Staphylococcus Auricularis Endocarditis: A Rare Cause of Subacute Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis with Severe Aortic Stenosis [Case Report]
Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) represents 20% of all cases of endocarditis. Herein, we present a rare cause of PVE by Staphylococcus auricularis (S. auricularis) exhibiting features of subacute endocarditis causing severe aortic stenosis and acute myocardial infarction.
OUTpatient intravenous LASix Trial in reducing hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (OUTLAST)
BACKGROUND:Hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. The current study aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of outpatient furosemide intravenous (IV) infusion following hospitalization for ADHF. METHODS:In a single center, prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 100 patients were randomized to receive standard of care (Group 1), IV placebo infusion (Group 2), or IV furosemide infusion (Group 3) over 3h, biweekly for a one-month period following ADHF hospitalization. Patients in Groups 2/3 also received a comprehensive HF-care protocol including bi-weekly clinic visits for dose-adjusted IV-diuretics, medication adjustment and education. Echocardiography, quality of life and depression questionnaires were performed at baseline and 30-day follow-up. The primary outcome was 30-day re-hospitalization for ADHF. RESULTS:Overall, a total of 94 patients were included in the study (mean age 64 years, 56% males, 69% African American). There were a total of 14 (15%) hospitalizations for ADHF at 30 days, 6 (17.1%) in Group 1, 7 (22.6%) in Group 2, and 1 (3.7%) in Group 3 (overall p = 0.11; p = 0.037 comparing Groups 2 and 3). Patients receiving IV furosemide infusion experienced significantly greater urine output and weight loss compared to those receiving placebo without any significant increase creatinine and no significant between group differences in echocardiography parameters, KCCQ or depression scores. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The use of a standardized protocol of outpatient IV furosemide infusion for a one-month period following hospitalization for ADHF was found to be safe and efficacious in reducing 30-day re-hospitalization.
Evaluation of Stress Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Risk Reclassification of Patients With Suspected Coronary Artery Disease
Importance/UNASSIGNED:The role of stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in clinical decision-making by reclassification of risk across American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline-recommended categories has not been established. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To examine the utility of stress CMR imaging for risk reclassification in patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) who presented with suspected myocardial ischemia. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective, multicenter cohort study with median follow-up of 5.4 years (interquartile range, 4.6-6.9) was conducted at 13 centers across 11 US states. Participants included 1698 consecutive patients aged 35 to 85 years with 2 or more coronary risk factors but no history of CAD who presented with suspected myocardial ischemia to undergo stress CMR imaging. The study was conducted from February 18, 2019, to March 1, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Cardiovascular (CV) death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Major adverse CV events (MACE) including CV death, nonfatal MI, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late, unplanned coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 1698 patients, 873 were men (51.4%); mean (SD) age was 62 (11) years, accounting for 67 CV death/nonfatal MIs and 190 MACE. Clinical models of pretest risk were constructed and patients were categorized using guideline-based categories of low (<1% per year), intermediate (1%-3% per year), and high (>3% year) risk. Stress CMR imaging provided risk reclassification across all baseline models. For CV death/nonfatal MI, adding stress CMR-assessed left ventricular ejection fraction, presence of ischemia, and late gadolinium enhancement to a model incorporating the validated CAD Consortium score, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes provided significant net reclassification improvement of 0.266 (95% CI, 0.091-0.441) and C statistic improvement of 0.086 (95% CI, 0.022-0.149). Stress CMR imaging reclassified 60.3% of patients in the intermediate pretest risk category (52.4% reclassified as low risk and 7.9% as high risk) with corresponding changes in the observed event rates of 0.6% per year for low posttest risk and 4.9% per year for high posttest risk. For MACE, stress CMR imaging further provided significant net reclassification improvement (0.361; 95% CI, 0.255-0.468) and C statistic improvement (0.092; 95% CI, 0.054-0.131), and reclassified 59.9% of patients in the intermediate pretest risk group (48.7% reclassified as low risk and 11.2% as high risk). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this multicenter cohort of patients with no history of CAD presenting with suspected myocardial ischemia, stress CMR imaging reclassified patient risk across guideline-based risk categories, beyond clinical risk factors. The findings of this study support the value of stress CMR imaging for clinical decision-making, especially in patients at intermediate risk for CV death and nonfatal MI.
Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and HFpEF-Related Outcomes
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study analyzed changes in depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) who were enrolled in the TOPCAT (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With HeartÂ Failure and Preserved Systolic Function) trial. BACKGROUND:There are limited longitudinal data for depressive symptoms in patients with HFpEF. METHODS:In patients enrolled in the United States and Canada (nÂ =Â 1,431), depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Clinically meaningful changes in PHQ-9 scores were defined as worse (â‰¥3-point increase) or better (â‰¥3-point decrease). Multivariate models were used to identify predictors of change in depressive symptoms. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of symptom changes from baseline on subsequent incident cardiovascular events. RESULTS:At 12Â months, 19% of patients experienced clinically worsening depressive symptoms, 31% better, and 49% unchanged. Independent predictors of clinically meaningful improvement in depressive symptoms included higher baseline PHQ-9 scores, male sex, lack of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and randomization to spironolactone. After data were adjusted for cardiovascular comorbidities, higher baseline PHQ-9 was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.16; pÂ =Â 0.011), whereas worsening depressive symptoms at 12Â months were associated with cardiovascular death (HR: 2.47; 95%Â CI: 1.32 to 4.63; pÂ =Â 0.005) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.82; 95%Â CI: 1.13 to 2.93; pÂ =Â 0.014). Randomization to spironolactone was associated with modest but statistically significant reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of the trial (pÂ =Â 0.014). CONCLUSIONS:Higher baseline depressive symptoms and worsening depressive symptoms were associated with all-cause mortality. Randomization to spironolactone was associated with modest reduction in depressive symptoms. (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With HeartÂ Failure and Preserved Systolic Function [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302).
ORAL ANTIPLATELET THERAPY ADMINISTERED UPSTREAM TO PATIENTS WITH NSTEMI
OBJECTIVE:To describe from a non-interventional registry the short-term ischemic and hemorrhagic outcomes in patients with NSTEMI managed with a loading dose of a P2Y12 inhibitor (P2Y12i) given at least four hours prior to diagnostic angiography and delineation of coronary anatomy. Prior data on the effects of such "upstream loading" have been inconsistent. METHODS:In 53 US hospitals, we evaluated the in-hospital care and outcomes of patients with confirmed NSTEMI managed with an interventional strategy and loaded upstream (at least four hours before diagnostic angiography) with P2Y12 inhibitor therapy. Patients entered into the database were grouped into one of four cohorts for analysis: (1) overall cohort, (2) thienopyridine (clopidogrel or prasugrel) load, (3) ticagrelor load, and (4) ticagrelor-consistent. The fourth cohort is a subset of cohort 3 that received ticagrelor throughout the index hospital stay and at discharge. We evaluated in-hospital clinical course and ischemic and bleeding outcomes in all patients, and also 30-d outcomes in the ticagrelor-consistent cohort. RESULTS:A total of 3,355 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,087 had 30-day follow-up. The mean (+/-SD) age was 63.3+/-12.5 y and 62.6% were male. TIMI and GRACE scores placed these patients in the intermediate risk range and CRUSADE scores were in the moderate risk range. The loading dose in UPSTREAM was clopidogrel in 45.6%, ticagrelor in 53.6%, and prasugrel in 0.8%. The median upstream interval (loading dose to angiography) was 17:27 hours and did not change appreciably over the course of the data collection period (2/15 - 10/19). Access was radial in 48.6% and femoral in 51.4%. Post-angiography management was medical only in 32.3%, PCI in 59.4%, and CABG in 8.3%. Median LOS was 2.7d, and median time from angiography to CABG was 3.6d. In-hospital mortality was 0.51% and major bleeding (TIMI) was 0.24%; the in-hospital MACE rate was 0.7% and stent thrombosis occurred in 0.18%. No significant differences were seen between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel cohorts in hospital, but 16% received more than one P2Y12i in-hospital. On follow-up (93.2% response), 86.7% of patients reported taking ticagrelor as directed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Upstream loading of P2Y12 inhibitors was associated with very low rates of bleeding and short LOS in a large cohort of NSTEMI patients managed invasively.
The Trials and Tribulations of ConductingÂ Stress CMR Quantitative Analysis Studies [Editorial]
ACR Appropriateness CriteriaÂ® Acute Nonspecific Chest Pain-Low Probability of Coronary Artery Disease
Patients with acute nonspecific chest pain and low probability for coronary disease remain an important clinical management dilemma. We focus on evidence for imaging, in an integrated decision-making setting. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
Prognostic Value of Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in Patients With Reduced LeftÂ Ventricular Function
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function. BACKGROUND:Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy are at risk from both myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Invasive testing is often used as the first-line investigation, and there is limited evidence as to whether stress testing can effectively provide risk stratification. METHODS:In this substudy of a multicenter registry from 13 U.S. centers, patients with reduced LV ejection fraction (<50%), referred for stress CMR for suspected myocardial ischemia, were included. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. The secondary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina or congestive heart failure, and unplanned late coronary artery bypass graft surgery. RESULTS:Among 582 patients (mean age 62 Â± 12 years, 34% women), 40% had a history of congestive heart failure, and the median LV ejection fraction was 39% (interquartile range: 28% to 45%). At median follow-up of 5.0 years, 97 patients had experienced the primary outcome, and 182 patients had experienced the secondary outcome. Patients with no CMR evidence of ischemia or late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) experienced an annual primary outcome event rate of 1.1%. The presence of ischemia, LGE, or both was associated with higher event rates. In a multivariate model adjusted for clinical covariates, ischemia and LGE were independent predictors of the primary (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 4.14; pÂ <Â 0.001; and HR: 1.86; 95%Â CI: 1.05 to 3.29; pÂ =Â 0.03) and secondary (HR: 2.14; 95%Â CI: 1.55 to 2.95; pÂ <Â 0.001; and HR 1.70; 95%Â CI: 1.16 to 2.49; pÂ =Â 0.007) outcomes. The addition of ischemia and LGE led to improved model discrimination for the primary outcome (change in C statistic from 0.715 to 0.765; pÂ =Â 0.02). The presence and extent of ischemia were associated with higher rates of use of downstream coronary angiography, revascularization, and cost of care spent on ischemia testing. CONCLUSIONS:Stress CMR was effective in risk-stratifying patients with reduced LV ejection fractions. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS] Study; NCT03192891).
Imaging of Clinically Unrecognized Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients With Suspected Coronary Artery Disease
BACKGROUND:Stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate assessment of both myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to evaluate the incremental prognostic value of unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI), detected during assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) by stress CMR, beyond cardiac function and ischemia. METHODS:In the multicenter SPINS (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States) study, 2,349 consecutive patients (63 Â± 11 years of age, 53% were male) with suspected CAD were assessed by stress CMR and followed over a median of 5.4 years. UMI was defined as the presence of late gadolinium enhancement consistent with MI in the absence of medical history of MI. This study investigated the association of UMI with all-cause mortality and nonfatal MI (death and/or MI), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). RESULTS:UMI was detected in 347 patients (14.8%) and clinically recognized myocardial infarction (RMI) in 358 patients (15.2%). Compared with patients with RMI, patients with UMI had a similar burden of cardiovascular risk factors, but significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (pÂ <Â 0.001) and lower rates of guideline-directed medical therapies, including aspirin (pÂ <Â 0.001), statin (pÂ <Â 0.001), and beta-blockers (pÂ =Â 0.002). During follow-up, 328 deaths and/or MIs and 528 MACE occurred. In univariate analysis, UMI and RMI were strongly associated with death and/or MI (UMI: hazard ratio [HR]: 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.83; pÂ <Â 0.001; RMI: HR: 2.45; 95%Â CI: 1.89 to 3.18) and MACE. Compared with patients with RMI, patients with UMI presented an increased risk for heart failure hospitalization (UMI vs. RMI: HR: 2.60; 95%Â CI: 1.48 to 4.58; pÂ <Â 0.001). In a multivariate model including ischemia and left ventricular ejection fraction, UMI and RMI maintained robust prognostic association with death and/or MI (UMI: HR: 1.82; 95%Â CI: 1.37 to 2.42; pÂ <Â 0.001; RMI: HR: 1.54; 95%Â CI: 1.14 to 2.09) and MACE. CONCLUSIONS:In a multicenter cohort of patients with suspected CAD, presence of UMI or RMI portended an equally significant risk for death and/or MI, independently of the presence of ischemia. Compared with RMI patients, those with UMI were less likely to receive guideline-directed medical therapies and presented an increased risk for heart failure hospitalization that warrants further study. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS]; NCT03192891).
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Stable Chest Pain Syndromes
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to compare, using results from the multicenter SPINS (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States) study, the incremental cost-effectiveness of a stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-first strategy against 4 other clinical strategies for patients with stable symptoms suspicious for myocardial ischemia: 1) immediate x-ray coronary angiography (XCA) with selective fractional flow reserve for all patients; 2) single-photon emission computed tomography; 3) coronary computed tomographic angiography with selective computed tomographic fractional flow reserve; and 4) no imaging. BACKGROUND:Stress CMR perfusion imaging has established excellent diagnostic utility and prognostic value in coronary artery disease (CAD), but its cost-effectiveness in current clinical practice has not been well studied in the United States. METHODS:A decision analytic model was developed to project health care costs and lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for symptomatic patients at presentation with a 32.4% prevalence of obstructive CAD. Rates of clinical events, costs, and quality-of-life values were estimated from SPINS and other published research. The analysis was conducted from a U.S. health care system perspective, with health and cost outcomes discounted annually at 3%. RESULTS:Using hard cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death or acute myocardial infarction) as the endpoint, total costs per person were lowest for the no-imaging strategy ($16,936) and highest for the immediate XCA strategy ($20,929). Lifetime QALYs were lowest for the no-imaging strategy (12.72050) and highest for the immediate XCA strategy (12.76535). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the CMR-based strategy compared with the no-imaging strategy was $52,000/QALY, whereas the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the immediate XCA strategy was $12Â million/QALY compared with CMR. Results were sensitive to variations in model inputs for prevalence of disease, hazard rate ratio for treatment of CAD, and annual discount rate. CONCLUSIONS:Prior to invasive XCA, stress CMR can be a cost-effective gatekeeping tool in patients at risk for obstructive CAD in the United States. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS] Study; NCT03192891.