Critical Care Staffing in Pandemics and Disasters: A Consensus Report From a Subcommittee of the Task Force for Mass Critical Care - Systems Strategies to Sustain the Health Care Workforce
BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented mental health disturbances, burnout, and moral distress among health care workers, affecting their ability to care for themselves and their patients. RESEARCH QUESTION:In health care workers, what are key systemic factors and interventions impacting mental health and burnout? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:The Workforce Sustainment subcommittee of the Task Force for Mass Critical Care (TFMCC) utilized a consensus development process, incorporating evidence from literature review with expert opinion through a modified Delphi approach to determine factors affecting mental health, burnout, and moral distress in health care workers, to propose necessary actions to help prevent these issues and enhance workforce resilience, sustainment, and retention. RESULTS:Consolidation of evidence gathered from literature review and expert opinion resulted in 197 total statements that were synthesized into 14 major suggestions. These suggestions were organized into three categories: (1) mental health and well-being for staff in medical settings; (2) system-level support and leadership; and (3) research priorities and gaps. Suggestions include both general and specific occupational interventions to support health care worker basic physical needs, lower psychological distress, reduce moral distress and burnout, and foster mental health and resilience. INTERPRETATION:The Workforce Sustainment subcommittee of the TFMCC offers evidence-informed operational strategies to assist health care workers and hospitals plan, prevent, and treat the factors affecting health care worker mental health, burnout, and moral distress to improve resilience and retention following the COVID-19 pandemic.
The American Thoracic Society Guideline Methodology Training Program
A new era in guideline creation began in 2011 with publication of the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) was committed to developing guidelines in accordance with the new standards and decided that an experienced guideline methodologist would be required on ATS guideline projects to ensure correct implementation of the standards. The ATS Guideline Methodology Training Program was launched to increase the pool of trained methodologists. Each year, accepted trainees (methodology scholars) attend a workshop that introduces them to the terminology and process of guideline development and are given the option of participating in a guideline project. Scholars work with the mentorship of a lead methodologist to conduct and then present a systematic review to the guideline committee, discuss the evidence, and participate in the development of evidence-based graded recommendations. Scholars have participated in 22 ATS guidelines over the past 9 years, and most remain engaged in guideline development. For the past 2 years, the methodological aspects of all ATS guideline projects were led by graduates of the training program, and several scholars have accepted positions to lead guidelines for other professional societies. Guideline methodology is particularly suitable for clinician educators because the work is clinically oriented, and guidelines confer high academic capital. Those who elect not to continue in guideline development still acquire the skills to perform and publish systematic reviews, as well as to educate trainees in reading and reviewing literature.
Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease: A Systematic Review
RATIONALE/BACKGROUND:In 2018, a systematic review evaluating transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) was performed to inform American Thoracic Society (ATS), European Respiratory Society (ERS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and AsociaciÃ³n Latinoamericana del TÃ³rax (ALAT) clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE:To perform a new systematic review to inform updated guidelines. METHODS:Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR) were searched through June 2020. Studies that enrolled patients with ILD and reported the diagnostic yield or complication rates of TBLC were selected for inclusion. Data was extracted and then pooled across studies via meta-analysis. The quality of the evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS:Histopathologic diagnostic yield (number of procedures that yielded a histopathologic diagnosis divided by the total number of procedures performed) of TBLC was 80% (95% CI 76-83%) in patients with ILD. TBLC was complicated by bleeding and pneumothorax in 30% (95% CI 20-41%) and 8% (95% CI 6-11%) of patients, respectively. Procedure-related mortality, severe bleeding, prolonged air leak, acute exacerbation, respiratory failure, and respiratory infection were rare. The quality of the evidence was very low due to the uncontrolled study designs, lack of consecutive enrollment, and inconsistent results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Very low-quality evidence indicated that TBLC has a diagnostic yield of approximately 80% in patients with ILD, with manageable complications.
Pirfenidone in Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nintedanib in Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (an Update) and Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis in Adults: An Official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline
Use of a Genomic Classifier in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease: A Systematic Review
This ahead-of-print article has been temporarily removed from the AnnalsATS journal website in anticipation of the publication of a forthcoming official ATS/ ERS/JRS/ALAT clinical practice guideline on patient-centered outcomes research in interstitial lung disease, to be published in a future issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (AJRCCM). This article was posted prematurely and will be published in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society after the official clinical practice guideline has been published in AJRCCM.
Antacid Medication and Antireflux Surgery in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mass Critical Care Surge Response During COVID-19: Implementation of Contingency Strategies - A Preliminary Report of Findings From the Task Force for Mass Critical Care
BACKGROUND:After the publication of a 2014 consensus statement regarding mass critical care during public health emergencies, much has been learned about surge responses and the care of overwhelming numbers of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gaps in prior pandemic planning were identified and require modification in the midst of ongoing surges throughout the world. METHODS:The Task Force for Mass Critical Care (TFMCC) adopted a modified version of established rapid guideline methodologies from the World Health Organization and the Guidelines International Network-McMaster Guideline Development Checklist. With a consensus development process incorporating expert opinion to define important questions and extract evidence, the TFMCC developed relevant pandemic surge suggestions in a structured manner, incorporating peer-reviewed literature, "gray" evidence from lay media sources, and anecdotal experiential evidence. RESULTS:Ten suggestions were identified regarding staffing, load-balancing, communication, and technology. Staffing models are suggested with resilience strategies to support critical care staff. ICU surge strategies and strain indicators are suggested to enhance ICU prioritization tactics to maintain contingency level care and to avoid crisis triage, with early transfer strategies to further load-balance care. We suggest that intensivists and hospitalists be engaged with the incident command structure to ensure two-way communication, situational awareness, and the use of technology to support critical care delivery and families of patients in ICUs. CONCLUSIONS:A subcommittee from the TFMCC offers interim evidence-informed operational strategies to assist hospitals and communities to plan for and respond to surge capacity demands resulting from COVID-19.
Machine learning risk prediction of mortality for patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2: the COVIDSurg mortality score
To support the global restart of elective surgery, data from an international prospective cohort study of 8492 patients (69 countries) was analysed using artificial intelligence (machine learning techniques) to develop a predictive score for mortality in surgical patients with SARS-CoV-2. We found that patient rather than operation factors were the best predictors and used these to create the COVIDsurg Mortality Score (https://covidsurgrisk.app). Our data demonstrates that it is safe to restart a wide range of surgical services for selected patients.