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Faecaliths do not predict severity of acute appendicitis

Hawkins, Samuel; Miller, Mitchell; Zhu, Hongfa; Shi, Meiyi; Zielonka, Tania; Blatt, Melissa; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Cohn, Stephen M
PMID: 35531748
ISSN: 1365-2168
CID: 5273252

Inferior Vena Cava Filters Lack Benefit in High-Risk Trauma Patients

Hawkins, Samuel; Blau, Steven; Zielonka, Tania; Blatt, Melissa; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Cohn, Stephen M
PMID: 35451868
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5273242

Emergency Ileostomies in Older Patients

Omer, Dana M; Hawkins, Samuel; Zielonka, Tania; Blatt, Melissa; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Cohn, Stephen M
PMID: 35438575
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5273232

A CT-Derived Measurement of Sarcopenia Fails to Predict Falls

Dalal, Setu; Tucker, Scarlett; Zielonka, Tania; Kinney, JacqueLyn; Magdich, Andrew; Parr, David; Parulekar, Manisha; Blatt, Melissa; Hawkins, Samuel; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Cohn, Stephen M
Sarcopenia and frailty have both emerged as risk factors for elderly falls. We investigated whether radiologic sarcopenia or frailty are associated with falls in a high-risk geriatric outpatient population. We reviewed 114 patients followed at the Center for Healthy Senior Living who had undergone a computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis for any reason from 2013 to 2019. Sarcopenia was determined by psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3 on CT scan. Their individual frailty score was calculated. The primary outcome was admission to hospital for falls. There were no statistical differences in frailty score or sarcopenia between the 2 groups (left/right psoas muscle: no hospital admission = 6.8 ± 2.4/6.4 ± 2.5 vs falls requiring hospital admission 6.5 ± 2.3/6.5 ± 2.3 cm2). We concluded that neither frailty score nor sarcopenia predicted the occurrence of falls in our high-risk geriatric outpatient population.
PMID: 35142564
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5273222

Natural History of Patients Undergoing Therapeutic Endoscopies for Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Khoury, Leen; Tobin-Schnittger, Patrick; Champion, Nicholas; Sim, Vasiliy; Gave, Asaf; Hawkins, Samuel; Panzo, Melissa; Cohn, Stephen
When endoscopy is performed for acute GI bleeding, therapeutic endoscopic procedures are infrequently required (only 6% of cases). We sought to determine the natural history of GI hemorrhage in patients who have undergone therapeutic endoscopy. We queried our hospital database for inpatients with acute GI bleeding who underwent therapeutic endoscopy between 2015 and 2017. The primary endpoints were recurrence of bleeding and the subsequent need for repeated endoscopic interventions, angioembolization, or surgery. Demographic information was collected. We reviewed 205 hospitalized patients: mean age was 70 years, 58 per cent were male, and mean hemoglobin was 9 g/dL. Patients had medical conditions predisposing them to bleeding in 59 per cent and history of previous GI bleeding in 37 per cent of cases. Sixty per cent were on antiplatelet/anticoagulation medications, and 10 per cent were receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Blood transfusions were given to 78 per cent of patients, with an average of 2.3 units of packed red blood cells transfused per patient before intervention. Recurrence of hemorrhage after therapeutic endoscopy was seen in 9 per cent of patients. Only 2 per cent underwent a second therapeutic endoscopic procedure, and 5 per cent had surgery or angioembolization (half of these patients then had a further recurrence of bleeding). In total, seven patients died (3%). Recurrence of GI bleeding after therapeutic endoscopies is uncommon (9%). Surgery and angioembolization are not commonly necessary, but when used are only successful in 50 per cent of cases.
PMID: 31775966
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5303352

How low can you go: Achieving postoperative outpatient pain control without opioids

Sim, Vasiliy; Hawkins, Samuel; Gave, Asaf A; Bulanov, Alex; Elabbasy, Fady; Khoury, Leen; Panzo, Melissa; Sim, Elizabeth; Cohn, Stephen
BACKGROUND:Postoperative outpatient narcotic overprescription plays a significant role in the opioid epidemic. Outpatient opioid prescription ranges from 150 to 350 oral morphine equivalent (OME) for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendectomy, with 75 OME (10 pills of 5 mg of oxycodone) being the lowest recommendation (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018). We hypothesized that the addition of nonopioid medications to the outpatient pain control regimen would decrease the need for narcotics. METHODS:In this prospective, observational pilot study, we prescribed a 3-day regimen of ibuprofen and acetaminophen to patients after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomies and appendectomies. An additional opioid prescription for 5 pills of 5 mg of oxycodone (37.5 OME) was written for breakthrough pain. During their postoperative visit, we evaluated patients' adherence to the pain control regime, their postdischarge opioid use, and the adequacy of their pain control. RESULTS:Sixty-five patients were included in the study (52% male). The majority (80%) of surgeries were performed urgently or emergently. The visual analog scale pain score at home was significantly better than upon discharge (3.7 vs. 5.5, p = 0.001). The average number of oxycodone pills taken postdischarge was 1.8 pills. Half (51%) of the patients did not take any opioids. All but four patients reported that their pain was adequately controlled. No patient required additional opioid prescriptions or visited the emergency department. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated that opioids can be eliminated in at least half of the patients and that five pills of 5 mg of oxycodone (37.5 OME) is sufficient for outpatient pain control when a 3-day course of ibuprofen and acetaminophen is prescribed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic study, level V.
PMID: 31259870
ISSN: 2163-0763
CID: 5273212

Natural History of Patients Undergoing Therapeutic Endoscopies for Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding [Meeting Abstract]

Khoury, Leen; Tobin-Schnittger, Patrick; Champion, Nicholas; Sim, Vasiliy; Gave, Asaf; Hawkins, Samuel; Panzo, Melissa; Cohn, Stephen
ISSN: 1072-7515
CID: 5273292

Salivary antioxidants in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes and inflammatory periodontal disease: a case-control study

Gümüş, Pinar; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Hawkins, Samuel I; Renaud, Diane; Kinane, Denis F; Scott, David A
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare salivary concentrations of reduced, oxidized glutathione, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant capacity in subjects with diabetes and systemically healthy subjects with inflammatory periodontal disease. METHODS:Sixteen patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), 25 patients with type 2 DM, and 24 systemically healthy patients, all with inflammatory periodontal disease, were recruited. Whole-saliva samples were obtained, and full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements, including plaque index, probing depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing, were recorded at six sites per tooth. Saliva flow rate and salivary levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione, vitamin C, uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity were determined. Data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric tests. RESULTS:The subjects with type 2 DM had fewer teeth and more sites with probing depths >4 mm than the patients with type 1 DM (both P <0.01). The mean salivary reduced-glutathione concentration was lower in patients with type 1 DM than in the other two groups (both P <0.05). No significant differences in the salivary concentrations of the other antioxidants measured were found among the groups (P >0.05). Oxidized glutathione levels in the patients with type 1 DM were significantly lower than in the systemically healthy group (P = 0.007). In both groups with diabetes, salivary reduced-glutathione levels correlated positively with probing depth, and total antioxidant capacity correlated with salivary flow rate (P <0.01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The decrease in salivary reduced-glutathione levels in patients with type 1 DM may have a role in periodontal tissue destruction by predisposing tissues to oxidative stress.
PMID: 19722794
ISSN: 0022-3492
CID: 5303362

The GCR1, GPA1, PRN1, NF-Y signal chain mediates both blue light and abscisic acid responses in Arabidopsis

Warpeha, Katherine M; Upadhyay, Snehali; Yeh, Jennifer; Adamiak, Julia; Hawkins, Samuel I; Lapik, Yevgeniya R; Anderson, Mary Beth; Kaufman, Lon S
Different classes of biotic (e.g. plant hormones) and abiotic (e.g. different wavelengths of light) signals act through specific signal transduction mechanisms to coordinate higher plant development. While a great deal of progress has been made, full signal transduction chains have not yet been described for most blue light- or abscisic acid-mediated events. Based on data derived from T-DNA insertion mutants and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and coprecipitation assays, we report a signal transduction chain shared by blue light and abscisic acid leading to light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein expression in etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. The chain consists of GCR1 (the sole Arabidopsis protein coding for a potential G-protein-coupled receptor), GPA1 (the sole Arabidopsis Galpha-subunit), Pirin1 (PRN1; one of four members of an iron-containing subgroup of the cupin superfamily), and a nuclear factor Y heterotrimer comprised of A5, B9, and possibly C9. We also demonstrate that this mechanism is present in imbibed seeds wherein it affects germination rate.
PMID: 17322342
ISSN: 0032-0889
CID: 5303372

Effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidant capacity

Buduneli, Nurcan; KardeÅŸler, Levent; IÅŸik, Hasan; Willis, C Steadman; Hawkins, Samuel I; Kinane, Denis F; Scott, David A
AIM/OBJECTIVE:This study evaluated possible effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidants in gingivitis patients. METHODS:Twenty otherwise healthy gingivitis patients (10 self-reported smokers) and 20 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteer subjects were enrolled in the study. Whole saliva samples and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained at baseline and one month following initial phase of treatment in gingivitis patients. Salivary cotinine, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations, and total antioxidant capacity were determined, and the data generated were tested by non-parametric tests. RESULTS:Salivary cotinine measurements resulted in re-classification of three self-reported non-smokers as smokers. Smoker patients revealed significantly higher probing depths but lower bleeding values than non-smoker patients (p=0.044 and 0.001, respectively). Significant reductions in clinical recordings were obtained in non-smoker (all p<0.05) and smoker (all p<0.01) patients following periodontal treatment. Salivary total glutathione concentrations were reduced following therapy in gingivitis patients who smoke (p<0.01). Otherwise, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups in biochemical parameters at baseline or following treatment (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Within the limits of this study, neither smoking nor gingival inflammation compromised the antioxidant capacity of saliva in systemically healthy gingivitis patients.
PMID: 16489940
ISSN: 0303-6979
CID: 5303382