Adherence and Exercise Capacity Improvements of Patients With Adult Congenital Heart Disease Participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation
Background As the number of adults with congenital heart disease increases because of therapeutic advances, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is increasingly being used in this population after cardiac procedures or for reduced exercise tolerance. We aim to describe the adherence and exercise capacity improvements of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) in CR. Methods and Results This retrospective study included patients with ACHD in CR at New York University Langone Rusk Rehabilitation from 2013 to 2020. We collected data on patient characteristics, number of sessions attended, and functional testing results. Pre-CR and post-CR metabolic equivalent task, exercise time, and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. In total, 89 patients with ACHD (mean age, 39.0â€‰years; 54.0% women) participated in CR. Referral indications were reduced exercise tolerance for 42.7% and post-cardiac procedure (transcatheter or surgical) for the remainder. Mean number of sessions attended was 24.2, and 42 participants (47.2%) completed all 36 CR sessions. Among participants who completed the program as well as pre-CR and post-CR functional testing, metabolic equivalent task increased by 1.3 (95% CI, 0.7-1.9; baseline mean, 8.1), exercise time increased by 66.4â€‰seconds (95% CI, 21.4-111.4â€‰seconds; baseline mean, 536.1â€‰seconds), and maximal oxygen uptake increased by 2.5â€‰mL/kg per minute (95% CI, 0.7-4.2â€‰mL/kg per minute; baseline mean, 20.2â€‰mL/kg per minute). Conclusions On average, patients with ACHD who completed CR experienced improvements in exercise capacity. Efforts to increase adherence would allow more patients with ACHD to benefit.
Biatrial drainage of right superior vena cava with left superior vena cava: A diagnostic conundrum [Case Report]
Multivalvular Endocarditis With Abscess: A Wild Goose Chase
We report a case of Streptococcus mutans multivalvular infective endocarditis complicated by aortic root abscess and septic emboli in a 19-year-old male with a bicuspid aortic valve. This case illustrates the progression of untreated subacute bacterial endocarditis and highlights the importance of ongoing clinical suspicion for infective endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular defects.
Isolated Anomalous Right Superior Pulmonary Venous Return to the Inferior Vena Cava [Case Report]
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare congenital abnormality. We present images from an atypical case of isolated anomalous right superior pulmonary venous return to the inferior vena cava without other cardiac abnormalities.
Multimodality Imaging of Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect: A Challenging Diagnosis in Adults [Case Report]
Response to Letter to the Editor: Multimodality Imaging of Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect: A Challenging Diagnosis in Adults
Correlation of MRI premature ventricular contraction activation pattern in bigeminy with electrophysiology study-confirmed site of origin
Although PVCs commonly lead to degraded cine cardiac MRI (CMR), patients with PVCs may have relatively sharp cine images of both normal and ectopic beats ("double beats") when the rhythm during CMR is ventricular bigeminy, and only one beat of the pair is detected for gating. MRI methods for directly imaging premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are not yet widely available. Localization of PVC site of origin with images may be helpful in planning ablations. The contraction pattern of the PVCs in bigeminy provides a "natural experiment" for investigating the potential utility of PVC imaging for localization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of the visually assessed site of the initial contraction of the ectopic beats with the site of origin found by electroanatomic mapping. Images from 7 of 86 consecutive patients who underwent CMR prior to PVC ablation were found to include clear cine images of bigeminy. The visually apparent site of origin of the ectopic contraction was determined by three experienced, blinded CMR readers and correlated with each other, and with PVC site of origin determined by 3D electroanatomic mapping during catheter ablation. Blinded ascertainment of visually apparent initial contraction pattern for PVC localization was within 2 wall segments of PVC origin by 3D electroanatomic mapping 76% of the time. Our data from patients with PVCs with clear images of the ectopic beats when in bigeminy provide proof-of-concept that CMR ectopic beat contraction patterns analysis may provide a novel method for localizing PVC origin prior to ablation procedures. Direct imaging of PVCs with use of newer cardiac imaging methods, even without the presence of bigeminy, may thus provide valuable data for procedural planning.
Emotions, Perceptions and Health Behaviors of Adult Congenital Heart Disease Patients during COVID-19 in New York City
Background: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) have increased prevalence of mood and anxiety dis-orders. There are limited data regarding the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and health behaviors of these patients. Objective: The purpose is to evaluate the perceptions, emotions, and health behaviors of ACHD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of ACHD patients, we administered surveys evaluating self-reported emotions, perceptions and health behaviors. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the adjusted odds of displaying each perception, emotion and health behavior based on predictor variables. Results: Ninety-seven patients (mean age 38.3 years, 46.4% female, 85.6% moderate or complex lesion) completed the survey. The majority of patients reported feeling moderately or very sad (63.1%), and 48.4% of patients identified themselves as feeling moderately or very anxious. The majority of patients perceived their risk of COVID-19 as moderate or high. Females were more likely to report feeling sad and anxious (95% CI 1.06"“10.96, p-value 0.039, and 95% CI 1.44"“15.30, p-value = 0.012, respectively), and were associated with higher odds of having a perceived increased risk of COVID-19 (95% CI 1.33"“10.59, p-value 0.012). There was no association between ACHD anatomic or physiologic classification and perceptions, emotions and health behaviors. Conclusions: Females were more likely to report feeling sad, anxious and an increased risk of COVID-19 in comparison to males. These findings indicate the need for mental health support and promotion of health behaviors during the pandemic amongst all ACHD patients, regardless of underlying condition.
Short-Segment Type B Interrupted Aortic Arch Presenting With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage With Subsequent Primary Percutaneous Repair
This report describes a young adult man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to an intracranial aneurysm who was found to have a short-segment type B interrupted aortic arch. We describe the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of this patient and highlight imaging findings and percutaneous repair of the aneurysm and interrupted aortic arch. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).
Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis resulting in haemoptysis: a case series [Case Report]
Background/UNASSIGNED:Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an infrequent complication of atrial fibrillation ablation that is often misdiagnosed due to predominant respiratory symptoms. It can result in pulmonary venous hypertension, with varying presentations, ranging from shortness of breath to haemoptysis. Case summary/UNASSIGNED:We report two patients with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treated with radiofrequency ablation and pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, who subsequently developed PVS. Case 1 initially presented with indolent symptoms of shortness of breath and cough. He was initially diagnosed with and treated for pneumonia. In contrast, Case 2 presented with massive haemoptysis, requiring intubation and intensive care unit admission. Both patients were eventually diagnosed with PVS by computed tomography. They were treated with PV angioplasty and stenting. Discussion/UNASSIGNED:While previously limited to the congenital heart disease population, PVS is occurring more frequently now in adult patients as a complication of ablation procedures. It is most effectively treated with angioplasty and stent implantation but has a high rate of recurrence.