Impact of COVID-19 on Radiology Faculty - An Exacerbation of Gender Differences in Unpaid Home Duties and Professional Productivity
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The COVID-19 pandemic stresses the tenuous balance between domestic obligations and academic output for women across professions. Our investigation aims to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the home duties and workplace productivity of academic radiologists with respect to gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A 49-question survey was distributed to 926 members of Association of University Radiologists in October 2020. Several categories were addressed: demographics; workplace changes; stress levels and personal experiences with illness; time spent on domestic obligations; and perception of productivity during COVID-19. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4 software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). RESULTS:A total of 96 responses across 30 states, 53.1% male and 46.9% female were received. Women report spending more time on unpaid domestic duties than men prior to COVID-19, with men spending a median of 5-10 h/wk and women spending a median of 10-15 h/wk (pÂ =Â 0.043). With pandemic onset, both genders reported that women did more of the homecare, when not split equally. Women with young children reported a significant decrease in work-from-home productivity compared to men with young children (pÂ =Â 0.007). Men reported they had more time to be productive compared to women (pÂ =Â 0.012). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to disrupt the advancement of women in radiology leadership roles by creating disparate effects on productivity due to increased workloads at home for women. This could potentially lead to decreases in promotions and research productivity in years to come that far outlast the acute phases of the pandemic.
Stercoral colitis leading to fatal peritonitis: CT findings [Case Report]
OBJECTIVE: Stercoral colitis is an inflammatory process involving the colonic wall related to fecal impaction. Our purpose was to describe the imaging findings of stercoral colitis and ulceration and to emphasize the potential serious clinical implications of the condition. CONCLUSION: Fecal impaction may lead to ischemic pressure necrosis and subsequent colonic perforation. In the appropriate clinical setting, the imaging findings that should prompt the radiologist to consider this diagnosis are the presence of fecal impaction, focal colonic wall thickening, and adjacent stranding of the fat. If the fecal impaction is not promptly relieved, the condition can lead to colonic perforation, peritonitis, and patient demise
Laminin stimulates protein tyrosine dephosphorylation in PC12 cells
Laminin stimulates neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). Here, we investigated laminin signal transduction mechanisms by adding the tyrosine kinase/phosphatase modulators, genistein, quercetin, aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATA), and vanadate to PC12 cells. At 10 microM both genistein and quercetin enhanced laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth by 1.7- and 2.3-fold, respectively, while at 10 microM, ATA inhibited laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth by 92%. Vanadate inhibited neurite outgrowth by 63% at 10 microM. Immunoblot analysis revealed four proteins of approximately 240, 22, 110, and 35 kDa, which were dephosphorylated on tyrosine residues in laminin-treated PC12 cells, but not in NIH 3T3 cells. These results demonstrate that laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth involves protein tyrosine dephosphorylation and suggests that this mechanism may have specificity to neuronal cells
The role of protein kinase C in laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth
Laminin is a potent stimulator of neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the mechanism of laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Phorbol ester activators of PKC have been shown to have divergent effects on laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth. Therefore, we tested the effect of the non-phorbol PKC activator, indolactam V. At 1.0 microM indolactam V inhibited laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth by 85%. Further, the PKC inhibitor H7 blocked the inhibitory effect of indolactam V on laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth. Direct measurement of protein kinase C activity in the soluble (cytosolic) and particulate (membrane) fractions of PC12 cells showed that laminin failed to alter protein kinase C activity. These data demonstrate that PKC activation inhibits laminin-mediated neurite outgrowth and that laminin does not activate PKC in PC12 cells