Understanding surgical education needs in Zambian residency programs from a Resident's perspective
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Approximately 100 surgeons in Zambia serve a population of 16 million, a severe shortage in basic surgical care. Surgical education in Zambia and other low-middle income countries has not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical training resources from a resident perspective. METHODS:6 of 8 COSECSA-accredited major medical centers were included. We developed a Surgical Education Capacity Tool to evaluate hospital characteristics including infrastructure, education, and research. The questionnaire was completed by administrators and trainees. RESULTS:18 of 45 trainees were surveyed. Caseloads and faculty-to-trainee ratio varied by location. No sites had surgical skills, simulation, or research labs. Most had medical libraries, lecture halls, and internet. Outpatient clinics, bedside teaching, M&M conferences, and senior supervision were widely available. Despite some exposure, research mentorship, basic science, and grant application guidance were critically limited. CONCLUSIONS:Lack of access to proper infrastructure, research, and personnel all impact surgical training and education. The Surgical Education Capacity Tool offers insights into areas of potential improvement, and is applicable to other LMICs.
Universities and their educational mission in the 21st century: Medical education innovations at Comenius University Faculty of Medicine
Surgical registrars' perceptions of surgical training and capacity in Zambia: Results from three COSECSA affiliated training hospitals
BACKGROUND: Surgery is a vital component of a comprehensive health system, but there are often personnel limitations in resource constrained areas. Zambia provides post graduate surgical training through two systems to help address this shortage. However, no studies have analyzed surgical trainees' perceptions of these programs. METHODS: Surgical registrars at COSECSA affiliated hospitals in Zambia were surveyed about their programs. Responses were analyzed to identify key strengths and challenges across several categories including: operative training, clinical training, educational experiences, and career plans. RESULTS: Registrars report having significant independence and receiving broad and high quality operative training. They note specific challenges including limitations in specialty training, resources, and infrastructure. CONCLUSIONS: Zambian training programs have the potential to increase number of surgeons in Zambia by a significant amount in the coming years. These programs have many strengths but also face challenges in their goal to expand surgical access in the country.
Typhoid Fever and Acute Appendicitis: A Rare Association Not Yet Fully Formed
Infections caused by foodborne enteric pathogens including typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella species can mimic symptoms of acute appendicitis. The association between such bacterial pathogens and pathology-proven acute appendicitis has been described, but this link is poorly understood. Here we describe a case of a young man with typhoid fever presenting with histology-proven acute appendicitis requiring urgent appendectomy, and provide a brief review of relevant literature to prompt more widespread recognition of this rare cause of a common surgical emergency.
How do international health electives impact medical students in their long term career paths? [Meeting Abstract]
Program/Project Purpose: The New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) has been engaging medical students in global health across their years in medical school through its' International Health Program (IHP) since 2002. All students in good academic standing are supported to participate in culturally meaningful and socially relevant research in any location that meets US State Department safe travel advisories. Students can also participate in self-funded clinical rotations. The program aims to increase the cultural competency of medical graduates as they enter the workforce to serve an increasingly diverse patient population. Our assumption was that IHP participants would have increased cultural competency, increased engagement with underserved populations, and increased incorporation of global health in their career paths. Structure/Method/Design: To understand the impact of this program we conducted a simple cross-sectional cohort study of graduates of the program from 2002 to 2012. Survey questions included demographic data as well as subjective impact of the IHP program on their residency and career choices. Outcome & Evaluation: We received 49 responses out of 213 surveys distributed by email to past participants of the IHP. Analysis of the data showed that international experiences later in medical school, rather than earlier, had a higher impact on career plans (mean of 2.70 verses mean of 2.00). Moreover, electives with both research and clinical components positively impacted career plans. Clinical rotations appeared to have slightly more impact on cultural competency than research rotations (mean of 3.82 verses mean of 3.39). Students who had not studied abroad previously (n = 24) reported that IHP had a greater impact on cultural competence, commitment to global health, and commitment to caring for the under-served than those who had previously studied abroad (n = 24). Going Forward: International heath experiences for medical students appear to have a significant impact on career paths as well as improving cultural competency. These findings can potentially benefit human resources for health by increasing US graduates long-term engagement in global public health and for working with underserved populations. We feel there is also strong argument for supporting first time international experiences for medical students
Teaching global health with simulations and case discussions in a medical student selective
BACKGROUND: Among US medical schools, demand for Global Health (GH) programs continues to grow. At the same time, cultural competency training has become a priority for medical students who will care for an increasingly diverse US patient population. We describe a pilot period for a new GH Selective designed to introduce medical students to global medicine and enhance culturally-sensitive communication skills. METHODS: As a 4-week clinical clerkship, the GH Selective was offered annually over a three-year period to a total of 33 students. Activities included clinical assignments, cultural competency and clinical skills simulations, patient case discussions in tropical medicine, journal clubs, and lectures. Faculty assessments of student performance and student evaluations of course content were focused on 6 course objectives, adapted from standardized GH objectives. RESULTS: For each offering of the GH Selective, at least 40 faculty members and fellows volunteered over 200 teaching hours from 11 medical school departments. Student feedback was consistently positive through competency-based curricular evaluations. As a result of its successes, the course is now offered on a biannual basis. DISCUSSION: Experiential, student-centered teaching employed in this course proved successful as an introduction to delivery of evidence-based and culturally sensitive GH. Special emphasis on working with standardized patients in interdisciplinary and cross-cultural simulations provided students with clinical skills applicable for care provided both locally and on international rotations. CONCLUSION: With a special emphasis on cross-cultural sensitivity, this pilot elective trained future practitioners in fund of knowledge, clinical skills, and service delivery methods in GH.
Twelve tips for improving the effectiveness of web-based multimedia instruction for clinical learners
Abstract Using educational technology does not necessarily make medical education more effective. There are many different kinds of technology available to the contemporary medical teacher and what constitutes effective use may depend on the technology, the learning situation and many other factors. Web-based multimedia instruction (WBMI) provides learners with self-directed independent learning opportunities based on didactic material enhanced with multimedia features such as video and animations. WBMI may be used to replace other didactic events (e.g. lectures) or it may be provided in addition to other learning opportunities. Clinical educators looking to use WBMI need to make sure that it will meet both their learners' needs and the program's needs, and it has to align to the contexts in which it is used. The following 12 tips have been developed to help guide faculty through some of the key features of the effective use of WBMI in clinical teaching programs. These tips are based on more than a decade developing, using and appraising WBMI in support of surgical clerkship education across the USA and beyond and they are intended both to inform individual uses of WBMI in clinical training and to guide the strategic use of WBMI in clinical clerkship curricula.
WISE-MD usage among millennial medical students
BACKGROUND: E-learning is increasingly common in undergraduate medical education. Internet-based multimedia materials should be designed with millennial learner utilization preferences in mind for maximal impact. METHODS: Medical students used all 20 Web Initiative for Surgical Education of Medical Doctors modules from July 1, 2013 to October 1, 2013. Data were analyzed for topic frequency, time and week day, and access to questions. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred eighty-seven students completed 35,848 modules. Students accessed modules for average of 51 minutes. Most frequent use occurred on Sunday (23.1%), Saturday (15.4%), and Monday (14.3%). Friday had the least use (8.2%). A predominance of students accessed the modules between 7 and 10 PM (34.4%). About 80.4% of students accessed questions for at least one module. They completed an average of 40 +/- 30 of the questions. Only 827 students (2.3%) repeated the questions. CONCLUSIONS: Web Initiative for Surgical Education of Medical Doctors has peak usage during the weekend and evenings. Most frequently used modules reflect core surgical problems. Multiple factors influence the manner module questions are accessed.
Surgical education and global health: call to action
Global health selective: A novel interdisciplinary clerkship on clinical knowledge and skills in global health at new york university school of medicine [Meeting Abstract]
Global health (GH) spans every scientific, clinical and social science discipline. Cultural competency/ cross-cultural sensitivity has been identified as a GH priority for U.S. medical schools (Peluso 2013). As part of Curriculum for the 21st Century (C21), the Global Health Selective is prerequisite to the new Global Health Concentration at NYU School of Medicine (SoM). With special emphasis on cultural competency/ crosscultural sensitivity, its primary aim is to teach future physicians fund of knowledge and clinical skills that strengthen GH care. As a 4-week clinical clerkship, the GH Selective was first completed by 9 medical students in 2012, and again by 12 medical students in 2013. Activities included 18 ninety-minute patient case discussions in tropical medicine; related clinical assignments at NYU; literature review and journal clubs; and 9 half-day clinical skills simulation workshops covering 1) diarrhea in Haiti and Egypt, 2) tuberculosis in Peru 3) malaria in sub-Saharan Africa 4) hypertension screening by community health workers in Ghana 5) survivors of torture from central Africa 6) humanitarian response to tsunami in Indonesia 7) obstetrical emergencies in rural Liberia 8) interpreter exercise in Tibetan, and 9) smoking cessation via interpreters. Leadership is from NYU SoM Departments of Medicine and Population Health, and Center for Healthful Behavior Change. Over two years of the GH Selective, student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Each year, at least 37 faculty volunteered from 11 departments at SoM to log at least 225 hours of direct contact teaching hours each offering. In its first two years, the GH Selective exceeded expectations. Its interdisciplinary curriculum is a particular strength, and its special emphasis on working with standardized patients in cross-cultural settings, focused on communication skills, health literacy, and health navigation, provided students with knowledge and clinical skills applicable for any clinical care provided locally, nationally,!