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Impact of oral vancomycin treatment duration on rate of Clostridioides difficile recurrence in patients requiring concurrent systemic antibiotics

Kwiatkowski, Diana; Marsh, Kassandra; Katz, Alyson; Papadopoulos, John; So, Jonathan; Major, Vincent J; Sommer, Philip M; Hochman, Sarah; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Arnouk, Serena
BACKGROUND:infection (CDI) in patients requiring concomitant systemic antibiotics. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate prescribing practices of vancomycin for CDI in patients that required concurrent systemic antibiotics and to determine whether a prolonged duration of vancomycin (>14 days), compared to a standard duration (10-14 days), decreased CDI recurrence. METHODS:(VRE). RESULTS:= .083) were not significantly different between groups. Discontinuation of vancomycin prior to completion of antibiotics was an independent predictor of 8-week recurrence on multivariable logistic regression (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-18.1). CONCLUSIONS:Oral vancomycin prescribing relative to the systemic antibiotic end date may affect CDI recurrence to a greater extent than total vancomycin duration alone. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
PMID: 38288606
ISSN: 1559-6834
CID: 5627432

How Ophthalmologists Can Decarbonize Eye Care: A Review of Existing Sustainability Strategies and Steps Ophthalmologists Can Take

Sherry, Brooke; Lee, Samuel; Ramos Cadena, Maria De Los Angeles; Laynor, Gregory; Patel, Sheel R; Simon, Maxine dellaBadia; Romanowski, Eric G; Hochman, Sarah E; Schuman, Joel S; Prescott, Christina; Thiel, Cassandra L
TOPIC/OBJECTIVE:Understanding approaches to sustainability in cataract surgery and their risks and benefits CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In the United States, healthcare is responsible for approximately 8.5% of greenhouse gas (GHG), and cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Ophthalmologists can contribute to reducing GHG emissions, which lead to a steadily increasing list of health concerns ranging from trauma to food instability. METHODS:We conducted a literature review to identify the benefits and risks of sustainability interventions. We then organized these interventions into a decision tree for use by individual surgeons. RESULTS:Identified sustainability interventions fall into the domains of advocacy and education, pharmaceuticals, process, and supplies and waste. Existing literature shows certain interventions may be safe, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. These include dispensing medications home to patients after surgery, multi-dosing appropriate medications, training staff to properly sort medical waste, reducing the number of supplies used during surgery, and implementing immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery where clinically appropriate. The literature was lacking on the benefits or risks for some interventions, such as switching specific single use supplies to reusables or implementing a hub-and-spoke style theatre setup. Many of the advocacy and education interventions have inadequate literature specific to ophthalmology but are likely to have minimal risks. CONCLUSIONS:Ophthalmologists can engage in a variety of safe and effective approaches to reduce or eliminate dangerous GHG emissions associated with cataract surgery.
PMID: 36889466
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 5432802

Treatment of Piperacillin-Tazobactam-Nonsusceptible/Ceftriaxone-Susceptible Infections With Carbapenem Versus Carbapenem-Sparing Antimicrobials

Cao, John; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Siegfried, Justin; Decano, Arnold; Mazo, Dana; Hochman, Sarah; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; So, Jonathan; Solomon, Sadie; Papadopoulos, John; Marsh, Kassandra
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED: METHODS/UNASSIGNED:infections. The primary composite endpoint included escalation to intensive care unit, infection- or treatment-related readmission, mortality, and infection recurrence. Outcomes were compared between groups who received carbapenem (CG) versus carbapenem-sparing agents (CSG) as targeted gram-negative therapy. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .001), while treatment with carbapenem-sparing therapy was not. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Our study did not find improved clinical outcomes with targeted carbapenem therapy for TZP-NS/CRO-S infections. Carbapenem-sparing agents may be considered to spare carbapenems in noncritically ill patients similar to those included in our cohort.
PMID: 37305841
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5522322

Conservation Practices for Personal Protective Equipment: A Systematic Review with Focus on Lower-Income Countries

Thiel, Cassandra L; Sreedhar, Pallavi; Silva, Genevieve S; Greene, Hannah C; Seetharaman, Meenakshi; Durr, Meghan; Roberts, Timothy; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Lee, Paul H; Andrade, Gizely; El-Shahawy, Omar; Hochman, Sarah E
During the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) necessitated unprecedented and non-validated approaches to conserve PPE at healthcare facilities, especially in high income countries where single-use disposable PPE was ubiquitous. Our team conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate historic approaches for conserving single-use PPE, expecting that lower-income countries or developing contexts may already be uniquely conserving PPE. However, of the 50 included studies, only 3 originated from middle-income countries and none originated from low-income countries. Data from the included studies suggest PPE remained effective with extended use and with multiple or repeated use in clinical settings, as long as donning and doffing were performed in a standard manner. Multiple decontamination techniques were effective in disinfecting single use PPE for repeated use. These findings can inform healthcare facilities and providers in establishing protocols for safe conservation of PPE supplies and updating existing protocols to improve sustainability and overall resilience. Future studies should evaluate conservation practices in low-resource settings during non-pandemic times to develop strategies for more sustainable and resilient healthcare worldwide.
PMID: 36767940
ISSN: 1660-4601
CID: 5427022

Remdesivir resistance in transplant recipients with persistent COVID-19

Hogan, John I; Duerr, Ralf; Dimartino, Dacia; Marier, Christian; Hochman, Sarah E; Mehta, Sapna; Wang, Guiqing; Heguy, Adriana
New mutations conferring resistance to SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics have important clinical implications. We describe the first cases of an independently acquired V792I RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutation developing in renal transplant recipients after remdesivir exposure. Our work underscores the need for augmented efforts to identify concerning mutations and address their clinical implications.
PMID: 36156117
ISSN: 1537-6591
CID: 5333962

Screening and Targeted Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization of Acute and Intensive Care Patients and Invasive Infections in an Academic Medical Center [Meeting Abstract]

DiTullio, D J; Takats, C; Hochman, S
Background. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of healthcare associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Universal S. aureus decolonization reduces methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and other bloodstream infections among ICU patients. However, universal decolonization in acute care settings has not shown a similar benefit. We describe a screening and targeted decolonization protocol implemented at an academic hospital across acute and intensive care settings. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of decolonization on rates of S. aureus invasive infections. Methods. Adult Medicine, Oncology, Transplant, and ICU patients were screened by nasal swab for S. aureus colonization on admission and change in level of care. Colonized patients received 5 days of chlorhexidine 2% applied to the body and mupirocin for the nares. We compared decolonized patients with patients who received no decolonization. The primary outcome was S. aureus invasive infection from hospital day 5 until discharge, defined by positive cultures from sterile sites. Secondary outcomes included 30-day readmission and 30-day mortality. Results. Between 2018-2020, 3,835 (23%) out of 16,467 hospitalized patients screened positive for MSSA (74%) or MRSA (26%). Among colonized patients, median age was 67 years (interquartile range [IQR] 54-79) and median LOS was 6 days (IQR 4-11). Among patients with LOS >= 5 days, 977 (37%) received decolonization. There were 122 invasive infections, 56 (46%) occurring in patients who received decolonization. Wound infections were most common (28; 23%), followed by bacteremia (27; 22%). In multivariate regression analysis controlling for confounding factors including comorbidities and length of stay, decolonization was not significantly associated with incident invasive infections (p = 0.395). Conclusion. We report on a S. aureus screening and targeted decolonization program; our initial analyses do not demonstrate an association between decolonization and reduced invasive S. aureus infections. Further investigations will examine subsets of high-risk patients and transmission events to assess if specific populations may benefit from this program
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5513432

Baricitinib versus dexamethasone for adults hospitalised with COVID-19 (ACTT-4): a randomised, double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial

Wolfe, Cameron R; Tomashek, Kay M; Patterson, Thomas F; Gomez, Carlos A; Marconi, Vincent C; Jain, Mamta K; Yang, Otto O; Paules, Catharine I; Palacios, Guillermo M Ruiz; Grossberg, Robert; Harkins, Michelle S; Mularski, Richard A; Erdmann, Nathaniel; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Almasri, Eyad; Pineda, Justino Regalado; Dretler, Alexandra W; de Castilla, Diego Lopez; Branche, Angela R; Park, Pauline K; Mehta, Aneesh K; Short, William R; McLellan, Susan L F; Kline, Susan; Iovine, Nicole M; El Sahly, Hana M; Doernberg, Sarah B; Oh, Myoung-Don; Huprikar, Nikhil; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Kelley, Colleen F; Holodniy, Mark; Kim, Eu Suk; Sweeney, Daniel A; Finberg, Robert W; Grimes, Kevin A; Maves, Ryan C; Ko, Emily R; Engemann, John J; Taylor, Barbara S; Ponce, Philip O; Larson, LuAnn; Melendez, Dante Paolo; Seibert, Allan M; Rouphael, Nadine G; Strebe, Joslyn; Clark, Jesse L; Julian, Kathleen G; de Leon, Alfredo Ponce; Cardoso, Anabela; de Bono, Stephanie; Atmar, Robert L; Ganesan, Anuradha; Ferreira, Jennifer L; Green, Michelle; Makowski, Mat; Bonnett, Tyler; Beresnev, Tatiana; Ghazaryan, Varduhi; Dempsey, Walla; Nayak, Seema U; Dodd, Lori E; Beigel, John H; Kalil, Andre C; Wahid, Lana; Walter, Emmanuel B; Belur, Akhila G; Dreyer, Grace; Patterson, Jan E; Bowling, Jason E; Dixon, Danielle O; Hewlett, Angela; Odrobina, Robert; Pupaibool, Jakrapun; Mocherla, Satish; Lazarte, Suzana; Cayabyab, Meilani; Hussein, Rezhan H; Golamari, Reshma R; Krill, Kaleigh L; Rajme, Sandra; Riska, Paul F; Zingman, Barry S; Mertz, Gregory; Sosa, Nestor; Goepfert, Paul A; Berhe, Mezgebe; Dishner, Emma; Fayed, Mohamed; Hubel, Kinsley; Martinez-Orozco, José Arturo; Bautista Felix, Nora; Elmor, Sammy T; Bechnak, Amer Ryan; Saklawi, Youssef; Van Winkle, Jason W; Zea, Diego F; Laguio-Vila, Maryrose; Walsh, Edward E; Falsey, Ann R; Carvajal, Karen; Hyzy, Robert C; Hanna, Sinan; Olbrich, Norman; Traenkner, Jessica J; Kraft, Colleen S; Tebas, Pablo; Baron, Jillian T; Levine, Corri; Nock, Joy; Billings, Joanne; Kim, Hyun; Elie-Turenne, Marie-Carmelle; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Luetkemeyer, Anne F; Dwyer, Jay; Bainbridge, Emma; Gyun Choe, Pyoeng; Kyung Kang, Chang; Jilg, Nikolaus; Cantos, Valeria D; Bhamidipati, Divya R; Nithin Gopalsamy, Srinivasa; Chary, Aarthi; Jung, Jongtak; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Hong Bin; Benson, Constance A; McConnell, Kimberly; Wang, Jennifer P; Wessolossky, Mireya; Perez, Katherine; Eubank, Taryn A; Berjohn, Catherine; Utz, Gregory C; Jackson, Patrick E H; Bell, Taison D; Haughey, Heather M; Moanna, Abeer; Cribbs, Sushma; Harrison, Telisha; Colombo, Christopher J; Schofield, Christina; Colombo, Rhonda E; Tapson, Victor F; Grein, Jonathan; Sutterwala, Fayyaz; Ince, Dilek; Winokur, Patricia L; Fung, Monica; Jang, Hannah; Wyles, David; Frank, Maria G; Sarcone, Ellen; Neumann, Henry; Viswanathan, Anand; Hochman, Sarah; Mulligan, Mark; Eckhardt, Benjamin; Carmody, Ellie; Ahuja, Neera; Nadeau, Kari; Svec, David; Macaraeg, Jeffrey C; Morrow, Lee; Quimby, Dave; Bessesen, Mary; Nicholson, Lindsay; Adams, Jill; Kumar, Princy; Lambert, Allison A; Arguinchona, Henry; Alicic, Radica Z; Saito, Sho; Ohmagari, Norio; Mikami, Ayako; Chien Lye, David; Hong Lee, Tau; Ying Chia, Po; Hsieh, Lanny; Amin, Alpesh N; Watanabe, Miki; Candiotti, Keith A; Castro, Jose G; Antor, Maria A; Lee, Tida; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Novak, Richard M; Wendrow, Andrea; Borgetti, Scott A; George, Sarah L; Hoft, Daniel F; Brien, James D; Cohen, Stuart H; Thompson, George R 3rd; Chakrabarty, Melony; Guirgis, Faheem; Davey, Richard T; Voell, Jocelyn; Strich, Jeffrey R; Lindholm, David A; Mende, Katrin; Wellington, Trevor R; Rapaka, Rekha R; Husson, Jennifer S; Levine, Andrea R; Yen Tan, Seow; Shafi, Humaira; Chien, Jaime M F; Hostler, David C; Hostler, Jordanna M; Shahan, Brian T; Adams, David H; Osinusi, Anu; Cao, Huyen; Burgess, Timothy H; Rozman, Julia; Chung, Kevin K; Nieuwoudt, Christina; El-Khorazaty, Jill A; Hill, Heather; Pettibone, Stephanie; Gettinger, Nikki; Engel, Theresa; Lewis, Teri; Wang, Jing; Deye, Gregory A; Nomicos, Effie; Pikaart-Tautges, Rhonda; Elsafy, Mohamed; Jurao, Robert; Koo, Hyung; Proschan, Michael; Yokum, Tammy; Arega, Janice; Florese, Ruth
BACKGROUND:Baricitinib and dexamethasone have randomised trials supporting their use for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. We assessed the combination of baricitinib plus remdesivir versus dexamethasone plus remdesivir in preventing progression to mechanical ventilation or death in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS:In this randomised, double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial, patients were enrolled at 67 trial sites in the USA (60 sites), South Korea (two sites), Mexico (two sites), Singapore (two sites), and Japan (one site). Hospitalised adults (≥18 years) with COVID-19 who required supplemental oxygen administered by low-flow (≤15 L/min), high-flow (>15 L/min), or non-invasive mechanical ventilation modalities who met the study eligibility criteria (male or non-pregnant female adults ≥18 years old with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection) were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either baricitinib, remdesivir, and placebo, or dexamethasone, remdesivir, and placebo using a permuted block design. Randomisation was stratified by study site and baseline ordinal score at enrolment. All patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (or matching oral placebo) for a maximum of 14 days or dexamethasone (or matching intravenous placebo) for a maximum of 10 days. The primary outcome was the difference in mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 between the two treatment groups in the modified intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the as-treated population, comprising all participants who received one dose of the study drug. The trial is registered with, NCT04640168. FINDINGS/RESULTS:Between Dec 1, 2020, and April 13, 2021, 1047 patients were assessed for eligibility. 1010 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned, 516 (51%) to baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo and 494 (49%) to dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo. The mean age of the patients was 58·3 years (SD 14·0) and 590 (58%) of 1010 patients were male. 588 (58%) of 1010 patients were White, 188 (19%) were Black, 70 (7%) were Asian, and 18 (2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native. 347 (34%) of 1010 patients were Hispanic or Latino. Mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 was similar between the study groups (Kaplan-Meier estimates of 87·0% [95% CI 83·7 to 89·6] in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 87·6% [84·2 to 90·3] in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group; risk difference 0·6 [95% CI -3·6 to 4·8]; p=0·91). The odds ratio for improved status in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group compared with the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group was 1·01 (95% CI 0·80 to 1·27). At least one adverse event occurred in 149 (30%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 179 (37%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·5% [1·6 to 13·3]; p=0·014). 21 (4%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group had at least one treatment-related adverse event versus 49 (10%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 6·0% [2·8 to 9·3]; p=0·00041). Severe or life-threatening grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 143 (28%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 174 (36%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·7% [1·8 to 13·4]; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:In hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen by low-flow, high-flow, or non-invasive ventilation, baricitinib plus remdesivir and dexamethasone plus remdesivir resulted in similar mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29, but dexamethasone was associated with significantly more adverse events, treatment-related adverse events, and severe or life-threatening adverse events. A more individually tailored choice of immunomodulation now appears possible, where side-effect profile, ease of administration, cost, and patient comorbidities can all be considered. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
PMID: 35617986
ISSN: 2213-2619
CID: 5249952

Outcomes of Cytomegalovirus Viremia Treatment in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 Infection

Schoninger, Scott; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Marsh, Kassandra; Altshuler, Diana; Prasad, Prithiv; Louie, Eddie; Weisenberg, Scott; Hochman, Sarah; Fridman, David; Trachuk, Polina
Background/UNASSIGNED:Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have poor outcomes and frequently develop comorbid conditions, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation. The implications of CMV reactivation in this setting are unknown. We aimed to investigate if treatment of CMV viremia improved in-hospital mortality in ICU patients with COVID-19. Methods/UNASSIGNED:In this single-center retrospective study, we analyzed clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and CMV viremia admitted to an ICU from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021, who either received treatment (ganciclovir and/or valganciclovir) or received no treatment. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were total hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and predictors of in-hospital mortality. Results/UNASSIGNED: = .749). There was no significant difference in hospital LOS, though CMV-treated patients had a longer ICU LOS. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Treatment of CMV viremia did not decrease in-hospital mortality in ICU patients with COVID-19, but the sample size was limited. CMV viremia was significantly associated with total steroid dose received and longer ICU stay.
PMID: 35859993
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5279242

Pathogen Species Is Associated With Mortality in Nosocomial Bloodstream Infection in Patients With COVID-19

Gago, Juan; Filardo, Thomas D; Conderino, Sarah; Magaziner, Samuel J; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Inglima, Kenneth; Iturrate, Eduardo; Pironti, Alejandro; Schluter, Jonas; Cadwell, Ken; Hochman, Sarah; Li, Huilin; Torres, Victor J; Thorpe, Lorna E; Shopsin, Bo
Background/UNASSIGNED:The epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBSIs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood, due in part to substantial disease heterogeneity resulting from multiple potential pathogens. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We identified risk factors for NBSIs and examined the association between NBSIs and mortality in a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 2 New York City hospitals during the height of the pandemic. We adjusted for the potential effects of factors likely to confound that association, including age, race, illness severity upon admission, and underlying health status. Results/UNASSIGNED:infections did not have an identifiable source and were not associated with common risk factors for infection by these organisms. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Pathogen species and mortality exhibited temporal differences. Early recognition of risk factors among COVID-19 patients could potentially decrease NBSI-associated mortality through early COVID-19 and antimicrobial treatment.
PMID: 35607701
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5283852

Association of substance use disorders and drug overdose with adverse COVID-19 outcomes in New York City: January-October 2020

Allen, Bennett; El Shahawy, Omar; Rogers, Erin S; Hochman, Sarah; Khan, Maria R; Krawczyk, Noa
BACKGROUND:Evidence suggests that individuals with history of substance use disorder (SUD) are at increased risk of COVID-19, but little is known about relationships between SUDs, overdose and COVID-19 severity and mortality. This study investigated risks of severe COVID-19 among patients with SUDs. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of data from a hospital system in New York City. Patient records from 1 January to 26 October 2020 were included. We assessed positive COVID-19 tests, hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and death. Descriptive statistics and bivariable analyses compared the prevalence of COVID-19 by baseline characteristics. Logistic regression estimated unadjusted and sex-, age-, race- and comorbidity-adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for associations between SUD history, overdose history and outcomes. RESULTS:Of patients tested for COVID-19 (n = 188 653), 2.7% (n = 5107) had any history of SUD. Associations with hospitalization [AORs (95% confidence interval)] ranged from 1.78 (0.85-3.74) for cocaine use disorder (COUD) to 6.68 (4.33-10.33) for alcohol use disorder. Associations with ICU admission ranged from 0.57 (0.17-1.93) for COUD to 5.00 (3.02-8.30) for overdose. Associations with death ranged from 0.64 (0.14-2.84) for COUD to 3.03 (1.70-5.43) for overdose. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with histories of SUD and drug overdose may be at elevated risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes.
PMID: 33367823
ISSN: 1741-3850
CID: 4731512