Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer-Associated Genetic Variants is More Strongly Associated With Early-onset vs Late-onset Cancer
BACKGROUND & AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS:We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS:). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI, 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI, 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS:In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer-particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventative measures.
Identifying Novel Susceptibility Genes for Colorectal Cancer Risk From a Transcriptome-Wide Association Study of 125,478 Subjects
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS:Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (nÂ = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS:, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.
PM2.5 air pollution and cause-specific cardiovascular disease mortality
BACKGROUND:Ambient air pollution is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet uncertainty remains about the size of risks at lower levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure which now occur in the USA and elsewhere. METHODS:We investigated the relationship of ambient PM2.5 exposure with cause-specific cardiovascular disease mortality in 565Â 477 men and women, aged 50 to 71â€‰years, from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. During 7.5 x 106 person-years of follow up, 41Â 286 cardiovascular disease deaths, including 23Â 328 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and 5894 stroke deaths, were ascertained using the National Death Index. PM2.5 was estimated using a hybrid land use regression (LUR) geostatistical model. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:Each increase of 10 â€‰Î¼g/m3 PM2.5 (overall range, 2.9-28.0â€‰ Î¼g/m3) was associated, in fully adjusted models, with a 16% increase in mortality from ischaemic heart disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.16; 95% CI 1.09-1.22] and a 14% increase in mortality from stroke (HR 1.14; CI 1.02-1.27). Compared with PM2.5 exposure <8â€‰ Î¼g/m3 (referent), risks for CVD were increased in relation to PM2.5 exposures in the range of 8-12â€‰ Î¼g/m3 (CVD: HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08), in the range 12-20â€‰ Î¼g/m3 (CVD: HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.13) and in the range 20+ Î¼g/m3 (CVD: HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.10-1.28). Results were robust to alternative approaches to PM2.5 exposure assessment and statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality, with excess risks occurring in the range of and below the present US long-term standard for ambient exposure to PM2.5 (12â€‰ Âµg/m3), indicating the need for continued improvements in air pollution abatement for CVD prevention.
Interactions between folate intake and genetic predictors of gene expression levels associated with colorectal cancer risk
Observational studies have shown higher folate consumption to be associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Understanding whether and how genetic risk factors interact with folate could further elucidate the underlying mechanism. Aggregating functionally relevant genetic variants in set-based variant testing has higher power to detect gene-environment (Gâ€‰Ã—â€‰E) interactions and may provide information on the underlying biological pathway. We investigated interactions between folate consumption and predicted gene expression on colorectal cancer risk across the genome. We used variant weights from the PrediXcan models of colon tissue-specific gene expression as a priori variant information for a set-based Gâ€‰Ã—â€‰E approach. We harmonized total folate intake (mcg/day) based on dietary intake and supplemental use across cohort and case-control studies and calculated sex and study specific quantiles. Analyses were performed using a mixed effects score tests for interactions between folate and genetically predicted expression of 4839 genes with available genetically predicted expression. We pooled results across 23 studies for a total of 13,498 cases with colorectal tumors and 13,918 controls of European ancestry. We used a false discovery rate of 0.2 to identify genes with suggestive evidence of an interaction. We found suggestive evidence of interaction with folate intake on CRC risk for genes including glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 1 (GSTA1; pâ€‰=â€‰4.3E-4), Tonsuko Like, DNA Repair Protein (TONSL; pâ€‰=â€‰4.3E-4), and Aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA: pâ€‰=â€‰4.5E-4). We identified three genes involved in preventing or repairing DNA damage that may interact with folate consumption to alter CRC risk. Glutathione is an antioxidant, preventing cellular damage and is a downstream metabolite of homocysteine and metabolized by GSTA1. TONSL is part of a complex that functions in the recovery of double strand breaks and AGA plays a role in lysosomal breakdown of glycoprotein.
The lung microbiome, peripheral gene expression, and recurrence-free survival after resection of stage II non-small cell lung cancer
BACKGROUND:Cancer recurrence after tumor resection in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is common, yet difficult to predict. The lung microbiota and systemic immunity may be important modulators of risk for lung cancer recurrence, yet biomarkers from the lung microbiome and peripheral immune environment are understudied. Such markers may hold promise for prediction as well as improved etiologic understanding of lung cancer recurrence. METHODS:In tumor and distant normal lung samples from 46 stage II NSCLC patients with curative resection (39 tumor samples, 41 normal lung samples), we conducted 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We also measured peripheral blood immune gene expression with nanoStringÂ®. We examined associations of lung microbiota and peripheral gene expression with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using 500 Ã— 10-fold cross-validated elastic-net penalized Cox regression, and examined predictive accuracy using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS:Over a median of 4.8 years of follow-up (range 0.2-12.2 years), 43% of patients experienced a recurrence, and 50% died. In normal lung tissue, a higher abundance of classes Bacteroidia and Clostridia, and orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, were associated with worse RFS, while a higher abundance of classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and orders Burkholderiales and Neisseriales, were associated with better RFS. In tumor tissue, a higher abundance of orders Actinomycetales and Pseudomonadales were associated with worse DFS. Among these taxa, normal lung Clostridiales and Bacteroidales were also related to worse survival in a previous small pilot study and an additional independent validation cohort. In peripheral blood, higher expression of genes TAP1, TAPBP, CSF2RB, and IFITM2 were associated with better DFS. Analysis of ROC curves revealed that lung microbiome and peripheral gene expression biomarkers provided significant additional recurrence risk discrimination over standard demographic and clinical covariates, with microbiome biomarkers contributing more to short-term (1-year) prediction and gene biomarkers contributing to longer-term (2-5-year) prediction. CONCLUSIONS:We identified compelling biomarkers in under-explored data types, the lung microbiome, and peripheral blood gene expression, which may improve risk prediction of recurrence in early-stage NSCLC patients. These findings will require validation in a larger cohort.
Alu retroelement copy number and lung cancer risk in the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial
Tooth count, untreated caries and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study
BACKGROUND:The link between oral diseases and mortality remains under-explored. We aimed to evaluate the associations between tooth count, untreated caries and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS:Data on 24â€Š029 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-94/1999-2010, with mortality linkage to the National Death Index to 31 December 2015, were analysed. Baseline total number of permanent teeth and any untreated caries were assessed by trained dental professionals. RESULTS:During up to 27 years of follow-up, 5270 deaths occurred. Fewer permanent teeth were associated with higher all-cause mortality, including heart disease and cancer mortality (all P <0.05 for trend) but not cerebrovascular disease mortality. For every 10 teeth missing, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.18) for all-cause, 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.29) for heart disease and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.29) for cancer mortality. Untreated caries was associated with increased all-cause (HR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.39) and heart disease mortality (HR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.88) but not cerebrovascular disease/cancer mortality, after adjusting for tooth count, periodontitis and sociodemographic/lifestyle factors. Compared with those without untreated caries and with 25-28 teeth, individuals with untreated caries and 1-16 teeth had a 53% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.85) and 96 % increased risk of heart disease mortality (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.01). CONCLUSIONS:In nationally representative cohorts, fewer permanent teeth and untreated caries were associated with all-cause and heart disease mortality. Fewer teeth were also associated with higher cancer mortality.
Microbial risk score for capturing microbial characteristics, integrating multi-omics data, and predicting disease risk
BACKGROUND:With the rapid accumulation of microbiome-wide association studies, a great amount of microbiome data are available to study the microbiome's role in human disease and advance the microbiome's potential use for disease prediction. However, the unique features of microbiome data hinder its utility for disease prediction. METHODS:Motivated from the polygenic risk score framework, we propose a microbial risk score (MRS) framework to aggregate the complicated microbial profile into a summarized risk score that can be used to measure and predict disease susceptibility. Specifically, the MRS algorithm involves two steps: (1) identifying a sub-community consisting of the signature microbial taxa associated with disease and (2) integrating the identified microbial taxa into a continuous score. The first step is carried out using the existing sophisticated microbial association tests and pruning and thresholding method in the discovery samples. The second step constructs a community-based MRS by calculating alpha diversity on the identified sub-community in the validation samples. Moreover, we propose a multi-omics data integration method by jointly modeling the proposed MRS and other risk scores constructed from other omics data in disease prediction. RESULTS:Through three comprehensive real-data analyses using the NYU Langone Health COVID-19 cohort, the gut microbiome health index (GMHI) multi-study cohort, and a large type 1 diabetes cohort separately, we exhibit and evaluate the utility of the proposed MRS framework for disease prediction and multi-omics data integration. In addition, the disease-specific MRSs for colorectal adenoma, colorectal cancer, Crohn's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis based on the relative abundances of 5, 6, 12, and 6 microbial taxa, respectively, are created and validated using the GMHI multi-study cohort. Especially, Crohn's disease MRS achieves AUCs of 0.88 (0.85-0.91) and 0.86 (0.78-0.95) in the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed MRS framework sheds light on the utility of the microbiome data for disease prediction and multi-omics integration and provides a great potential in understanding the microbiome's role in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Video Abstract.
Risk Stratification for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Using a Combination of Genetic and Environmental Risk Scores: An International Multi-Center Study
BACKGROUND:Incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged less than 50â€‰years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS), of 141 variants. METHODS:Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3,486 cases and 3,890 controls aged less than 50â€‰years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS:Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per standard deviation of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.20; odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS = 1.59, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰1.51, 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰0.615, 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10,000 men and 21 per 10,000 women, among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS:Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.
Risk factors for head and neck cancer in more and less developed countries: Analysis from the INHANCE consortium
OBJECTIVE:We analyzed the pooled case-control data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium to compare cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption risk factors for head and neck cancer between less developed and more developed countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS/METHODS:The location of each study was categorized as either a less developed or more developed country. We compared the risk of overall head and neck cancer and cancer of specific anatomic subsites associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Additionally, age and sex distribution between categories was compared. RESULTS:The odds ratios for head and neck cancer sites associated with smoking duration differed between less developed and more developed countries. Smoking greater than 20Â years conferred a higher risk for oral cavity and laryngeal cancer in more developed countries, whereas the risk was greater for oropharynx and hypopharynx cancer in less developed countries. Alcohol consumed for more than 20Â years conferred a higher risk for oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx cancer in less developed countries. The proportion of cases that were young (<45Â years) or female differed by country type for some HNC subsites. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest the degree of industrialization and economic development affects the relationship between smoking and alcohol with head and neck cancer.