Assisted Reproductive Technology Outcomes in Women With Heart Disease
Background/UNASSIGNED:Women with infertility and heart disease (HD) are increasingly seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART). There is only one other study that examines the safety profile of ART in this population. This study aims to evaluate the cardiac, reproductive, and obstetric outcomes of ART in women with HD. Methods/UNASSIGNED:fertilization (IVF), oocyte cryopreservation (OC) or embryo banking (EB) with HD were included. Cases were matched 3:1 with age-, cycle type- and cycle start date- matched controls without HD. Outcomes included cardiovascular (CV), reproductive, and obstetric complications during or following ART. Results/UNASSIGNED:Twenty women with HD were included. 15 (75%) had congenital HD, 1 (5%) had valvular disease, 1 (5%) had acquired cardiomyopathy, and 3 (15%) had arrhythmias. 90% were New York Heart Association class I. 55% of HD cases were modified WHO (mWHO) risk classification 1-2, 40% were mWHO 2-3 or 3, 5% were mWHO 4. Cases underwent 25 IVF, 5 OC, and 5 EB cycles and were compared with 79 controls who underwent 174 cycles. No CV complications or deaths occurred amongst cases following ART or pregnancy. There was no difference in risk of ART or obstetric outcomes amongst cases versus controls. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:For women with HD in this small, low -risk cohort, ART posed few risks that were similar in frequency to healthy controls.
Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Determine Underlying Causes of MINOCA in Women
Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in 6-15% of MI and disproportionately affects women. Scientific statements recommend multi-modality imaging in MINOCA to define the underlying cause. We performed coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess mechanisms of MINOCA. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, international, observational study, we enrolled women with a clinical diagnosis of MI. If invasive coronary angiography revealed <50% stenosis in all major arteries, multi-vessel OCT was performed, followed by CMR (cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging and/or T1 mapping). Angiography, OCT, and CMR were evaluated at blinded, independent core laboratories. Culprit lesions identified by OCT were classified as definite or possible. The CMR core laboratory identified ischemia-related and non-ischemic myocardial injury. Imaging results were combined to determine the mechanism of MINOCA, when possible. Results: Among 301 women enrolled at 16 sites, 170 were diagnosed with MINOCA, of whom 145 had adequate OCT image quality for analysis; 116 of these underwent CMR. A definite or possible culprit lesion was identified by OCT in 46.2% (67/145) of participants, most commonly plaque rupture, intra-plaque cavity or layered plaque. CMR was abnormal in 74.1% (86/116) of participants. An ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (infarction or myocardial edema in a coronary territory) was present in 53.4% of participants undergoing CMR (62/116). A non-ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy) was present in 20.7% (24/116). A cause of MINOCA was identified in 84.5% of the women with multi-modality imaging (98/116), higher than with OCT alone (p<0.001) or CMR alone (p=0.001). An ischemic etiology was identified in 63.8% of women with MINOCA (74/116), a non-ischemic etiology was identified in 20.7% (24/116), and no mechanism was identified in 15.5% (18/116). Conclusions: Multi-modality imaging with coronary OCT and CMR identified potential mechanisms in 84.5% of women with a diagnosis of MINOCA, three-quarters of which were ischemic and one-quarter of which were non-ischemic, alternate diagnoses to MI. Identification of the etiology of MINOCA is feasible and has the potential to guide medical therapy for secondary prevention. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02905357.
Myocarditis in Relation to Angiographic Findings in Patients With Provisional Diagnoses of MINOCA
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myocarditis among patients presenting with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) in relation to the angiographic severity of nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND:MINOCA represents about 6% of all cases of acute myocardial infarction. Myocarditis is a diagnosis that may be identified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with a provisional diagnosis of MINOCA. METHODS:A systematic review was performed to identify studies reporting the results of CMR findings in MINOCA patients with nonobstructive CAD or normal coronary arteries. Study-level and individual patient data meta-analyses were performed using fixed- and random-effects methods. RESULTS:Twenty-seven papers were included, with 2,921 patients with MINOCA; CMR findings were reported in 2,866 (98.1%). Myocarditis prevalence was 34.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.2% to 42.2%) overall and was numerically higher in studies that defined MINOCA as myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries compared with a definition that permitted nonobstructive CAD (45.9% vs. 32.3%; pÂ =Â 0.16). In a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 9 of the 27 studies, the pooled prevalence of CMR-confirmed myocarditis was greater in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries than in those with nonobstructive CAD (51% [95%Â CI: 47% to 56%] vs. 23% [95%Â CI: 18% to 27%]; pÂ <Â 0.001). Men and younger patients with MINOCA were more likely to have myocarditis. Angiographically normal coronary arteries were associated with increased odds of myocarditis after adjustment for age and sex (adjusted odds ratio: 2.30; 95%Â CI: 1.12 to 4.71; pÂ =Â 0.023). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with a provisional diagnosis of MINOCA are more likely to have CMR findings consistent withÂ myocarditis if they have angiographically normal coronary arteries.