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Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Hospital Readmissions: Patient Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Readmissions in an Urban Safety-Net Hospital System

Gore, Victoria; Li, Zeyu; Drake, Carolyn B; Heath, Jacqueline L; Raiszadeh, Farbod; Daniel, Jean; Fagan, Ian
BACKGROUND:It is not yet known whether socioeconomic factors (ie, social determinants of health) are associated with readmission following hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6191 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a large New York City safety-net hospital system between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Associations between 30-day readmission and selected demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, prior health care utilization, and relevant features of the index hospitalization were analyzed using a multivariable generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS:The readmission rate was 7.3%, with a median of 7 days between discharge and readmission. The following were risk factors for readmission: age 65 and older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.55], history of homelessness, (aOR: 2.03 95% CI: 1.49-2.77), baseline coronary artery disease (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.34-2.10), congestive heart failure (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.20-1.49), cancer (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.26-2.24), chronic kidney disease (aOR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.46-2.07). Patients' sex, race/ethnicity, insurance, and presence of obesity were not associated with increased odds of readmission. A longer length of stay (aOR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00) and use of noninvasive supplemental oxygen (aOR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.56-0.83) was associated with lower odds of readmission. Upon readmission, 18.4% of patients required intensive care, and 13.7% expired. CONCLUSION:We have found some factors associated with increased odds of readmission among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Awareness of these risk factors, including patients' social determinants of health, may ultimately help to reduce readmission rates.
PMID: 35030561
ISSN: 1537-1948
CID: 5119152

Students as catalysts for curricular innovation: A change management framework

Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Harris, Kevin B; Heath, Jacqueline; Milliron, Alyssa; Savage, David J; Skochelak, Susan E
Introduction: The role of medical students in catalyzing and leading curricular change in US medical schools is not well described. Here, American Medical Association student and physician leaders in the Accelerating Change in Medical Education initiative use qualitative methods to better define student leadership in curricular change.Methods: The authors developed case studies describing student leadership in curricular change efforts. Case studies were presented at a national medical education workshop; participants provided worksheet reflections and were surveyed, and responses were transcribed. Kotter's change management framework was used to categorize reported student roles in curricular change. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to student engagement and activators to overcome these barriers.Results: Student roles spanned all eight steps of Kotter's change management framework. Barriers to student engagement were related to faculty (e.g. view student roles narrowly), students (e.g. fear change or expect faculty-led curricula), or both (e.g. lack leadership training). Activators were: (1) recruiting collaborative faculty, staff, and students; (2) broadening student leadership roles; (3) empowering student leaders; and (4) recognizing student successes.Conclusions: By applying these activators, medical schools can build robust student-faculty partnerships that maximize collaboration, moving students beyond passive educational consumption to change agency and curricular co-creation.
PMID: 32017861
ISSN: 1466-187x
CID: 4373052

Immune checkpoint inhibitors and vasculitis

Boland, Patrick; Heath, Jacqueline; Sandigursky, Sabina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Clinical use of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of cancer. By activating the immune system using monoclonal anti-CTLA-4 and PD(L)-1 antibodies, remission can be induced in previously terminal cancers. However, these breakthroughs come at a price. Multiple de-novo autoimmune illnesses, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs), have been reported with patients increasingly being referred to rheumatologists with varying diagnoses. Among these are vasculitic syndromes, which may be limited to an organ or systemic and potentially-life threatening. Relatively little is known about the prevalence, mechanisms, and phenotypes of vasculitis occurring in response to ICIs. Here, we review the literature and describe the frequency and patterns of presentation. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Vasculitis, while infrequent, has been described as an irAE in patients treated with ICI therapy with resultant morbidity and mortality. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Recognizing the risk and management of immune checkpoint inhibitor induced vasculitis in patients with cancer is important in the daily practice of rheumatology.
PMID: 31599800
ISSN: 1531-6963
CID: 4129882

New Medical Student Performance Evaluation Standards: Laudable but Inadequate [Letter]

Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Heath, Jacqueline
PMID: 28557924
ISSN: 1938-808x
CID: 4373002