consensus statement
Early Sport Specialization: Shifting Societal Norms [Editorial]
Psychotherapy for mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes: a narrative review
BACKGROUND:Athletes, like non-athletes, suffer from mental health symptoms and disorders that affect their lives and their performance. Psychotherapy, either as the sole treatment or combined with other non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies, is a pivotal component of management of mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes. Psychotherapy takes the form of individual, couples/family or group therapy and should address athlete-specific issues while being embraced as normative by athletes and their core stakeholders. MAIN FINDINGS/RESULTS:This narrative review summarises controlled and non-controlled research on psychotherapy for elite athletes with mental health symptoms and disorders. In summary, treatment is similar to that of non-athletes-although with attention to issues that are athlete-specific. Challenges associated with psychotherapy with elite athletes are discussed, including diagnostic issues, deterrents to help-seeking and expectations about services. We describe certain personality characteristics sometimes associated with elite athletes, including narcissism and aggression, which could make psychotherapy with this population more challenging. The literature regarding psychotherapeutic interventions in elite athletes is sparse and largely anecdotal.
Infographic. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on pain management in athletes: non-pharmacological strategies
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related mental disorders in elite athletes: a narrative review
This narrative review examines post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related disorders-mental health conditions with complex diagnosis and treatment considerations-in elite athletes. Athletes may exhibit greater rates of PTSD (up to 13%-25% in some athlete populations) and other trauma-related disorders relative to the general population. We describe common inciting events leading to symptoms of PTSD in elite athletes, including trauma incurred in sports participation through direct physical injury, secondary/witnessed traumatic events, or abusive dynamics within sports teams. Symptoms of PTSD may significantly impact athletes' psychosocial and sport-related function through avoidance, hypervigilance and dissociative behaviours, which, in turn, may delay recovery from musculoskeletal injury.While PTSD may be common among elite athletes, recognition by providers who do not routinely screen for trauma-related disorders may be challenging because of the tendency of athletes to mask symptoms of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. Early identification of athletes suffering from trauma-related symptoms, including those of acute stress disorder, may prevent progression to PTSD, while treatment of athletes already meeting criteria for PTSD may improve life functioning and sports performance outcomes. Current evidence supports increasing awareness of PTSD in athletes and use of screening tools to identify athletes who may benefit from trauma-informed medical or psychotherapeutic interventions.
Mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes: a systematic review on cultural influencers and barriers to athletes seeking treatment
OBJECTIVE:To summarise the literature on the barriers to athletes seeking mental health treatment and cultural influencers of mental health in elite athletes. DESIGN/METHODS:Systematic review DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, SportDiscus (Ebsco), and PsycINFO (ProQuest) up to November 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES/UNASSIGNED:Qualitative and quantitative original studies of elite athletes (those who competed at the professional, Olympic, or collegiate/university levels), published in any language. RESULTS:Stigma, low mental health literacy, negative past experiences with mental health treatment-seeking, busy schedules, and hypermasculinity are barriers to elite athletes seeking mental health treatment. Cultural influencers of mental health in elite athletes include: (1) the lack of acceptance of women as athletes; (2) lower acceptability of mental health symptoms and disorders among non-white athletes; (3) non-disclosure of religious beliefs; and (4) higher dependence on economic benefits. Coaches have an important role in supporting elite athletes in obtaining treatment for mental illness. Brief anti-stigma interventions in elite athletes decrease stigma and improve literary about mental health. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There is a need for various actors to provide more effective strategies to overcome the stigma that surrounds mental illness, increase mental health literacy in the athlete/coach community, and address athlete-specific barriers to seeking treatment for mental illness. In this systematic review, we identified strategies that, if implemented, can overcome the cultural factors that may otherwise limit athletes seeking treatment. Coaches are critical for promoting a culture within elite athletes' environments that encourages athletes to seek treatment.
Breaking a taboo: why the International Olympic Committee convened experts to develop a consensus statement on mental health in elite athletes [Editorial]
Mental health in elite athletes: International Olympic Committee consensus statement (2019)
Mental health symptoms and disorders are common among elite athletes, may have sport related manifestations within this population and impair performance. Mental health cannot be separated from physical health, as evidenced by mental health symptoms and disorders increasing the risk of physical injury and delaying subsequent recovery. There are no evidence or consensus based guidelines for diagnosis and management of mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes. Diagnosis must differentiate character traits particular to elite athletes from psychosocial maladaptations.Management strategies should address all contributors to mental health symptoms and consider biopsychosocial factors relevant to athletes to maximise benefit and minimise harm. Management must involve both treatment of affected individual athletes and optimising environments in which all elite athletes train and compete. To advance a more standardised, evidence based approach to mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes, an International Olympic Committee Consensus Work Group critically evaluated the current state of science and provided recommendations.
Occurrence of mental health symptoms and disorders in current and former elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To present an overview of the existing epidemiological evidence regarding the occurrence of mental health symptoms and disorders among current and former elite athletes. DESIGN/METHODS:Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:Five electronic databases were searched from inception to November 2018: PubMed (MEDLINE), SportDiscus via EBSCO, PSycINFO via ProQuest, Scopus and Cochrane. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES/UNASSIGNED:We included original quantitative studies that were written in English, were conducted exclusively among current or former elite athletes, and presented incidence or prevalence rates of symptoms of mental disorders. RESULTS:Twenty-two relevant original studies about mental health symptoms and disorders among current elite athletes were included: they presented data especially on symptoms of distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression and alcohol misuse. Meta-analyses comprising 2895 to 5555 current elite athletes showed that the prevalence of mental health symptoms and disorders ranged from 19% for alcohol misuse to 34% for anxiety/depression. Fifteen relevant original studies about mental health symptoms and disorders among former elite athletes were included: they similarly presented data especially about symptoms of distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression and alcohol misuse. Meta-analyses comprising 1579 to 1686 former elite athletes showed that the prevalence of mental health symptoms and disorders ranged from 16% for distress to 26% for anxiety/depression. CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analyses showed that the prevalence of mental health symptoms and disorders ranged from 19% for alcohol misuse to 34% for anxiety/depression for current elite athletes, and from 16% for distress to 26% for anxiety/depression for former elite athletes.