Do ACR TI-RADS scores demonstrate unique thyroid molecular profiles?
Xia, Rong; Sun, Wei; Yee, Joseph; Sheth, Sheila; Slywotzky, Chrystia; Hodak, Steven; Brandler, Tamar C
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed to examine the molecular profiles of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules stratified by American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) categories and to determine whether certain ultrasonographic features display particular molecular alterations. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of cases from January 1, 2016 to April 1, 2018. Cases with in-house ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) diagnoses, molecular testing, and surgery were included. All cases were diagnosed as TBSRTC indeterminate categories. The ultrasound studies were retrospectively reviewed and assigned TI-RADS scores (TR1-TR5) by board-certified radiologists. The final diagnoses were determined based on the surgical resection pathology. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to study whether demographic characteristics, TI-RADS levels, and TBSRTC diagnoses were associated with ThyroSeq molecular results. RESULTS:Eighty-one cases met the inclusion criteria. RAS mutations were the most common alteration across all TI-RADS categories (TR2 2/2; TR3 10/19, TR4 13/44, and TR5 8/16), and did not stratify with any particular TI-RADS category. Only TR4 and TR5 categories displayed more aggressive mutations such as BRAFV600E and TERT. ThyroSeq results were positively correlated with thyroid malignancy when non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was categorized in the malignant category (odds ratio [OR], 6.859; P<0.01), but not when NIFTP was removed from the malignancy category. Echogenicity scores were found to be negatively correlated with ThyroSeq results in thyroid nodules (OR, 0.162; P<0.01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Higher-risk molecular alterations tended to stratify with the higher TI-RADS categories.
Minimally Invasive Techniques for the Management of Thyroid Nodules
Baldwin, Chelsey K; Natter, Michael B; Patel, Kepal N; Hodak, Steven P
Image-guided interventional techniques have emerged as promising treatments for thyroid disease. Percutaneous ethanol ablation, radiofrequency ablation, laser ablation, high intensity focused ultrasound, and microwave ablation have shown efficacy in treating benign thyroid disease. There is increasing evidence that these techniques may effectively treat papillary thyroid microcarcinomas, recurrent and metastatic disease, follicular neoplasms, and parathyroid lesions. They are performed in an outpatient setting, well-tolerated, with negligible risk for thyroid hormone supplementation, making them a popular alternative to surgical resection. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the devices, techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of each intervention, and summarize the published outcomes.
Prognostic Significance of Singular RAS Mutations in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]
Dublin, J C; Papazian, M; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Sun, W; Hodak, S; Baldwin, C K; Patel, K N; Brandler, T C; Givi, B
Introduction: The prognostic significance of a singular RAS mutation in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) is unclear. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of malignancy and clinical outcomes of ITNs diagnosed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology with RAS mutations.
Method(s): All FNA ITNs that underwent ThyroSeq testing and thyroidectomy from 2014-2018 were reviewed. ITNs with RAS (N-, H-, or K-RAS) mutations identified on ThyroSeq testing were selected. Demographics, Bethesda classifications, genomic profiles, treatment, final pathology, and clinical outcomes were recorded.
Result(s): During the study period, 93 patients with cytologic diagnosis of ITN and RAS mutations were identified. The mean nodule size was 2.2 cm (range: 0.5-6.6 cm). Most nodules were classified as Bethesda III (77, 82.8%). NRAS mutations were the most common (53, 57%), followed by HRAS (24, 25.8%), and KRAS (16, 17.2%). The majority of patients were treated with thyroid lobectomy (67, 72%). On final pathology, 9 (10%) were diagnosed as malignant (follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma [FVPTC]) and were distributed among all 3 RAS variants (NRAS: 4 [7.5%]; HRAS: 4 [16.7%]; KRAS: 1 [6.3%]; p=0.4). Most FVPTCs were encapsulated (8, 88.9%). With a median follow up of 19 months (interquartile range = 8-35), no recurrences or progression was seen.
Conclusion(s): The risk of malignancy in ITNs with singular RAS mutations is low. All malignancies were low-risk. Our findings demonstrate a low incidence of high-risk malignancy in ITNs with RAS mutations, suggesting that initial management with conservative approaches such as thyroid lobectomy may be justified.
Concordance of Initial and Repeat Molecular Analysis in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]
Papazian, M; Dublin, J C; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Baldwin, C; Jacobson, A S; Hodak, S; Patel, K N; Brandler, T C; Givi, B
Introduction: Molecular tests such as ThyroSeq are recommended in the workup of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN). While repeat molecular testing is often performed after repeat fine needle aspiration (FNA) yields persistently indeterminate cytology, ThyroSeq's inter-test reliability is unclear. We assessed consistency of initial and repeat ThyroSeq analyses performed on samples from the same thyroid nodules.
Method(s): All thyroid nodules diagnosed as ITN on consecutive FNAs that received ThyroSeq with both biopsies from 2014-2018 at our institution, were reviewed. Initial analysis was ThyroSeq v2 while repeat was v2 or v3. Nodules with gene mutations, fusions, or copy number alterations (CNA) were considered ThyroSeq-positive.
Result(s): During the study period, 30 patients underwent ThyroSeq analysis on initial and repeat FNA samples (median interval=21 months). On initial testing, 27 (90%) nodules were ThyroSeq-negative and 3 (10%) low-risk mutations (RAS, EIF1AX, TSHR) were identified. Repeat ThyroSeq re-identified these 3 nodules and also interpreted 9 initially ThyroSeq-negative nodules as positive (kappa=0.286). All 9 molecular alterations were low-risk, most were identified on v3 (7, 77.8%), and CNA was the most common change (6, 66.7%). Of 12 patients with ThyroSeq-positive nodules, 8 underwent lobectomy. Final pathology identified low-risk malignancy in 3 nodules; the remainder were benign.
Conclusion(s): New findings on repeat ThyroSeq are possible. Whether these findings were detected by expanded panel or are the result of de-novo changes is unknown. The risk of missing high-risk changes appears to be low. More studies are needed to characterize the concordance of ThyroSeq analyses and natural evolution of ITNs.
Molecular profiling of 50,734 bethesda iii-vi thyroid nodules by thyroseq v3 genomic classifier: Implications for personalized management [Meeting Abstract]
Chiosea, S; Hodak, S; Yip, L; Baldwin, C; Baloch, Z; Hannoush, Z; Haugen, B; Joseph, L; Kargi, A; Khanafshar, E; Livhits, M; Patel, K; Patel, S; Randolph, G; Shaha, A; Sharma, J; Staii, A; Stathatos, N; Van, Zante A; Carty, S; Nikiforov, Y; Nikiforova, M
Comprehensive genomic analysis of thyroid nodules for multiple classes of molecular alterations, including TERT mutations and copy number alterations (CNA), have not been reported in a large series of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinically relevant molecular alterations in consecutive Bethesda III-VI thyroid nodules analyzed by ThyroSeq v3 Genomic Classifier. Retrospective analysis of 50,734 consecutive FNA samples from thyroid nodules clinically tested by ThyroSeq v3 Genomic Classifier (GC) included 40,622 (80%) Bethesda III; 7,725 (15%) Bethesda IV; 2,028 (4%) Bethesda V; and 359 (1%) Bethesda VI cytology samples. Among all FNA samples, 65.3% were reported as Negative, 33.9% as Positive, 0.2% as Positive for medullary carcinoma, and 0.6% Positive for parathyroid. Of the 48,347 Bethesda III/IV samples, 67.8% were Negative, whereas of the 2,387 Bethesda V-VI cytology samples, 84.8% were Positive. Among the test-positive nodules, BRAF V600E mutation was found in 8.8% of BIII-IV and in 65.8% of BV-VI samples (p < 0.001), whereas RAS mutations were more prevalent among BIII-IV as compared to BV-VI nodules (46.5% vs. 8.8%, p < 0.001). Among prognostically significant highrisk mutations, TERT promoter mutations were more prevalent in BV-VI (9.1%) vs. BIII-IV (4.6%) nodules (p < 0.001). Fusions involving RET, ALK, NTRK1, NTRK3, ROS1, and BRAF were more prevalent in BV-VI than in BIII-IV nodules (9.6% vs 4.2%; p < 0.001). ThyroSeq v3 GC detection of novel RTK gene fusion partners by differential expression of TK over EC domain of the gene were confirmed by RNA-Seq in 98.2% of cases. CNA of Hurthle cell type were more prevalent in BIII-IV (11.5%) than BV-VI nodules (5.5%) (p < 0.001). In this large series of consecutive FNA samples, 68% of Bethesda III-IV nodules were classified as negative by ThyroSeq v3 GC, allowing avoidance of diagnostic surgeries in these patients. Genetic alterations were identified in 85% of Bethesda V-VI nodules, with higher prevalence of BRAF V600E and TERT mutations and targetable gene fusions as compared to Bethesda III-IV nodules, offering valuable prognostic and therapeutic information for personalized management of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed preoperatively
The need for completion thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy in the treatment of indeterminate thyroid nodules [Meeting Abstract]
Dublin, J; Papazian, M; Brandler, T; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Baldwin, C; Jacobson, A; Hodak, S; Patel, K; Givi, B
The majority of malignancies identified in indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) are low risk. Therefore, the need for total thyroidectomy or adjuvant treatment such as completion thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in the treatment of ITNs is uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the likelihood of a need for total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy in the management of ITNs. All ITNs diagnosed on FNA cytology from 2014-2018 at NYU Langone Health were reviewed. ITNs managed with surgery were selected. Demographics, nodule characteristics, final pathology, treatment detail, and clinical outcomes were recorded. During the study period, 218 patients with surgically excised ITNs were identified. One hundred forty-two (65.1%) patients underwent thyroid lobectomy (TL), and 76 (34.9%) had total thyroidectomy (TT) upfront. In the lobectomy group, 26 (18.3%) had a malignant nodule on final surgical pathology, 8 (5.6%) underwent completion thyroidectomy, and 5 (3.5%) received RAI. In the total thyroidectomy group, 26 (34.2%) were diagnosed as malignant, and 14 (18.4%) received RAI. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) was the most common malignant diagnosis in both groups (TL: 20, 76.9%; TT: 12, 46.2%). Adenomatous nodule was the most common benign diagnosis (TL: 55, 72.5%; TT: 15, 51.2%). NIFTP accounted for 28.2% (40) of nodules treated with lobectomy and 27.6% (21) of nodules treated with upfront total thyroidectomy. In the entire cohort, only two (1%) patients had significant pathology in the contralateral lobe (1 [0.5%] with papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC] and 1 [0.5%] with multifocal micro-PTC). Of all 218 ITNs, only 19 patients (8.7%) received RAI. With a median follow-up of 31.5 months (interquartile range = 21-39.5), no recurrences or progression was seen. The need for completion thyroidectomy or adjuvant RAI therapy in the treatment of ITN was low in our series. These data suggest that initial management of ITNs with lobectomy might be sufficient in the majority of cases
The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) Guidelines for the Definitive Surgical Management of Thyroid Disease in Adults
Hodak, Steven P; Duh, Quan-Yang
Adult rhabdomyoma presenting as thyroid nodule on fine-needle aspiration in patient with Birt-Hogg-DubÃ© syndrome: Case report and literature review
Black, Margaret; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Wei; Simms, Anthony; Negron, Raquel; Hagiwara, Mari; Chidakel, Aaron R; Hodak, Steven; Persky, Mark S; Shi, Yan
Extracardiac rhabdomyoma is an uncommon benign striated muscle tumor with a predilection for the head and neck region. However, it is extremely rare for extracardiac rhabdomyoma to present as a thyroid nodule. We report a case of rhabdomyoma diagnosed by thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in a patient with Birt-Hogg-DubÃ© (BHD) syndrome. A 60-year-old man with BHD syndrome presented for recurrent pneumothorax. Chest CT incidentally identified a thyroid nodule. Subsequent sonography confirmed a 4.44â€‰Ã—â€‰2.28â€‰Ã—â€‰2.82â€‰cm solid, hypoechoic nodule with smooth margins in the right upper pole. Ultrasound-guided FNA revealed many clusters and scattered isolated large polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm and small peripherally located nuclei. Vague striations in the cytoplasm were focally identified. No follicular cells or colloid was present. Immunocytochemistry on one direct smear slide demonstrated diffuse positivity for desmin, supporting muscular differentiation. Subsequent surgery identified an adult rhabdomyoma originating from the inferior constrictor muscle of the neck and anteriorly displacing the thyroid. Because the mass was intimately associated with the thyroid gland, it was initially mistaken for a thyroid nodule on ultrasound. Diagnosis of rhabdomyoma on FNA is challenging, especially when rhabdomyoma mimics a thyroid nodule on imaging. The differential diagnosis includes Hurthle cell neoplasm, granular cell tumor, colloid nodule, and normal striated skeletal muscle. Adequate radiologic data and familiarity with the cytologic features of rhabdomyoma are critical for an accurate diagnosis.
Commentary on the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons Guidelines for the Definitive Surgical Management of Thyroid Disease in Adults [Editorial]
Hodak, Steven P.; Duh, Quan-Yang
Prevalence and outcome of thyroid nodules carrying DICER1 mutations in adult patients: Study of 6,732 thyroid nodules [Meeting Abstract]
Nikiforov, Y E; Abraham, D; Baloch, Z; Bernet, V; Carty, S E; Chu, K U; Hodak, S; Hu, S; Lackan, D; Mandel, S; Milas, M; Nikiforova, M; Paparsenos, A; Patel, K N; Patel, S; Rivera, B; Yip, L; Foulkes, W D
DICER1 encodes an endoribonuclease involved in microRNA maturation and therefore has an important role in gene transcript regulation. Germline mutations scattered along DICER1 are associated with DICER1 syndrome which prominently features thyroid nodules. The tumors typically carry a second, somatic mutation in the RNase IIIb catalytic domain, referred to as "hotspot." These hotspot mutations occur in*1-2% of thyroid papillary carcinomas (PTC). The incidence of the hotspot mutations in thyroid nodules in adults, their association with malignancy and with other, germline DICER1 mutations remain largely unknown. We analyzed 6,734 consecutive clinical FNA samples from typically indeterminate cytology thyroid nodules for hotspot DICER1mutations using ThyroSeq v3 targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) assay from 11/2017-05/2018. Available follow-up was collected. A subgroup of cases underwent full DICER1 coding region and exon-intron boundaries analysis using a custom Fluidigm Access Array followed by NGS on Illumina MiSeq. Somatic DICER1 hotspot mutations were identified in 135 (2.0%) of nodules, with D1810H/V/Y and D1709G/E/N being most common. Median patient age was 37 years (range 19-79 y), 93% were females. Follow-up was available for 27 patients: 15 underwent surgery with benign diagnoses in 9 cases, NIFTP in 5 and follicular variant PTC in 1. Twelve patients were managed non-surgically, including one with a stable nodule harboring DICER1mutation at an allele frequency unchanged over 10 years between FNAs. A subset of 11 positive cases was tested for alteration in the entire DICER1 gene, which confirmed the hotspot mutations in 10 and detected additional alterations in 9 (90%), including non-hotspot mutations in 8 and LOH in 1 case. We report for the first time that likely somatic hotspot DICER1 mutations are relatively common and found in*2% of thyroid nodules in adults, who are typically mid-age women. At surgery, most of these nodules are benign, with*33% risk of NIFTP and*7% risk of follicular variant PTC. Our analysis also shows that somatic hotspot mutations are usually accompanied by a second, loss of function DICER1 mutation, which may in some cases be germline in nature