A phase I trial of imexon, a pro-oxidant, in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of patients with advanced breast, non-small cell lung and prostate cancer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Imexon is an iminopyrrolidone that induces apoptosis and has synergistic activity with docetaxel in preclinical models. This trial was designed to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of imexon given with docetaxel in breast, prostate and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:34 patients received protocol therapy. 26 patients received escalating doses of imexon given intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 every 21 days. Docetaxel was administered intravenously at a fixed dose of 75 mg/m(2) immediately following imexon on day 1 every 21 days. A 3+3 design was used with eight additional patients treated at MTD. Response was measured using RECIST. RESULTS:Seven dose levels of imexon were evaluated (390 mg/m(2) to 1,700 mg/m(2)). The MTD was imexon 1,300 mg/m(2) IV on days 1-5 in combination with docetaxel. Dose limiting toxicities were grade 3 non-cardiac chest pain and grade 3 diarrhea. Activity was seen in 4 patients [2 partial responses (NSCLC (PR=1), prostate cancer (PR=1)), 2 minor responses (MR=breast, NSCLC)]. Eleven patients had stable disease by RECIST (including the patients with MR; prostate cancer=6, NSCLC=3). Six (one with breast cancer, two with prostate cancer and three with NSCLC) demonstrated stable disease (SD) for > or = 3 months. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The MTD of combination therapy is imexon 1,300 mg/m(2) IV on days 1-5 with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) IV on day 1 of a 21 day treatment cycle. Demonstrated responses warrant further investigation in phase II trials of which a phase II trial in NSCLC is planned.
Clinical outcomes and factors predicting development of venous thromboembolic complications in patients with advanced refractory cancer in a Phase I Clinic: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with advanced cancer and may influence patient eligibility for clinical studies, quality of life, and survival. We reviewed the medical records of 220 consecutive patients seen in the Phase I Clinical Trials Program at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center to determine the frequency of VTE, associated characteristics, and clinical outcomes. Twenty-three (10.5%) patients presenting to the Phase I Clinic had a history of VTE; 26 (11.8%) patients subsequently developed VTE, with a median follow-up of 8.4 months. These included nine (39%) patients with and 17 (8.6%) without a history of VTE (P < 0.0001). The most common events were deep venous thromboses of the extremities and pulmonary emboli. The median survival of patients with and without a history of VTE was 4.7 and 10.9 months, respectively (P = 0.0002). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a history of VTE (P < 0.0001), pancreatic cancer (P = 0.007), and platelet count >440 x 10(9)/L (P = 0.026) predicted new VTE episodes. In conclusion, this retrospective analysis demonstrated that a history or new development of VTE was noted in 40 (18%) of 220 patients seen in our Phase I Clinic. A prognostic score that can be used to predict time to development of and frequency of VTE is proposed. Am. J. Hematol. 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.