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Pediatric Psychiatric Emergency Services-Stasis in Crisis [Comment]

Havens, Jennifer F; Marr, Mollie C
PMID: 37129666
ISSN: 1538-3598
CID: 5502962

Changes in Attitudes and Knowledge after Trainings in a Clinical Care Pathway for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Donnelly, Lauren J; Cervantes, Paige E; Guo, Fei; Stein, Cheryl R; Okparaeke, Eugene; Kuriakose, Sarah; Filton, Beryl; Havens, Jennifer; Horwitz, Sarah M
Caring for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be complicated, especially when challenging behaviors are present. Providers may feel unprepared to work with these individuals because specialized training for medical and social service providers is limited. To increase access to specialized training, we modified an effective half-day ASD-Care Pathway training (Kuriakose et al. 2018) and disseminated it within five different settings. This short, focused training on strategies for preventing and reducing challenging behaviors of patients with ASD resulted in significant improvements in staff perceptions of challenging behaviors, increased comfort in working with the ASD population, and increased staff knowledge for evidence-informed practices. Implications, including the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on pre/post changes, and future directions are discussed.
PMID: 33201422
ISSN: 1573-3432
CID: 5086822

The Risk for Readmission to Juvenile Detention: The Role of Trauma Exposure and Trauma-related Mental Health Disorders

Baetz, Carly Lyn; Surko, Michael; Bart, Amanda; Guo, Fei; Alexander, Ava; Camarano, Valerie; Daniels, Dawn; Havens, Jennifer; Horwitz, Sarah Mc Cue
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of childhood trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and trauma-related comorbid diagnoses on the risk for readmission to juvenile detention among youth in a large metropolitan area (N = 1282). The following research questions were addressed: 1) Does a greater number of childhood traumas increase the risk for readmission to detention following release? 2) Does the risk for readmission differ by type of trauma? 3) Do PTSD and other co-morbid diagnoses increase the risk for readmission? and 4) What role do demographic factors play in the relationship between trauma-related variables and risk for readmission? This study utilized the screening results of 1282 youth who were voluntarily screened for PTSD, depressive symptoms and substance use during their initial intake to detention. More than half of the sample was readmitted during the three-year study period, with readmissions most likely to occur within one year of release. Returning to detention within one year was also associated with increased risk for multiple readmissions. Youth readmitted to detention were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse and problematic substance use. No other significant relationships were found between risk for readmission and trauma-related variables. Although trauma-related symptoms may be crucial targets for treatment, focusing solely on trauma exposure and traumatic stress symptoms without considering the impact of other risk factors may not be enough to decrease the likelihood of readmission for youth of color in a large urban environment.
ISSN: 1936-1521
CID: 5631172

Diagnoses and Treatment in Juvenile Detention Before and After Evaluation by Facility-Based Mental Health Service [Letter]

Whitney, Eric; McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Tedeschi, Frank; Alexander, Ava R; Baetz, Carly Lyn; Bart, Amanda L; Guo, Fei; Havens, Jennifer
As of 2018, more than 37,000 American youth were residing in juvenile detention or residential placement facilities.1 Prevalence studies have demonstrated high rates of psychiatric illness in this population, with estimates ranging from 50% to 75%.2
PMID: 35691600
ISSN: 1527-5418
CID: 5282432

Management of depression during the perinatal period: state of the evidence

Falek, Idan; Acri, Mary; Dominguez, Joanna; Havens, Jennifer; McCord, Mary; Sisco, Sarah; Wilcox, Wendy; Hoagwood, Kimberly
BACKGROUND:Perinatal depression (PND) is a prevalent ailment that affects both the woman and her family. Addressing PND in primary health care, such as pediatrics and obstetric care settings, has been proposed as an effective way to identify and treat women. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to examine best practices for management of PND in obstetric and pediatric settings, as well as investigate the evidence that supports the guidelines. METHODS:Guidelines were identified through a literature search and discussion with experts in the field of perinatal depression, while evidence was examined through a literature search of reviews and thereafter experimental studies. RESULTS:Twenty-five guidelines, across 17 organizations were retained for analysis. Findings suggest that there is little or varied guidance on the management of PND, as well as a lack of specificity. Treatment was the topic most frequently reported, followed by screening. However best practices vary greatly and often contradict one another. Across all areas, there is inadequate or contrasting evidence to support these guidelines. CONCLUSIONS:Although there was consensus on the key steps in the pathway to care, the review revealed lack of consensus across guidelines on specific issues relating to identification and management of depression during the perinatal period. Clinicians may use these recommendations to guide their practice, but they should be aware of the limitations of the evidence supporting these guidelines and remain alert to new evidence. There is a clear need for researchers and policymakers to prioritize this area in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for managing perinatal depression.
PMID: 35468808
ISSN: 1752-4458
CID: 5217322

Editorial: From Bipolar Disorder to DMDD: Challenges to Diagnostic and Treatment Specificity in Traumatized Youths [Editorial]

Havens, Jennifer F; Marr, Mollie C; Hirsch, Emily
This valuable contribution by Findling et al. reports on trends in diagnostic patterns since the inclusion of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in the DSM-5. As the authors note, the introduction of the DMDD diagnosis was designed to address the problematic over-diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the associated rise in antipsychotic and polypharmacy use in youths.1 Using a large, national, electronic health record database (n = 14,157), this study showed a clear increase in the treated prevalence of DMDD from 2016 to 2018 (0.08-0.35%, p < .0001) coupled with a decrease in the treated prevalence of bipolar disorder from 2015 to 2018 (0.42%-0.36%, p < .0001).1 This suggests that the introduction of DMDD did seem to achieve the aim of reducing the rates of bipolar diagnoses. In what is discouraging but not surprising news, the study demonstrates a troubling increase in the use of antipsychotics (58.9% DMDD vs 51.0% bipolar disorder) and polypharmacy in the DMDD cohort compared to the bipolar disorder cohort (45.0% DMDD vs 37.4% bipolar disorder).1.
PMID: 34363964
ISSN: 1527-5418
CID: 5006042

Trauma Exposure and Suicidality in a Pediatric Emergency Psychiatric Population

Marr, Mollie C; Gerson, Ruth; Lee, Mia; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Horwitz, Sarah M; Havens, Jennifer F
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The increasing rates of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents are reflected in the increasing number of mental health-related visits to emergency departments. Despite the high rates of traumatic exposure experienced by high-acuity children and adolescents and a known link to suicidal ideation, the systematic review of trauma history is not a consistent part of emergency department assessments for suicide ideation or attempt. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of suicidality as well as traumatic exposures in children and adolescents presenting to a dedicated pediatric psychiatric emergency department. METHODS:Suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and trauma exposure history were identified through a retrospective chart review of youth (n = 861) who presented to a dedicated child psychiatric emergency department during a 1-year period. Bivariate analyses comparing demographic and trauma history for children with and without suicidality and a multivariable logistic regression were performed. RESULTS:Childhood adversity was common, with 52% of youth reporting at least one type of trauma exposure. Emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse/assault were associated with suicidality. Any trauma exposure and the total number of different trauma exposures were associated with reported suicide attempt. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, children who reported a history of emotional abuse had 3.2-fold increased odds of attempted suicide. Children who reported a history of being a victim of bullying had 1.9-fold increased odds of current suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS:Traumatic experiences were common in youth presenting with suicidality. Traumatic experiences are frequently underrecognized in treatment settings because they are not part of routine evaluations and are often overlooked when trauma-related symptoms are not the presenting problem. Addressing traumatic experiences underlying depression and suicidal ideation is a necessary step in effective treatment. Emergency departments need to implement routine screening for traumatic exposures in children presenting with suicidal ideation or attempt.
PMID: 35100769
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 5153382

The role of trauma-informed practices and individual factors on perceptions of safety among staff in secure juvenile detention settings

Baetz, Carly Lyn; Surko, Michael; Bart, Amanda; Guo, Fei; Alexander, Ava; McCann, Alison; Havens, Jennifer; Horwitz, Sarah Mc Cue
Despite an increased focus on trauma-informed care within the juvenile justice system, we still know very little about the impact of trauma on juvenile justice professionals or their perceptions of trauma-informed interventions. To fill this gap, this study used an organizational assessment to examine perceptions of trauma-informed care among juvenile professionals in a juvenile detention setting. Participants included 204 staff members in two secure juvenile detention facilities. Staff who reported greater availability of trauma-informed practices were more likely to perceive that youth and families felt safe and those who reported that the facility was taking steps to address secondary trauma were more likely to report a sense of staff safety. Regarding individual factors, only age and gender were related to perceptions of youth and family safety. Frontline staff were more likely than supervisory staff to feel they had received adequate training in trauma and had the skills necessary to deescalate youth. These findings suggest that staff are open to trauma-informed practices in juvenile detention, but a greater focus on supervisory staff is needed. Shifting from individual-level strategies to facility-level improvements could have a greater impact on enhancing staff members"™ perceptions of safety, which improves their ability to care for youth.
ISSN: 0735-648x
CID: 5393672

Agitation and Restraint in a Pediatric Psychiatric Emergency Program: Clinical Characteristics and Diagnostic Correlates

Agraharkar, Shilpa; Horwitz, Sarah; Lewis, Kristen; Goldstein, Gabriella; Havens, Jennifer; Gerson, Ruth
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Agitation and restraint among pediatric psychiatric patients are a frequent, yet little studied, source of morbidity and, rarely, mortality in the emergency department (ED). This study examined agitation and restraint among youth patients in a specialized pediatric psychiatric ED, considering clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of those who required restraint to determine the clinical correlates of agitation and restraint in this population. METHODS:This descriptive study was a 6-year retrospective chart review of all patients restrained for acute agitation. Demographics, clinical characteristics, diagnoses, and reasons for restraint were collected. Relationships between sociodemographic and clinical variables to types of restraints used were examined, along with change over the study period in rate of and mean time in restraint. RESULTS:The average restraint rate was 1.94%, which remained fairly consistent throughout study period, although average time in restraint decreased significantly. Restraints were more common in males. Adolescents were overrepresented in the ED population, and after controlling for this, restraint rates were similar in adolescents and younger children. Physical aggression was the most frequent precipitant, although among adolescents verbal aggression was also a precipitant (more so than in younger children). Disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses were most frequently associated with restraint. CONCLUSIONS:A lower rate of restraint is reported here than has been seen in programs where youths are treated in medical or adult psychiatric EDs. Hospitals without specialized pediatric psychiatric emergency programs should invest in staff training in deescalation techniques and in access to pediatric psychiatric treatment. The finding that, of youth restrained, a significant proportion were under 12 years old and/or carried diagnoses not typically associated with aggressive behavior, indicates that crisis prevention, management, and treatment should include younger populations and diverse diagnostic groups, rather than focusing narrowly on older patients with psychotic or substance use disorders.
PMID: 34908377
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 5108542

Friendly Faces: Characteristics of Children and Adolescents With Repeat Visits to a Specialized Child Psychiatric Emergency Program

Marr, Mollie; Horwitz, Sarah M; Gerson, Ruth; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Havens, Jennifer F
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Pediatric mental health emergency department (ED) visits continue to rise with 19% to 62% of youth presenting to the ED ultimately returning for a mental health-related complaint. To better understand the needs of children returning to the ED, this study examines the clinical, demographic, and environmental factors associated with revisits to a dedicated child psychiatric ED. METHODS:Clinical factors, home environment, and mental health service utilization of 885 children presenting to a dedicated child psychiatric ED over a 1-year period were abstracted by retrospective chart review. Bivariate analyses comparing demographic and clinical characteristics for children with and without revisits and a multivariable logistic regression were performed. RESULTS:Of the children presenting to the ED, 186 (21.0%) had at least 1 revisit in the subsequent 180 days. Thirty-one percent of initial visits presented as urgent, 55% presented as emergent. Children presenting with more severe symptoms at their initial visit were more likely to return within 6 months. Female gender, suicidal and disruptive behavioral symptomatology, and a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder were associated with repeat visits. Children with mental health system involvement were more likely to have revisits than those who were "treatment naive." CONCLUSIONS:Revisits to the ED are driven by both clinical factors, including severity and psychosocial complexity, and barriers to accessing services. Addressing the problem of return ED visits will require the development of a robust mental health service system that is accessible to children and families of all socioeconomic levels.
PMID: 29438124
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 2956152