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Heart Failure Risk Associated With Severity of Modifiable Heart Failure Risk Factors: The ARIC Study [Letter]

Hamo, Carine E; Kwak, Lucia; Wang, Dan; Florido, Roberta; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Blumenthal, Roger S; Loehr, Laura; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Nambi, Vijay; Ballantyne, Christie M; Selvin, Elizabeth; Folsom, Aaron R; Heiss, Gerardo; Coresh, Josef; Ndumele, Chiadi E
PMID: 35156388
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5266942

Duration of Diabetes and Incident Heart Failure: The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Study

Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Zhang, Sui; Florido, Roberta; Hamo, Carine; Pankow, James S; Michos, Erin D; Goldberg, Ronald B; Nambi, Vijay; Gerstenblith, Gary; Post, Wendy S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ballantyne, Christie M; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth; Ndumele, Chiadi E
OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the association of diabetes duration with incident heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND:Diabetes increases HF risk. However, the independent effect of diabetes duration on incident HF is unknown. METHODS: ≥7%), with tests for interaction. RESULTS:, women, and Blacks (all P interactions <0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Delaying diabetes onset may augment HF prevention efforts, and therapies to improve HF outcomes might target those with long diabetes duration.
PMID: 34325890
ISSN: 2213-1787
CID: 5266922

Cardiometabolic Comorbidity Burden and Circulating Biomarkers in Patients with Chronic Coronary Disease in the ISCHEMIA Trials

Hamo, Carine E; Liu, Richard; Wu, Wenbo; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Bangalore, Sripal; Held, Claes; Kullo, Ifitkhar; Mavromatis, Kreton; McManus, Bruce; Newby, L Kristin; Reynolds, Harmony R; Ruggles, Kelly V; Wallentin, Lars; Maron, David J; Hochman, Judith S; Newman, Jonathan D; Berger, Jeffrey S; ,
Cardiometabolic comorbidities, diabetes (DM), hypertension (HTN), and obesity, contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating biomarkers facilitate prognostication for patients with CVD. We explored the relationship between cardiometabolic comorbidity burden in patients with chronic coronary disease (CCD) and biomarkers of myocardial stretch, injury, inflammation, and platelet activity. We analyzed participants from the ISCHEMIA Trials biorepository with plasma biomarkers (NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, hs-CRP, IL-6, sCD40L, and GDF-15) and clinical risk factors [hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and body mass index (BMI)] at baseline. We defined cardiometabolic comorbidities as DM, HTN, and obesity at baseline. Comorbidity burden characterized by number and severity of comorbidities. Controlled comorbidities were defined as HbA1c <7% for those with DM, SBP <130 mmHg for those with HTN and BMI <30 kg/m2. Severely uncontrolled was defined as HbA1c ≥8%, SBP ≥160 mmHg, and BMI ≥35 kg/m2. We performed linear regression analyses to examine the association between comorbidity burden and log-transformed biomarker levels adjusting for age, sex, eGFR controlled for hemodialysis, and left ventricular ejection fraction. A total of 752 individuals (mean age 66, 19% female, 84% white) were included in this analysis. Self-reported Black race, current smokers, history of MI and HF had greater cardiometabolic comorbidity burden. The presence of ≥ 1 severely uncontrolled comorbidity was associated with significantly higher baseline levels of hs-cTnT, hs-CRP, IL-6, and GDF-15 compared to participants with no comorbidities. In conclusion, increasing cardiometabolic comorbidity burden in patients with CCD is associated with higher levels of circulating biomarkers of myocardial injury and inflammation.
PMID: 38844195
ISSN: 1879-1913
CID: 5665722

Association between visit frequency, continuity of care, and pharmacy fill adherence in heart failure patients

Hamo, Carine E; Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Li, Xiyue; Zheng, Yaguang; Kronish, Ian M; Chunara, Rumi; Dodson, John; Adhikari, Samrachana; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Despite advances in medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), major gaps in medication adherence to guideline-directed medical therapies (GDMT) remain. Greater continuity of care may impact medication adherence and reduced hospitalizations. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults with a diagnosis of HF and EF ≤40% with ≥2 outpatient encounters between January 1, 2017 and January 10, 2021, prescribed ≥1 of the following GDMT: 1) Beta Blocker, 2) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor, 3) Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist, 4) Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor. Continuity of care was calculated using the Bice-Boxerman Continuity of Care Index (COC) and the Usual Provider of Care (UPC) index, categorized by quantile. The primary outcome was adherence to GDMT, defined as average proportion of days covered ≥80% over 1 year. Secondary outcomes included all-cause and HF hospitalization at 1-year. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics, insurance status, comorbidity index, number of visits and neighborhood SES index. RESULTS:Overall, 3,971 individuals were included (mean age 72 years (SD 14), 71% male, 66% White race). In adjusted analyses, compared to individuals in the highest COC quartile, individuals in the third COC quartile had higher odds of GDMT adherence (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.53, P = .024). UPC tertile was not associated with adherence (all P > .05). Compared to the highest quantiles, the lowest UPC and COC quantiles had higher odds of all-cause (UPC: OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.23-1.91; COC: OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.94-3.34) and HF (UPC: OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.23-2.67; COC: OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.09-2.95) hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS:Continuity of care was not associated with GDMT adherence among patients with HFrEF but lower continuity of care was associated with increased all-cause and HF-hospitalizations.
PMID: 38621576
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5657402

Burden of cardiometabolic risk factors and vascular health

Hamo, Carine E; Schlamp, Florencia; Drenkova, Kamelia; Jindal, Manila; Fadzan, Maja; Akinlonu, Adedoyin; Goldberg, Ira; Garshick, Michael S; Berger, Jeffrey S
BACKGROUND:Cardiometabolic risk factors diabetes, obesity, and hypertension are highly prevalent and contribute to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial dysfunction precedes CVD development. The current study aimed to investigate the EC transcriptome among individuals with varying degree of cardiometabolic risk. METHODS:Adult participants without CVD and various degrees of cardiometabolic risk factor burden (hypertension, diabetes, obesity) were included. Participants underwent brachial vein EC harvesting followed by RNA sequencing. To evaluate the association between cardiometabolic comorbidity burden and outcome transcripts we performed linear regression with multivariable models, adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:A total of 18 individuals were included in the present analysis (mean age 47 ± 14, 44% female, and 61% White adults). Endothelial cell RNA sequencing revealed 588 differentially expressed transcripts (p-adj <0.05) with excellent discrimination in unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed upregulated pathways associated with T-cell activation (NES = 2.22, p<0.001), leukocyte differentiation (NES= 2.16, p<0.001), leukocyte migration (NES= 2.12, p<0.001), regulation of cell-cell adhesion (NES= 1.91, p=0.006). Downregulated pathways of interest included endothelial cell proliferation (NES= -1.68, p=0.03) and response to interleukin-1 (NES= -1.61, p=0.04). Upregulated genes included VCAM1, CEACAM1, ADAM 17, and CD99L2, all with a log-2-fold change >3 and p-adj <0.05. These genes demonstrated a graded increase in mean normalized counts with increasing number of risk factors. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate a proinflammatory and pro-adhesive EC transcriptome associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factor burden offering insight into a potential mechanism linking these risk factors with the development of CVD.
PMID: 38199832
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5633802

Standardized Definitions for Evaluation of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Therapies: HF-ARC Expert Panel Paper

Lala, Anuradha; Hamo, Carine E; Bozkurt, Biykem; Fiuzat, Mona; Blumer, Vanessa; Bukhoff, Daniel; Butler, Javed; Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Felker, G Michael; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Konstam, Marvin A; McMurray, John J V; Mentz, Robert J; Metra, Marco; Psotka, Mitchell A; Solomon, Scott D; Teerlink, John; Abraham, William T; O'Connor, Christopher M; ,
Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is one of the most common reasons for hospitalizations or urgent care and is associated with poor outcomes. Therapies shown to improve outcomes are limited, however, and innovation in pharmacologic and device-based therapeutics are therefore actively being sought. Standardizing definitions for ADHF and its trajectory is complex, limiting the generalizability and translation of clinical trials to effect clinical care and policy change. The Heart Failure Collaboratory is a multi-stakeholder organization comprising clinical investigators, clinicians, patients, government representatives (including U.S. Food and Drug Administration and National Institutes of Health participants), payors, and industry collaborators. The following expert consensus document is the product of the Heart Failure Collaboratory convening with the Academic Research Consortium, including members from academia, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and industry, for the purposes of proposing standardized definitions for ADHF and highlighting important endpoint considerations to inform the design and conduct of clinical trials for drugs and devices in this clinical arena.
PMID: 38069997
ISSN: 2213-1787
CID: 5589772

Diabetes Duration and Subclinical Myocardial Injury: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

Hamo, Carine E; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Zhang, Sui; Florido, Roberta; Pankow, James S; Michos, Erin D; Goldberg, Ronald; Nambi, Vijay; Gerstenblith, Gary; Post, Wendy S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ballantyne, Christie; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef; Ndumele, Chiadi E
BACKGROUND:Diabetes exerts adverse effects on the heart, and a longer diabetes duration is associated with greater heart failure risk. We studied diabetes duration and subclinical myocardial injury, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT). METHODS:We analyzed 9052 participants without heart failure or coronary heart disease (mean age 63 years, 58% female, 21% Black, 15% with diabetes) at The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) Visit 4 (1996 to 1998). Diabetes duration was calculated based on diabetes status at Visits 1 (1987 to 1989) through 4, or using self-reported age of diabetes diagnosis prior to Visit 1. We used multinomial logistic regression to determine the association of diabetes duration with increased (≥14 ng/L) or detectable (≥6 ng/L) Visit 4 hs-cTnT, relative to undetectable hs-cTnT, adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS:The prevalence of increased Visit 4 hs-cTnT was higher in persons with longer diabetes duration, from 12% for those with diabetes 0 to <5 years up to 31% among those with diabetes for ≥15 years (P for trend <0.0001). New onset diabetes at Visit 4 was associated with 1.92× higher relative risk (95% CI, 1.27-2.91) of increased hs-cTnT than no diabetes. Longer diabetes duration was associated with greater myocardial injury, with duration ≥15 years associated with 9.29× higher risk (95% CI, 5.65-15.29) for increased hs-cTnT and 2.07× (95% CI, 1.24-3.16) for detectable hs-cTnT, compared to no diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:Longer diabetes duration is strongly associated with subclinical myocardial injury. Interventional studies are needed to assess whether the prevention and delay of diabetes onset can mitigate early myocardial damage.
PMID: 35904048
ISSN: 1530-8561
CID: 5586742

Sex Differences in Heart Failure

Lala, Anuradha; Tayal, Upasana; Hamo, Carine E; Youmans, Quentin; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Bozkurt, Biykem; Davis, Melinda B; Januzzi, James; Mentz, Robert; Sauer, Andrew; Walsh, Mary Norine; Yancy, Clyde; Gulati, Martha
Heart failure (HF) continues to be a major contributor of morbidity and mortality for men and women alike, yet how the predisposition for, course and management of HF differ between men and women remains underexplored. Sex differences in traditional risk factors as well as sex-specific risk factors influence the prevalence and manifestation of HF in unique ways. The pathophysiology of HF differs between men and women and may explain sex-specific differences in clinical presentation and diagnosis. This in turn, contributes to variation in response to both pharmacologic and device/surgical therapy. This review examines sex-specific differences in HF spanning prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, presentation, and therapies with a specific focus on highlighting gaps in knowledge with calls to action for future research efforts.
PMID: 34774749
ISSN: 1532-8414
CID: 5234622

Optimal Background Pharmacological Therapy for Heart Failure Patients in Clinical Trials: JACC Review Topic of the Week

Fiuzat, Mona; Hamo, Carine E; Butler, Javed; Abraham, William T; DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Fonarow, Gregg C; Lindenfeld, Joann; Mentz, Robert J; Psotka, Mitchell A; Solomon, Scott D; Teerlink, John R; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Vardeny, Orly; McMurray, John J V; O'Connor, Christopher M
With the current landscape of approved therapies for heart failure (HF), there is a need to determine the role of a standard background therapy against which novel therapies are studied. The Heart Failure Collaboratory convened a multistakeholder group of clinical investigators, clinicians, patients, government representatives including U.S. Food and Drug Administration and National Institutes of Health participants, payers, and industry in March 2021 to discuss whether standardization of background drug therapy is necessary in clinical trials in patients with HF. The current paper summarizes the discussion and provides potential conceptual approaches, with a focus on therapies indicated for HF with reduced ejection fraction.
PMID: 35115106
ISSN: 1558-3597
CID: 5266932


Hamo, Carine; Zhang, Sui; Wang, Dan; Florido, Roberta; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Loehr, Laura; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Nambi, Vijay; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heiss, Gerardo; Coresh, Josef; Ndumele, Chiadi E.
ISSN: 0735-1097
CID: 5267442