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Computerized cognitive and social cognition training in schizophrenia for impulsive aggression

Khan, Anzalee; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Insel, Beverly; Seddo, Mary; Demirli, Ecem; DeFazio, Kayla; Sullivan, Mark; Hoptman, Matthew J; Ahmed, Anthony O
BACKGROUND:Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk for impulsive aggression for which there are few psychosocial treatment options. Neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits have been associated with aggression with social cognitive deficits seemingly a more proximal contributor. The current study examined the effects of combining cognitive and social cognition treatment on impulsive aggression among inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder and a history of aggression compared to cognitive remediation treatment alone. METHODS:The two-center study randomized 130 participants to receive 36 sessions of either a combination of cognitive remediation and social cognition treatment or cognitive remediation plus a computer-based control. Participants had at least one aggressive incident within the past year or a Life History of Aggression (LHA) score of 5 or more. Participants completed measures of neurocognition, social cognition, symptom severity, and aggression at baseline and endpoint. RESULTS:Study participants were mostly male (84.5 %), had a mean age 34.9 years, and 11.5 years of education. Both Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT) plus Social Cognition Training (SCT) and CRT plus control groups were associated with significant reductions in aggression measures with no group differences except on a block of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP), a behavioral task of aggression which favored the CRT plus SCT group. Both groups showed significant improvements in neurocognition and social cognition measures with CRT plus SCT being associated with greater improvements. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:CRT proved to be an effective non-pharmacological treatment in reducing impulsive aggression in schizophrenia inpatient participants with a history of aggressive episodes. The addition of social cognitive training did not enhance this anti-aggression treatment effect but did augment the CRT effect on cognitive functions, on emotion recognition and on mentalizing capacity of our participants.
PMID: 36424289
ISSN: 1573-2509
CID: 5384412

Comparison of Functional and Structural Neural Network Features in Older Adults With Depression With vs Without Apathy and Association With Response to Escitalopram: Secondary Analysis of a Nonrandomized Clinical Trial

Oberlin, Lauren E; Victoria, Lindsay W; Ilieva, Irena; Dunlop, Katharine; Hoptman, Matthew J; Avari, Jimmy; Alexopoulos, George S; Gunning, Faith M
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Apathy is prevalent among individuals with late-life depression and is associated with poor response to pharmacotherapy, including chronicity and disability. Elucidating brain networks associated with apathy and poor treatment outcomes can inform intervention development. Objectives/UNASSIGNED:To assess the brain network features of apathy among individuals with late-life depression and identify brain network abnormalities associated with poor antidepressant response. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This secondary analysis of a single-group, open-label nonrandomized clinical trial of escitalopram conducted at an outpatient geriatric psychiatry clinic enrolled 40 adults aged 59 to 85 years with major depressive disorder from July 1, 2012, to July 31, 2019. Interventions/UNASSIGNED:After a 2-week washout period, participants received escitalopram titrated to a target of 20 mg/d for 12 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Baseline and posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), clinical, and cognitive assessments were conducted. Functional MRI was used to map group differences in resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the salience network, and diffusion MRI connectometry was performed to evaluate pathway-level disruptions in structural connectivity. The Apathy Evaluation Scale was used to quantify apathy, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was used to quantify the primary outcome of depression severity. Results/UNASSIGNED:Forty participants (26 women [65%]; mean [SD] age, 70.0 [6.6] years [range, 59-85 years]) with depression were included; 20 participants (50%) also had apathy. Relative to nonapathetic participants with depression, those with depression and apathy had lower rsFC of salience network seeds with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), premotor cortex, midcingulate cortex, and paracentral lobule and greater rsFC with the lateral temporal cortex and temporal pole (z score >2.7; Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < .0125). Compared with participants without apathy, those with apathy had lower structural connectivity in the splenium, cingulum, and fronto-occipital fasciculus (t score >2.5; false discovery rate-corrected P = .02). Twenty-seven participants completed escitalopram treatment; 16 (59%) achieved remission (HAM-D score <10). Lower insula-DLPFC/midcingulate cortex rsFC was associated with less symptomatic improvement (HAM-D % change) (β [df] = 0.588 [26]; P = .001) and a higher likelihood of nonremission (odds ratio, 1.041 [95% CI, 1.003-1.081]; P = .04) after treatment and, in regression models, was a mediator of the association between baseline apathy and persistence of depression. Lower dorsal anterior cingulate-DLPFC/paracentral rsFC was associated with residual cognitive difficulties on measures of attention (β [df] = 0.445 [26]; P = .04) and executive function (β [df] = 0.384 [26]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:This study suggests that disturbances in connectivity between the salience network and other large-scale networks that support goal-directed behavior may give rise to apathy and may be associated with poor response of late-life depression to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. These network disturbances may serve as targets for novel interventions. Trial Registration/ Identifier: NCT01728194.
PMID: 35895056
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5276642

P678. Promoting Healthy Sexual Functioning: Exploring the Impact of Gender Role Non-Conformity on Sexual Dysfunction [Meeting Abstract]

Irvin, M; Arnold, M; Sparpana, A; Sullivan, E; Collins, K; Hoptman, M; Iosifescu, D
Background: Uncertainty remains about psychological and sexual implications of gender role non-conformity (GRNC) defined as men endorsing or performing femininity, and women endorsing or performing masculinity. Previous studies have indicated that variance in gender presentation is associated with negative psychological consequences. Homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia partially mediate this association, suggesting it is not the practice of GRNC that causes distress but subjective or perceived reactions to it. Here, we test the hypothesis that people reporting sexual dysfunction have higher levels of GRNC.
Method(s): We analyzed data from the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample. 797 subjects (age=48.4 +/- 17.7, sex=66% female) completed the Sex Role Identity Scale (SRIS) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC-40). GRNC was quantified by SRIS questions-subjective GRNC (S-GRNC) was assessed using the question "How feminine/masculine do you think you are?" and perceived GRNC (P-GRNC) was assessed with "How feminine/masculine do you think you appear and come across to others?" Sexual dysfunction was measured with a TSC-40 subscale. We performed sex-specific stepwise linear regressions to explore the relationships between S-GRNC, P-GRNC, and sexual dysfunction.
Result(s): In male subjects, a model including only S-GRNC significantly predicted sexual dysfunction, F(1, 267)=5.027, p=0.026, adj. R2=0.015. In female subjects, a model including only P-GRNC significantly predicted sexual dysfunction, F(1, 526)=14.854, p<0.001, adj. R2=0.026.
Conclusion(s): GRNC significantly predicts sexual dysfunction; different aspects of GRNC are more relevant for male vs. female subjects. While limited, these results highlight the clinical significance of understanding GRNC to promote healthy sexual functioning for all individuals. Keywords: Sexual Dysfunction, Sex Differences, Gender
ISSN: 1873-2402
CID: 5240702

Replicability in Brain Imaging [Editorial]

Kelly, Robert E; Hoptman, Matthew J
In the early 2010s, the "replication crisis" and synonymous terms ("replicability crisis" and "reproducibility crisis") were coined to describe growing concerns regarding published research results too often not being replicable, potentially undermining scientific progress [...].
PMID: 35326353
ISSN: 2076-3425
CID: 5220442

Estimated Regional White Matter Hyperintensity Burden, Resting State Functional Connectivity, and Cognitive Functions in Older Adults

Jaywant, Abhishek; Dunlop, Katharine; Victoria, Lindsay W; Oberlin, Lauren; Lynch, Charles J; Respino, Matteo; Kuceyeski, Amy; Scult, Matthew; Hoptman, Matthew J; Liston, Conor; O'Dell, Michael W; Alexopoulos, George S; Perlis, Roy H; Gunning, Faith M
OBJECTIVE:White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, including cognitive control and memory; however, the structural, and functional mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between estimated regional disruptions to white matter fiber tracts from WMH, resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), and cognitive functions in older adults. DESIGN/METHODS:Cross-sectional study. SETTING/METHODS:Community. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Fifty-eight cognitively-healthy older adults. MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Tasks of cognitive control and memory, structural MRI, and resting state fMRI. We estimated the disruption to white matter fiber tracts from WMH and its impact on gray matter regions in the cortical and subcortical frontoparietal network, default mode network, and ventral attention network by overlaying each subject's WMH mask on a normative tractogram dataset. We calculated RSFC between nodes in those same networks. We evaluated the interaction of regional WMH burden and RSFC in predicting cognitive control and memory. RESULTS:The interaction of estimated regional WMH burden and RSFC in cortico-striatal regions of the default mode network and frontoparietal network was associated with delayed recall. Models predicting working memory, cognitive inhibition, and set-shifting were not significant. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Findings highlight the role of network-level structural and functional alterations in resting state networks that are related to WMH and impact memory in older adults.
PMID: 34412936
ISSN: 1545-7214
CID: 5066902

What Do These Findings Tell Us? Comment on Tinella et al. Cognitive Efficiency and Fitness-to-Drive along the Lifespan: The Mediation Effect of Visuospatial Transformations. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 1028

Kelly, Robert E; Ahmed, Anthony O; Hoptman, Matthew J
Tinella et al.'s recent article [...].
PMID: 35203929
ISSN: 2076-3425
CID: 5167822

Relationships between Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Resting State Functional Connectivity in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls: A Preliminary Study

Hoptman, Matthew J; Tural, Umit; Lim, Kelvin O; Javitt, Daniel C; Oberlin, Lauren E
Schizophrenia is widely seen as a disorder of dysconnectivity. Neuroimaging studies have examined both structural and functional connectivity in the disorder, but these modalities have rarely been integrated directly. We scanned 29 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy control subjects, and we acquired resting state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging. We used the Functional and Tractographic Connectivity Analysis Toolbox (FATCAT) to estimate functional and structural connectivity of the default mode network. Correlations between modalities were investigated, and multimodal connectivity scores (MCS) were created using principal component analysis. Of the 28 possible region pairs, 9 showed consistent (>80%) tracts across participants. Correlations between modalities were found among those with schizophrenia for the prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and lateral temporal lobes, with frontal and parietal regions, consistent with frontotemporoparietal network involvement in the disorder. In patients, MCS correlated with several aspects of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, with higher multimodal connectivity associated with outward-directed (externalizing) behavior and lower multimodal connectivity related to psychosis per se. In this preliminary sample, we found FATCAT to be a useful toolbox to directly integrate and examine connectivity between imaging modalities. A consideration of conjoint structural and functional connectivity can provide important information about the network mechanisms of schizophrenia.
PMID: 35203920
ISSN: 2076-3425
CID: 5167812

Late-life depression accentuates cognitive weaknesses in older adults with small vessel disease

Oberlin, Lauren E; Respino, Matteo; Victoria, Lindsay; Abreu, Lila; Hoptman, Matthew J; Alexopoulos, George S; Gunning, Faith M
Neuroimaging features of small vessel disease (SVD) are highly prevalent in older adulthood and associated with significant variability in clinical symptoms, yet the factors predicting these symptom disparities are poorly understood. We employed a novel metric of SVD, peak width of skeletonized mean diffusivity (PSMD), to elucidate the relationship of late-life depression (LLD) to the cognitive presentation of vascular pathology. A total of 109 older adults without a diagnosis of a neurocognitive disorder were enrolled in the study; 44 with major depressive disorder and 65 age-matched controls. Subjects completed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging including FLAIR and diffusion tensor imaging sequences, from which white matter hyperintensity volume and diffusion metrics (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, PSMD) were quantified. In hierarchical models, the relationship between vascular burden and cognitive performance varied as a function of diagnostic status, such that the negative association between PSMD and processing speed was significantly stronger in participants with LLD compared to controls. Greater PSMD also predicted poorer performance on delayed memory and executive function tasks specifically among those with LLD, while there were no associations between PSMD and task performance among controls. PSMD outperformed conventional SVD and diffusion markers in predicting cognitive performance and dysexecutive behaviors in participants with LLD. These data suggest that LLD may confer a vulnerability to the cognitive manifestations of white matter abnormalities in older adulthood. PSMD, a novel biomarker of diffuse microstructural changes in SVD, may be a more sensitive marker of subtle cognitive deficits stemming from vascular pathology in LLD.
PMID: 33564103
ISSN: 1740-634x
CID: 4793272

The Quest for Psychiatric Advancement through Theory, beyond Serendipity [Editorial]

Kelly, Robert E; Ahmed, Anthony O; Hoptman, Matthew J; Alix, Anika F; Alexopoulos, George S
Over the past century, advancements in psychiatric treatments have freed countless individuals from the burden of life-long, incapacitating mental illness. These treatments have largely been discovered by chance. Theory has driven advancement in the natural sciences and other branches of medicine, but psychiatry remains a field in its "infancy". The targets for healing in psychiatry lie within the realm of the mind's subjective experience and thought, which we cannot yet describe in terms of their biological underpinnings in the brain. Our technology is sufficiently advanced to study brain neurons and their interactions on an electrophysiological and molecular level, but we cannot say how these form a single feeling or thought. While psychiatry waits for its "Copernican Revolution", we continue the work in developing theories and associated experiments based on our existing diagnostic systems, for example, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), or the more newly introduced Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework. Understanding the subjective reality of the mind in biological terms would doubtless lead to huge advances in psychiatry, as well as to ethical dilemmas, from which we are spared for the time being.
PMID: 35053815
ISSN: 2076-3425
CID: 5131752

Seed-based dual regression: An illustration of the impact of dual regression's inherent filtering of global signal

Kelly, Robert E; Hoptman, Matthew J; Lee, Soojin; Alexopoulos, George S; Gunning, Faith M; McKeown, Martin J
BACKGROUND:Functional connectivity (FC) maps from brain fMRI data are often derived with seed-based methods that estimate temporal correlations between the time course in a predefined region (seed) and other brain regions (SCA, seed-based correlation analysis). Standard dual regression, which uses a set of spatial regressor maps, can detect FC with entire brain "networks," such as the default mode network, but may not be feasible when detecting FC associated with a single small brain region alone (for example, the amygdala). NEW METHOD/UNASSIGNED:We explored seed-based dual regression (SDR) from theoretical and practical points of view. SDR is a modified implementation of dual regression where the set of spatial regressors is replaced by a single binary spatial map of the seed region. RESULTS:SDR allowed detection of FC with small brain regions. Comparison with existing method: For both synthetic and natural fMRI data, detection of FC with SDR was identical to that obtained with SCA after removal of global signal from fMRI data with global signal regression (GSR). In the absence of GSR, detection of FC was significantly improved when using SDR compared with SCA. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The improved FC detection achieved with SDR was related to a partial filtering of the global signal that occurred during spatial regression, an integral part of dual regression. This filtering can sometimes lead to spurious negative correlations that result in a widespread negative bias in FC derived with any application of dual regression. We provide guidelines for how to identify and correct this potential problem.
PMID: 34798212
ISSN: 1872-678x
CID: 5049752