Patients' knowledge, attitudes and concerns regarding the disposal of expired/unused medication
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Unused/expired medicines that are improperly disposed of can enter soil and water supply and have negative implications for public health. This study aimed to assess patients' knowledge and understanding of medication disposal practices and their willingness to participate in a medication takeback programme. METHODS:A self-administered questionnaire comprising of 26 questions based on demographics, knowledge, beliefs, practices and concerns was utilized in this study. The study was conducted over 12 weeks at outpatient pharmacy sites located in the four Regional Health Authorities in Trinidad. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 was used for statistical analysis. KEY FINDINGS/RESULTS:A total of 547 persons completed the questionnaire. Knowledge of the dangers of improper medication disposal was highest in those aged 18-25 years (P = 0.007) and having secondary/tertiary level education (P = 0.002). Disposal of unused/expired medication via household thrash (86.1%) was the most commonly encountered practice. Only 14.1% (n = 77) of respondents asked the pharmacist for advice on best disposal practice, although 47.3% (n = 259) thought that the pharmacist should be the main source of advice for information on medication disposal practices. There was a willingness to participate in a medicine takeback programme from 82% (n = 449) of the respondents, and the majority (67.5%) (n = 303) would prefer it if medication takeback programmes were implemented at private community pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS:Patients in Trinidad utilized household garbage as their main disposal method. There is a need to implement a medication takeback programme and educate the public on proper medication disposal.
Determinants of Clinic Absenteeism in Gynecologic Oncology Clinic at a Safety Net Hospital
There have long been noted significant health disparities related to cancer in populations comprised of low-income and minority individuals, including those with gynecologic cancers. Compliance with appointments related to cancer care is critical to ensuring timely diagnosis, treatment, and detection of disease progression. At a public safety net hospital in New York City, the rate of clinic absenteeism in gynecologic oncology clinic was noted to be nearly 20%. This prospective, survey-based study catalogued reasons for clinic absenteeism and noted that the most common reason an appointment was missed was the patient being unaware it existed. Next most common reasons were medical conflicts and family obligations. Patients at this clinic would benefit from a clinic navigator to assist with scheduling appointments, remind patients of upcoming appointments, and resolve conflicting medical appointments.
Extreme enhanced myometrial vascularity following cesarean scar pregnancy: a new diagnostic entity
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To define, illustrate and to follow-up the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of a subset of the known enhanced myometrial vascularity (EMV): its extreme form, associated with cesarean scar pregnancies (CSP) and with some cases pf placenta accreta spectrum being at increased risk of significant bleeding complications. We also aim to provide guidance to the management of such cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:This is an IRB-approved retrospective observational study of thirteen patients with an extreme form of EMV complicating CSPs. Patient's age, parity, number of cesarean deliveries, initial and time to negative serum hCG levels, primary and secondary diagnoses, blood flow peak systolic velocities, primary and secondary treatments, uterine artery embolization and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Gestational ages ranged 6-11â€‰weeks at initial presentation. Initial serum hCG was 20.0-102.48 mIU/L (mean 44.4 mIU/L). Diameter of EMV reached 20-75â€‰mm (mean 46.8â€‰mm). The mean peak systolic velocity (PSV) was 84.2â€‰cm/s (range 46.7-118.0). Primary treatments were: systemic methotrexate (MTX) alone; D&C alone; MTX and D&C; local and systemic intra-gestational MTX injection; double cervical ripening balloon with systemic MTX; misoprostol and D&C; emergent UAE. UAE and hysterectomy were the two main secondary treatments in 10 women except 1 having a D&C after UAE, and in 1 the lesion regressed without secondary treatment. Mean time to nonpregnant hCG levels was 21-122â€‰days (mean 67.2). Mean follow-up was 110.2â€‰days (range 26-160). Ten women were treated with UAE, 6 had one, 3 had two embolizations. Two women had hysterectomies, one of these for persistent bleeding. Based upon the common denominators of the clinical and the US pictures, our definition of extreme EMV is sustained form of EMV associated with treated or untreated CSP, with peak systolic velocities of blood flow over 50â€‰cm/s, slow return or plateauing serum hCG, with or without clinically significant vaginal bleeding, unresponsive to initial or secondary treatment requiring uterine artery embolization or hysterectomy. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:differs following the normal regression of the physiologically re-modelled, dilated vascular bed from the faulty "disrepair" of the vessel wall in in treated or untreated CSPs. The "threatening" appearance of the above EMVs warranted the term "extreme", creating their separate new sub-category." Extreme forms of CSP-related EMV pose significant diagnostic and management challenges. Prompt recognition and intervention, the proactive use of UAE, can maximize the outcome of women affected by this "extreme" form of EMV enabling to preserve reproductive potential. Obstetricians, gynecologists and interventional radiologists should be aware of this form of severe vascular complication.
Adapting antenatal care in a rural LMIC during COVID-19: A low literacy checklist to mitigate risk for community health workers
The COVID-19 pandemic is challenging health systems across the world. The potential for devastating consequences in resource-limited low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is just beginning to be understood. In the majority of LMICs, maternal healthcare is focused outside a health center through the use of community health workers and birth attendants. These essential workers provide the majority of maternal health care around the globe and are ill prepared for the highly transmissible nature of this novel virus and its consequences for their communities. Little attention has been focused on their training and responsiveness during this pandemic.
Anxiety and Type 1 Diabetes Management: Guardian and Child Report in a Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic
BACKGROUND:Childhood anxiety prevents optimal diabetes management yet may be underrecognized by guardians. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate associations among anxiety, diabetes treatment adherence, and diabetes symptom control through child and guardian report. METHODS:Cross-sectional pilot study surveying a convenience sample of children (ages 2-21) in a pediatric endocrinology clinic. Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition 2, Self-Care Inventory Report, and Pediatric Quality of Life measured anxiety, diabetes treatment adherence, and diabetes symptom control. Analyses were performed with Spearman correlations. RESULTS:Â =Â -0.38, PÂ = 0.02]). Child- and guardian-reported anxiety were positively correlated (rhoÂ =Â 0.426, PÂ = 0.017)-particularly for children aged >12 (rhoÂ =Â 0.686, PÂ = 0.003)-although not significantly for childrenÂ â‰¤Â 12 (rhoÂ =Â 0.201, PÂ = 0.473). CONCLUSION:Anxiety in children with type 1 diabetes varies with the domain of diabetes management (treatment adherence vs. symptom control) and reporting source (child vs. guardian). Children aged â‰¤12 exhibited a stronger relationship between higher anxiety and worse diabetes management with worse treatment adherence and symptom control in the presence of higher anxiety. Guardians of younger children were less effective at recognizing symptoms. Challenges identifying anxiety and its detrimental effects on diabetes management suggest routine screening of anxiety in pediatric endocrinology clinics is especially salient.
The mental health burden of Mayan women in rural Guatemala
Impact of Standardized Prenatal Clinical Training for Traditional Birth Attendants in Rural Guatemala
In low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), traditional birth attendant (TBA) training programs are increasing, yet reports are limited on how those programs affect the prenatal clinical abilities of trained TBAs. This study aims to assess the impact of clinical training on TBAs before and after a maternal health-training program. A prospective observational study was conducted in rural Guatemala from March to December 2017. Thirteen participants conducted 116 prenatal home visits. Data acquisition occurred before any prenatal clinical training had occurred, at the completion of the 14-week training program, and at six months post program completion. The paired t-test and McNemar’s test was used and statistical analyses were performed with R Version 3.3.1. There was a statistically significant improvement in prenatal clinical skills before and after the completion of the training program. The mean percentage of prenatal skills done correctly before any training occurred was 25.8%, 62.3% at the completion of the training program (p-value = 0.0001), and 71.0% after six months of continued training (p-value = 0.034). This study highlights the feasibility of prenatal skill improvement through a standardized and continuous clinical training program for TBAs. The improvement of TBA prenatal clinical skills could benefit indigenous women in rural Guatemala and other LMICs.
How a Training Program Is Transforming the Role of Traditional Birth Attendants from Cultural Practitioners to Unique Health-care Providers: A Community Case Study in Rural Guatemala
In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the rates of maternal mortality continue to be inappropriately high, there has been recognition of the importance of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to help improve outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth. In Guatemala, there is no national comprehensive training program in place despite the fact that the majority of women rely on TBAs during pregnancy and childbirth. This community case study presents a unique education program led by TBAs for TBAs in rural Guatemala. Discussion of this training program focuses on programming implementation, curriculum development, sustainable methodology, and how an educational partnership with the current national health-care system can increase access to health care for women in LMICs. Recent modifications to this training model are also discussed including how a change in the clinical curriculum is further integrating TBAs into the national health infrastructure. The training program has demonstrated that Guatemalan TBAs are able to improve their basic obstetrical knowledge, are capable of identifying and referring early complications of pregnancy and labor, and can deliver basic prenatal care that would otherwise not be provided. This training model is helping transform the role of the TBA from a sole cultural practitioner to a validated health-care provider within the health-care infrastructure of Guatemala and has the potential to do the same in other LMICs.