Reproductive Health in Congenital Heart Disease: Preconception, Pregnancy, and Postpartum
The prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnancy is rising due to the improved survival of patients with CHD into childbearing age. The profound physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may worsen or unmask CHD, affecting both mother and fetus. Successful management of CHD during pregnancy requires knowledge of both the physiological changes of pregnancy and the potential complications of congenital heart lesions. Care of the CHD patient should be based on a multidisciplinary team approach beginning with preconception counseling and continuing into conception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods. This review summarizes the published data, available guidelines and recommendations for the care of CHD during pregnancy.
Undiagnosed ventricular septal defect with resultant Eisenmenger syndrome presenting with diplopia [Case Report]
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital heart lesion among children. In most cases, however, it is identified and corrected in childhood, before long-term sequelae such as pulmonary hypertension develop. In this case report, we present a young man with an undiagnosed VSD with consequent Eisenmenger syndrome who initially presented to medical attention with diplopia found to be caused by cerebral infarcts.
Congenital anatomy, acquired pathology - A synergistic approach to echocardiographic evaluation of the adult with congenital heart disease [Comment]
Correlation of MRI premature ventricular contraction activation pattern in bigeminy with electrophysiology study-confirmed site of origin
Although PVCs commonly lead to degraded cine cardiac MRI (CMR), patients with PVCs may have relatively sharp cine images of both normal and ectopic beats ("double beats") when the rhythm during CMR is ventricular bigeminy, and only one beat of the pair is detected for gating. MRI methods for directly imaging premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are not yet widely available. Localization of PVC site of origin with images may be helpful in planning ablations. The contraction pattern of the PVCs in bigeminy provides a "natural experiment" for investigating the potential utility of PVC imaging for localization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of the visually assessed site of the initial contraction of the ectopic beats with the site of origin found by electroanatomic mapping. Images from 7 of 86 consecutive patients who underwent CMR prior to PVC ablation were found to include clear cine images of bigeminy. The visually apparent site of origin of the ectopic contraction was determined by three experienced, blinded CMR readers and correlated with each other, and with PVC site of origin determined by 3D electroanatomic mapping during catheter ablation. Blinded ascertainment of visually apparent initial contraction pattern for PVC localization was within 2 wall segments of PVC origin by 3D electroanatomic mapping 76% of the time. Our data from patients with PVCs with clear images of the ectopic beats when in bigeminy provide proof-of-concept that CMR ectopic beat contraction patterns analysis may provide a novel method for localizing PVC origin prior to ablation procedures. Direct imaging of PVCs with use of newer cardiac imaging methods, even without the presence of bigeminy, may thus provide valuable data for procedural planning.
Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia: A Very Rare Congenital Anomaly Characterized by Multimodality Imaging and Invasive Testing
Adherence and Exercise Capacity Improvements of Patients With Adult Congenital Heart Disease Participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation
Background As the number of adults with congenital heart disease increases because of therapeutic advances, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is increasingly being used in this population after cardiac procedures or for reduced exercise tolerance. We aim to describe the adherence and exercise capacity improvements of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) in CR. Methods and Results This retrospective study included patients with ACHD in CR at New York University Langone Rusk Rehabilitation from 2013 to 2020. We collected data on patient characteristics, number of sessions attended, and functional testing results. Pre-CR and post-CR metabolic equivalent task, exercise time, and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. In total, 89 patients with ACHD (mean age, 39.0â€‰years; 54.0% women) participated in CR. Referral indications were reduced exercise tolerance for 42.7% and post-cardiac procedure (transcatheter or surgical) for the remainder. Mean number of sessions attended was 24.2, and 42 participants (47.2%) completed all 36 CR sessions. Among participants who completed the program as well as pre-CR and post-CR functional testing, metabolic equivalent task increased by 1.3 (95% CI, 0.7-1.9; baseline mean, 8.1), exercise time increased by 66.4â€‰seconds (95% CI, 21.4-111.4â€‰seconds; baseline mean, 536.1â€‰seconds), and maximal oxygen uptake increased by 2.5â€‰mL/kg per minute (95% CI, 0.7-4.2â€‰mL/kg per minute; baseline mean, 20.2â€‰mL/kg per minute). Conclusions On average, patients with ACHD who completed CR experienced improvements in exercise capacity. Efforts to increase adherence would allow more patients with ACHD to benefit.
Biatrial drainage of right superior vena cava with left superior vena cava: A diagnostic conundrum [Case Report]
Multivalvular Endocarditis With Abscess: A Wild Goose Chase
We report a case of Streptococcus mutans multivalvular infective endocarditis complicated by aortic root abscess and septic emboli in a 19-year-old male with a bicuspid aortic valve. This case illustrates the progression of untreated subacute bacterial endocarditis and highlights the importance of ongoing clinical suspicion for infective endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular defects.
Isolated Anomalous Right Superior Pulmonary Venous Return to the Inferior Vena Cava [Case Report]
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare congenital abnormality. We present images from an atypical case of isolated anomalous right superior pulmonary venous return to the inferior vena cava without other cardiac abnormalities.
Multimodality Imaging of Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect: A Challenging Diagnosis in Adults [Case Report]