Defining oligometastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer and clinically significant outcomes: Implications on clinical trials?
PURPOSE:With the current movement toward treating oligometastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer (OMPC), we design a study with the objective of gathering opinions regarding what would be considered a clinically significant benefit from such treatments. METHODS:Data was collected from physicians of the Society of Urologic Oncology using a self-administered questionnaire using SurveyMonkey. The questionnaire was designed to obtain characteristics on clinical practice of the respondents, definitions used for OMPC and also what would be considered a clinically significant benefit according to the respondents. We present a descriptive analysis of the responses obtained. RESULTS:We obtained 119 responses (response rate of 12.6%) after sending the questionnaire twice with one month apart. Most of them being staff/faculty (89%) practicing in the United States of America (84.87%). Most of the responders referred that a significant proportion of their practice comes from PC patients. Most defined OMPC <3 bone/lymph node metastasis seen with conventional imaging, only 26.9% of the responders used positron emission tomography. Regarding the clinical benefit of metastasis-oriented treatment, a curing rate >10% or an increase in 1 year of androgen deprivation therapy-free survival would make the treatment worthwhile. We present examples of sample size calculations for future clinical trials using these parameters as an expected "clinically-significant" benefit. CONCLUSION:This study shows that most clinicians still support the use of conventional imaging to define OMPC. Our findings show that a curing rate of a minimum of 11% and an androgen deprivation therapy-free survival at 1 year are considered clinically significant and this should be used for estimating the sample size in future clinical trials.
Benefit of a more extended pelvic lymph node dissection among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer: A causal mediation analysis
BACKGROUND:The therapeutic role of extended (ePLND) versus nonextended pelvic lymph node dissection (nePLND) to remove occult micrometastases in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (PC) is conflicting. Therefore, our aim was to quantify the direct effect of ePLND versus nePLND (removal of occult micrometastases), whichÂ is not mediated through the detection of nodal disease and potential adjuvant therapy (indirect effect). METHODS:Retrospective, bi-centerÂ cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and PLND for PC (January 2006 and December 2016). Patients were followed until April 2018 for the occurrence of either biochemical recurrence or secondary therapy (composite outcome). ePLND was compared to nePLND by unweighted and weighted survival analysis (total effect) as well as by causal mediation analysis (direct and indirect effect). RESULTS:Positive nodal disease was detected in 71 (7%) out of 1008 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and PLND for PC (ePLND: 368 [36.5%]; nePLND: 640 [63.5%]). Survival analysis demonstrated results in favor of ePLND (unweighted hazard ratio: 0.77 [95% confidence interval: 0.59-1.01], pâ€‰=â€‰.056; weighted hazard ratio: 0.75 [0.56-0.99], pâ€‰=â€‰.044). The causal mediation analysis confirmed the total effect of 0.77 (0.71-0.82). After disentangling this total effect into an indirect effect (via detection of nodal disease and potential adjuvant therapy) and a direct effect (via removal of occult micrometastases), we identified an even more protective direct effect of 0.69 (0.63-0.75). CONCLUSIONS:Our results not only indicate the utility of ePLND but also that its impact is not restricted to a staging benefit and probably involves a therapeutic benefit mediated through the removal of occult micrometastases.
Population-based analysis of perioperative chemotherapy use, interventions requiring hospitalization and atheroembolic events among patients with non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer
INTRODUCTION:Utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is increasingly recognized as standard of care but trends of use in Ontario remain unknown. Currently, there remains knowledge gaps regarding the effects of perioperative chemotherapy on the rates of interventions requiring hospitalization (IRH) and atheroembolic events (ATEs). METHODS:We conducted a population-based retrospective study within the province of Ontario over 16Â years. Patients with non-metastatic MIBC receiving surgery only or planned for perioperative chemotherapy were included. Primary outcomes included 2-year IRH and ATE rates. Univariate/multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors associated with IRHs and ATEs. Cochrane-Armitage was used to assess treatment trends over time. RESULTS:Our study included 3281 patients. RC alone occurred in 2030 (60.9%), NC in 974 (29.6%) and adjuvant chemotherapy in 8.4% (nÂ =Â 277). A total of 490/974 (50.3%) patients whom initiated NC with RC intent failed to undergo RC. This improved to 20.5% by 2015 (pÂ <Â 0.001). Use of NC increased by an absolute value of 33% (pÂ <Â 0.001). Overall, 4.2% of patients experienced IRHs and 11.5% ATEs. On multivariate analysis, advanced age and Charlson index score (CI) were strong predictors of outcomes, not timing of perioperative chemotherapy (pÂ <Â 0.05.) CONCLUSION: A total of 29.6% of MIBC patients are planned for NC with 20.5% not progressing to their surgery. Use of NC has substantially increased over time. IRHs and ATEs remain stubbornly high at 4.2% and 11.5% respectively. Older age and higher CI scores are the strongest predictors of IRHs and ATEs (pÂ <Â 0.05), not perioperative chemotherapy.
Use of combined androgen deprivation therapy with postoperative radiation treatment for prostate cancer: Impact of randomized trials on clinical practice
PURPOSE:To assess the impact of RTOG-9601 and GETUG-AFU-16 on the routine use of combination androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for prostate cancer (CaP). MATERIAL AND METHODS:Patients with localized CaP treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and PORT with or without ADT at a comprehensive cancer center from January 2006 to June 2007 (Period 1â€¯=â€¯P1), July 2011 to December 2012 (Period 2â€¯=â€¯P2), and January 2017 to June 2018 (Period 3â€¯=â€¯P3) were included. Clinicopathologic features and treatment characteristics were analyzed and compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess prognostic factors and association with ADT use. Statistical tests were two-sided and a P value <0.05 was considered significant. To validate the findings, United States National Cancer Database (NCDB) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data were collected to assess rates of combined ADT and PORT from 2004 to 2015. RESULTS:Five hundred and two patients were included: 152 (P1), 185 (P2), and 165 (P3). PORT was most commonly delivered as early SRT (delivered >1 year post-RP with undetectable PSA or PSA >0.05 and â‰¤0.5 ng/ml) in all periods. The use of combination PORT and ADT increased over time: 14.5% (P1), 32% (P2), and 41% (P3) (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients that met eligibility criteria for either GETUG-AFU-16 or RTOG-9601 decreased from 47% (P1) to 35% (P3) (Pâ€¯=â€¯0.04). International Society of Urological Pathology grade â‰¥4 (P < 0.002) and pre-PORT PSA >0.5 ng/ml (P < 0.001) were associated with use of ADT. Positive surgical margin status had a negative association (RR 0.5, P < 0.002). The NCDB demonstrated similar trends for use of combined ADT with PORT, increasing from 37% to 49% from 2004 to 2015. CONCLUSION:The use of combined ADT with PORT increased over time. However, only a third of contemporary patients undergoing PORT are represented in the major trials supporting the evidence for combination treatment, highlighting the need to characterize the modern impact of this intensification strategy.
A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Irrigation "Bag Squeeze" to Manage Pain for Patients Undergoing Flexible Cystoscopy
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:We determined if the "bag squeeze" technique decreases pain during flexible cystoscopy in men. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial recruited 200 consenting participants who were ambulatory, outpatient males who had undergone prior cystoscopy and were not expected to require any secondary procedures. Men with prior urethral stricture or bladder neck contracture were excluded from study. Once eligibility was assessed and consent obtained, participants were randomized to undergo cystoscopy with the bag squeeze (group A) or the sham bag squeeze procedure (group B). Following cystoscopy, participants completed a pain questionnaire (visual analogue scale). Differences in mean pain score between groups were evaluated using Students' t-test with a 2-sided alpha of 0.05. RESULTS:A total of 200 patients were randomized and underwent flexible cystoscopy. Ten participants were ineligible because they required secondary procedures. Among the 190 eligible patients 97 were randomized to bag squeeze (group A) and 93 to sham bag squeeze (group B) with mean pain scores of 1.91 and 3.39, respectively (p <0.005). CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated a clinically meaningful decrease in pain for men undergoing flexible cystoscopy when the irrigation bag squeeze technique was used vs placebo bag squeeze. Accordingly, this useful, simple and free method to improve patient comfort during flexible cystoscopy should be adopted by clinicians.
Salvage Radiotherapy Following Partial Gland Ablation for Prostate Cancer: Functional and Oncological Outcomes
Utility of digital rectal examination in a population with prostate cancer treated with active surveillance
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Digital rectal examination (DRE) is part of the clinical evaluation of men on active surveillance (AS). The purpose of the present study is to analyze the value of DRE as a predictor of upgrading in a population of men with prostate cancer (PCa) treated with AS. METHODS:We used the prostate biopsy (PBx) database from an academic center, including PBx from 2006-2018, and identified 2029 confirmatory biopsies (CxPBx) of men treated with AS, of which 726 men had both diagnostic (initial) and CxPBx information available. We did a descriptive analysis and evaluated sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of DRE for the detection of clinically significant PCa (csPCa). Multivariable regression analysis was done to identify predictors of csPCa. The primary outcome was to evaluate DRE as a predictor of the presence of csPCa at CxPBx. RESULTS:Among the 2029 patients with a CxPBx, 75% had PCa, and of these, 30.3% had upgrading to International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) grade â‰¥2. Thirteen percent of men had a suspicious DRE (done by their treating physician). Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of DRE to detect csPCa were best with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <4 ng/ml (27%, 88%, 31%, and 87%, respectively). A suspicious DRE at CxPBx, particularly if the DRE at diagnosis was negative, was a predictor of csPCa (odds ratio [OR] 2.34, p=0.038). The main limitation of our study is the retrospective design and the lack of magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSIONS:We believe DRE should still be used as part of AS and can predict the presence of csPCa, even with low PSA values. A suspicious nodule on DRE represents a higher risk of upgrading and should prompt further assessment.
Predictors of prostate-specific antigen testing in men aged â‰¥55Â years: A cross-sectional study based on patient-reported outcomes
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine the predictors of prostate-specific antigen discussion with a physician and prostate-specific antigen testing in men aged â‰¥55Â years. METHODS:Utilizing the USA Health Information National Trends Survey, 4th Ed., a cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2014 was carried out to analyze the factors predicting prostate-specific antigen testing and discussion in men â‰¥55Â years. Associations between each covariate and prostate-specific antigen discussion/testing were determined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine clinically relevant predictors of prostate-specific antigen discussion/testing. Due to multiple comparisons, the Bonferroni correction was used. RESULTS:A total of 2731 men included in the Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed. Several socioeconomic parameters were found to increase the likelihood of men aged â‰¥55Â years to undergo prostate-specific antigen testing: living with a spouse, a higher level of education (college graduate or above), a higher income (>$50Â 000 annually) and previous history of any cancer. In contrast, current smokers were less likely to undergo prostate-specific antigen testing. Having a prostate-specific antigen discussion with a physician was more likely for men surveyed in 2014, for men who were living with a spouse, who had a higher annual income (>$50Â 000 annually) and those with a history of any cancer. CONCLUSIONS:Significant inequalities in prostate-specific antigen testing and discussion exist among men in the USA, mainly driven by socioeconomic factors. Ideally, prostate-specific antigen testing and discussion should be based on relevant clinical factors with a shared decision-making approach for every man. Therefore, a better understanding of the socioeconomic factors influencing prostate-specific antigen testing/discussions can inform strategies to reduce existing gaps in care.
A High Percent Free Prostate Specific Antigen in the Setting of Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy is Associated with Poorer Outcomes: A Validation Study Using Prospectively Collected Biobank Specimens
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The role of percent free prostate specific antigen (%fPSA) in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy and subsequently experienced disease relapse is unclear. We previously conducted 2 retrospective studies and found %fPSA 15 or greater in the setting of biochemical recurrence confers more aggressive disease. To validate that finding we used biobank specimens collected prospectively when patients were first diagnosed with biochemical recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Biobank specimens of patients with undetectable prostate specific antigen after radical prostatectomy and subsequent biochemical recurrence (prostate specific antigen 0.1 ng/ml or greater) were analyzed for %fPSA. Patients were stratified according to the %fPSA cutoff of 15. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to predict covariates associated with a higher %fPSA. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of %fPSA on androgen deprivation therapy-free survival, metastasis-free survival, castration resistant-free survival and cancer specific survival. RESULTS:A total of 154 men were included in the study, of whom 126 (82%) had %fPSA less than 15 and 28 (18%) had %fPSA 15 or greater. Median followup for %fPSA less than 15 and %fPSA 15 or greater was 75 and 69 months, respectively. Patients with %fPSA 15 or greater had increased hazard of receiving androgen deprivation therapy (43% vs 25%, adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.12-5.11), metastatic disease (21% vs 7.9%, adjusted HR 4.10, 95% CI 1.11-15.2) and castration resistant prostate cancer (14% vs 4.0%, unadjusted HR 4.14, 95% CI 1.11-15.5) vs %fPSA less than 15, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with %fPSA 15 or greater were started on androgen deprivation therapy earlier, and they had progression to castration resistant prostate cancer and metastatic stage earlier. %fPSA 15 or greater in the setting of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy is an indicator of a more aggressive disease. Unlike in the diagnostic setting, a higher %fPSA portends a worse clinical outcome.
Required efficacy for novel therapies in BCG-unresponsive non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Do current recommendations really reflect clinically meaningful outcomes?
BACKGROUND:Single-arm trials are currently an accepted study design to investigate the efficacy of novel therapies (NT) in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) unresponsive to intravesical Bacillus Calmette-GuÃ©rin (BCG) immunotherapy as randomized controlled trials are either unfeasible (comparator: early radical cystectomy; ERC), or unethical (comparator: placebo). To guide the design of such single-arm trials, expert groups published recommendations for clinically meaningful outcomes. The aim of this study was to quantitatively verify the appropriateness of these recommendations. METHODS:We used a discrete event simulation framework in combination with a supercomputer to find the required efficacy at which a NT can compete with ERC when it comes to quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE). In total, 24 different efficacy thresholds (including the recommendations) were investigated. RESULTS:After ascertaining face validity with content experts, repeated verification, external validation, and calibration we considered our model valid. Both recommendations rarely showed an incremental benefit of the NT over ERC. In the most optimistic scenario, an increase in the IBCG recommendation by 10% and an increase in the FDA/AUA recommendation by 5% would yield results at which a NT could compete with ERC from a QALE perspective. CONCLUSIONS:This simulation study demonstrated that the current recommendations regarding clinically meaningful outcomes for single-arm trials evaluating the efficacy of NT in BCG-unresponsive NMIBC may be too low. Based on our quantitative approach, we propose increasing these thresholds to at least 45%-55% at 6Â months and 35% at 18-24Â months (complete response rates/recurrence-free survival) to promote the development of clinically truly meaningful NT.