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Emerging diagnostic methods and imaging modalities in cushing's syndrome

Wright, Kyla; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Zan, Elcin; Werner, Nicole; Harris, Alan; Feelders, Richard A; Agrawal, Nidhi
Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease characterized by prolonged glucocorticoid excess. Timely diagnosis is critical to allow prompt treatment and limit long-term disease morbidity and risk for mortality. Traditional biochemical diagnostic modalities each have limitations and sensitivities and specificities that vary significantly with diagnostic cutoff values. Biochemical evaluation is particularly complex in patients whose hypercortisolemia fluctuates daily, often requiring repetition of tests to confirm or exclude disease, and when delineating CS from physiologic, nonneoplastic states of hypercortisolism. Lastly, traditional pituitary MRI may be negative in up to 60% of patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (termed "Cushing's disease" [CD]) whereas false positive pituitary MRI findings may exist in patients with ectopic ACTH secretion. Thus, differentiating CD from ectopic ACTH secretion may necessitate dynamic testing or even invasive procedures such as bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling. Newer methods may relieve some of the diagnostic uncertainty in CS, providing a more definitive diagnosis prior to subjecting patients to additional imaging or invasive procedures. For example, a novel method of cortisol measurement in patients with CS is scalp hair analysis, a non-invasive method yielding cortisol and cortisone values representing long-term glucocorticoid exposure of the past months. Hair cortisol and cortisone have both shown to differentiate between CS patients and controls with a high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, advances in imaging techniques may enhance detection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. While conventional pituitary MRI may fail to identify microadenomas in patients with CD, high-resolution 3T-MRI with 3D-spoiled gradient-echo sequence has thinner sections and superior soft-tissue contrast that can detect adenomas as small as 2 mm. Similarly, functional imaging may improve the identification of ACTH-secreting adenomas noninvasively; Gallium-68-tagged corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) combined with PET-CT can be used to detect CRH receptors, which are upregulated on corticotroph adenomas. This technique can delineate functionality of adenomas in patients with CD from patients with ectopic ACTH secretion and false positive pituitary lesions on MRI. Here, we review emerging methods and imaging modalities for the diagnosis of CS, discussing their diagnostic accuracy, strengths and limitations, and applicability to clinical practice.
PMID: 37560300
ISSN: 1664-2392
CID: 5591832

Radioligand Theranostics in the Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Harris, Alan G; Vinik, Aaron I; OʼDorisio, Thomas M; OʼDorisio, M Sue
PMID: 32433395
ISSN: 1536-4828
CID: 4446872

Evolution of Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy

O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Harris, Alan G; O'Dorisio, M Sue
To better understand developments in treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system, and the pivotal roles of native somatostatin and its long-acting analogues play in normal peptide regulation and neuropeptide excess associated with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), this article delineates and defines distinct eras in the history and discovery of gastrointestinal endocrinology. We highlight the collaboration between academia and industry in basic science and the clinical research that advanced Lu-177-DOTATATE to approval as standard of care therapy for low-grade NETs. Examples of new radioisotopes and therapy compounds currently in development for diagnosis and therapy for high-grade NETs are also discussed.
PMID: 32151353
ISSN: 1558-5042
CID: 4349642

Bone mineral density response rates are greater in patients treated with abaloparatide compared with those treated with placebo or teriparatide: Results from the ACTIVE phase 3 trial

Miller, P D; Hattersley, G; Lau, E; Fitzpatrick, L A; Harris, A G; Williams, G C; Hu, M-Y; Riis, B J; Russo, L; Christiansen, C
BACKGROUND:Abaloparatide is a 34-amino acid peptide that selectively binds to the RG conformation of the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1. It was developed for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk of fracture. In ACTIVE, an 18-month phase 3 study (NCT01343004), abaloparatide increased bone mineral density (BMD), decreased the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures compared with placebo, and decreased the risk of major osteoporotic fractures compared with placebo and teriparatide. Here, we report a prospective, exploratory BMD responder analysis from ACTIVE. METHODS:Proportions of patients experiencing BMD gains from baseline of >0%, >3%, and >6% at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine at 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment were compared among the placebo, abaloparatide, and teriparatide groups in ACTIVE. Responders were defined prospectively as patients experiencing BMD gains at all 3 anatomic sites. RESULTS:At months 6, 12, and 18, there were significantly more >3% BMD responders in the abaloparatide group compared with placebo and teriparatide: month 6, 19.1% vs 0.9% for placebo and 6.5% for teriparatide; month 12, 33.2% vs 1.5% and 19.8%; month 18, 44.5% vs 1.9% and 32.0% (P < 0.001 for all comparisons of abaloparatide to placebo and to teriparatide). Findings were similar for the >0% and >6% responder thresholds. CONCLUSIONS:In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, a significantly greater proportion of patients treated with abaloparatide experienced increases in BMD than did those treated with placebo or teriparatide.
PMID: 30359763
ISSN: 1873-2763
CID: 3386082

Sensitive quantification of the somatostatin analog AP102 in plasma by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats

Eugster, Philippe J; Boyle, Christina N; Prod'hom, Sylvain; Tarasco, Erika; Buclin, Thierry; Lutz, Thomas A; Harris, Alan G; Grouzmann, Eric
AP102 is a di-iodinated octapeptide somatostatin agonist (SSA) designed to treat acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. A sensitive and selective method was validated for the quantification of AP102 in plasma following the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. Sample preparation was performed using solid-phase extraction microplates. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) C18 column in 6.0 minutes. The compounds were quantified using multiple reaction monitoring on a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer with 13 C,15 N-labeled AP102 as internal standard. Calibration ranged from 50 to 10000 pg/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was measured at 20 pg/mL, and robust analytical performances were obtained with trueness at 99.2%-100.0%, intra-assay imprecision at 2.5%-4.4%, and inter-assay imprecision at 8.9%-9.7%. The accuracy profiles (total error) built on the 3 concentrations levels showed accuracy within the 70%-130% range. AP102 is remarkably stable since no proteolytic fragments were detected on plasma samples analyzed by Orbitrap-MS. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rats, after single dose (1, 3, and 10 μg/kg, sc) and continuous subcutaneous administration (osmotic minipumps for 28 days, 3.0 or 10.0 μg/kg/h). AP102 showed a rapid absorption by the subcutaneous route (Tmax : 15-30 minutes) and a fast elimination (t1/2 : 33-86 minutes). The PK profile of AP102 exhibited a mean clearance of 1.67 L/h and a mean distribution volume at steady state of 7.16 L/kg, about 10-fold higher than those observed with other SSA or non- and mono-iodinated AP102. LogD7.4 determination confirmed the lipophilic properties of AP102 that might influence its distribution in tissues.
PMID: 29745052
ISSN: 1942-7611
CID: 4192162

Cellular effects of AP102, a somatostatin analog with balanced affinities for the hSSTR2 and hSSTR5 receptors

Streuli, Jeremy; Harris, Alan G; Cottiny, Cecilia; Allagnat, Florent; Daly, Adrian F; Grouzmann, Eric; Abid, Karim
BACKGROUND:Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are first-line medical therapy for the treatment of acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors that express somatostatin receptors (SSTR). Somatostatin suppresses secretion of a large number of hormones through the stimulation of the five SSTR. However, unbalanced inhibition of secretion as observed with the highly potent SSAs pasireotide causes hyperglycaemia mainly by inhibiting insulin secretion. In contrast, AP102 a new SSAs has neutral effect on blood glucose while suppressing GH secretion. Our objective was to establish the cellular effects of AP102 on SSTR2 and SSTR5 that may explain the differences observed between AP102 and other SSAs. METHODS:I- somatostatin-14. RESULTS:AP102 has comparable affinity and agonist effect to octreotide at SSTR2 (IC50's of 112 pM and 244 pM, respectively; EC50's of 230 pM and 210 pM, respectively) in contrast to pasireotide that exhibits a 12-27 fold higher IC50 (3110 pM) and about 5-fold higher EC50 (1097 pM). At SSTR5, AP102 has much higher affinity and stimulating effect than octreotide (IC50's of 773 pM and 16,737 pM, respectively; EC50's of 8526 pM and 26,800 pM), and an intermediate affinity and agonist effect between octreotide and pasireotide. AP102, octreotide and pasireotide have variable anti-proliferative effects on HEK cells transfected with SSTR2 and SSTR5. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:AP102 is a new SSA that better reduces signaling at SSTR2 than SSTR5 and prevents cell proliferation at both receptors. The euglycaemic effect of AP102 observed in preclinical studies may be related to this intermediate agonistic potency between pasireotide and octreotide at SSTR2 and SSTR5.
PMID: 29523357
ISSN: 1532-2785
CID: 4192152

Effect of AP102, a subtype 2 and 5 specific somatostatin analog, on glucose metabolism in rats

Tarasco, Erika; Seebeck, Petra; Pfundstein, Svende; Daly, Adrian F; Eugster, Philippe J; Harris, Alan G; Grouzmann, Eric; Lutz, Thomas A; Boyle, Christina N
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Somatostatin analogs are widely used to treat conditions associated with hormonal hypersecretion such as acromegaly and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. First generation somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide and lanreotide, have high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), but have incomplete efficacy in many patients. Pasireotide targets multiple SSTRs, having the highest affinity for SSTR5, but causes hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in preclinical and clinical studies. AP102 is a new somatostatin analogs with high affinity at both SSTR2 and SSTR5. We aimed to characterize the effects of AP102 vs. pasireotide on random and dynamic glucose levels, glucoregulatory hormone concentrations and growth axis measures in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS:Three doses of each compound were evaluated under acute conditions (1, 10, and 30 µg/kg s.c.), and two doses during a chronic (4-week) infusion (3 and 10 µg/kg/h s.c.). RESULTS:Neither acute nor chronic AP102 administration altered blood glucose concentrations or dynamic responses following an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In contrast, acute and chronic pasireotide dosing increased random and post-intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test blood glucose measures, compared to vehicle-treated controls. Both AP102 and pasireotide acutely suppressed growth hormone levels, although insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatic growth was suppressed to a greater extent with pasireotide. CONCLUSIONS:AP102 is a new dual SSTR2/SSTR5-specific somatostatin analog that acutely reduces growth hormone but does not cause hyperglycemia during acute or chronic administration in a healthy rat model. Further studies in diabetic animals and in humans are necessary to determine the potential utility of AP102 in the clinical setting.
PMID: 28822091
ISSN: 1559-0100
CID: 4192122

Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness

Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L
Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung.
PMID: 24520532
ISSN: 2220-315x
CID: 1410022

A comparison of stem cells for therapeutic use

Rodgerson, Denis O; Harris, Alan G
A critical comparison of the attributes of several types of stem cells is presented, with particular emphasis on properties that are critical for the application of these cells for therapeutic purposes. The importance of an autologous source of pluripotent stem cells is stressed. It is apparent that two sources currently exist for non-embryonic pluripotent stem cells--very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). The impact of the emerging iPS research on therapy is considered.
PMID: 21365257
ISSN: 1550-8943
CID: 1410032

Effects of GH on cognitive function in elderly patients with adult-onset GH deficiency: a placebo-controlled 12-month study

Sathiavageeswaran, Mahesh; Burman, Pia; Lawrence, David; Harris, Alan G; Falleti, Marina G; Maruff, Paul; Wass, John
OBJECTIVE: Young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced memory and attention, which can be improved by treatment with GH. Little information is available on cognitive function in elderly GHD patients. DESIGN: Single center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 52-week duration. METHODS: Elderly GH therapy naive GHD patients (n=34; age range 60-77 years) were enrolled and randomized to receive placebo or GH therapy which was titrated to achieve a target IGF-I level of +1 to +2 s.d. of the normal mean for age. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 24 and 52 weeks, using a computerized psychometric test package (Neurobehavioral Examination System-2). RESULTS: The mean GH dose was 0.16+/-0.06 mg/day; mean IGF-I increased from 135+/-59 ng/ml at baseline to 213+/-77 ng/ml during active treatment. The GH-treated group had better mean serial digit learning scores compared with placebo group (P<0.05). Assessment of effect sizes showed that improvements in memory occurred with GH after 24 weeks. The overall adverse event rates were similar in the GH and the placebo group. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that GH replacement may be accompanied by improvement in certain measures of cognitive function in elderly patients with GHD.
PMID: 17389458
ISSN: 0804-4643
CID: 642052