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The ISMRM Open Science Initiative for Perfusion Imaging (OSIPI): Results from the OSIPI-Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced challenge

Shalom, Eve S; Kim, Harrison; van der Heijden, Rianne A; Ahmed, Zaki; Patel, Reyna; Hormuth, David A; DiCarlo, Julie C; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Sisco, Nicholas J; Dortch, Richard D; Stokes, Ashley M; Inglese, Marianna; Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Toschi, Nicola; Sahoo, Prativa; Singh, Anup; Verma, Sanjay K; Rathore, Divya K; Kazerouni, Anum S; Partridge, Savannah C; LoCastro, Eve; Paudyal, Ramesh; Wolansky, Ivan A; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Schouten, Pepijn; Gurney-Champion, Oliver J; Jiřík, Radovan; Macíček, Ondřej; Bartoš, Michal; Vitouš, Jiří; Das, Ayesha Bharadwaj; Kim, S Gene; Bokacheva, Louisa; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Berks, Michael; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L; Little, Ross A; Cheung, Susan; O'Connor, James P B; Parker, Geoff J M; Moloney, Brendan; LaViolette, Peter S; Bobholz, Samuel; Duenweg, Savannah; Virostko, John; Laue, Hendrik O; Sung, Kyunghyun; Nabavizadeh, Ali; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Hu, Leland S; Sourbron, Steven; Bell, Laura C; Fathi Kazerooni, Anahita
PMID: 38115695
ISSN: 1522-2594
CID: 5612382

Levetiracetam effects on hippocampal blood flow and symptoms in medication-free individuals with nonaffective first episode psychosis (letter) [Letter]

Goff, Donald C; Santacatterina, Michele; Capichioni, Gillian; Ando, Fumika; Hart, Kamber; Convit, Antonio; Rusinek, Henry
PMID: 37657280
ISSN: 1573-2509
CID: 5618122

Mechanical loading of the ventricular wall as a spatial indicator for periventricular white matter degeneration

Visser, Valery L; Caçoilo, Andreia; Rusinek, Henry; Weickenmeier, Johannes
Progressive white matter degeneration in periventricular and deep white matter regions appears as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI scans. To date, periventricular WMHs are often associated with vascular dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that ventricular inflation resulting from cerebral atrophy and hemodynamic pulsation with every heartbeat leads to a mechanical loading state of periventricular tissues that significantly affects the ventricular wall. Specifically, we present a physics-based modeling approach that provides a rationale for ependymal cell involvement in periventricular WMH formation. Building on eight previously created 2D finite element brain models, we introduce novel mechanomarkers for ependymal cell loading and geometric measures that characterize lateral ventricular shape. We show that our novel mechanomarkers, such as maximum ependymal cell deformations and maximum curvature of the ventricular wall, spatially overlap with periventricular WMH locations and are sensitive predictors for WMH formation. We also explore the role of the septum pellucidum in mitigating mechanical loading of the ventricular wall by constraining the radial expansion of the lateral ventricles during loading. Our models consistently show that ependymal cells are stretched thin only in the horns of the ventricles irrespective of ventricular shape. We therefore pose that periventricular WMH etiology is strongly linked to the deterioration of the over-stretched ventricular wall resulting in CSF leakage into periventricular white matter. Subsequent secondary damage mechanisms, including vascular degeneration, exacerbate lesion formation and lead to progressive growth into deep white matter regions.
PMID: 37269602
ISSN: 1878-0180
CID: 5541272

Quadratic relationship between systolic blood pressure and white matter lesions in individuals with hypertension

Woldstad, Christopher; Rusinek, Henry; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Butler, Tracy; Li, Yi; Tanzi, Emily; Mardy, Christopher; Harvey, Patrick; de Leon, Mony J; Glodzik, Lidia
BACKGROUND:There is a well documented relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the development of brain injury, which can lead to cognitive dysfunction. Hypertension (HTN) is a condition increasing the risk of silent and symptomatic ischemic brain lesions. Although benefits of hypertension treatment are indisputable, the target blood pressure value where the possibility of tissue damage is most reduced remains under debate. METHOD/METHODS:Our group performed a cross-sectional (n = 376) and longitudinal (n = 188) study of individuals without dementia or stroke (60% women n = 228, age 68.5 ± 7.4 years; men n = 148, age 70.7 ± 6.9 years). Participants were split into hypertensive (n = 169) and normotensive (n = 207) groups. MR images were obtained on a 3T system. Linear modeling was performed in hypertensive and normotensive cohorts to investigate the relationship between systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, white matter lesion (WML), and brain volumes. RESULTS:Participants in the hypertensive cohort showed a quadratic relationship between SBP and WML, with the lowest amounts of WML being measured in participants with readings at approximately 124 mmHg. Additionally, the hypertensive cohort also exhibited a quadratic relationship between DBP and mean hippocampal volume; participants with readings at approximately 77 mmHg showing the largest volumes. Longitudinally, all groups experienced WML growth, despite different BP trajectories, further suggesting that WML expansion may occur despite or because of BP reduction in individuals with compromised vascular system. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Overall, our study suggests that in the hypertensive group there is a valley of mid-range blood pressures displaying less pathology in the brain.
PMID: 36204999
ISSN: 1473-5598
CID: 5361812

Deep Learning Achieves Neuroradiologist-Level Performance in Detecting Hydrocephalus Requiring Treatment

Huang, Yu; Moreno, Raquel; Malani, Rachna; Meng, Alicia; Swinburne, Nathaniel; Holodny, Andrei I; Choi, Ye; Rusinek, Henry; Golomb, James B; George, Ajax; Parra, Lucas C; Young, Robert J
In large clinical centers a small subset of patients present with hydrocephalus that requires surgical treatment. We aimed to develop a screening tool to detect such cases from the head MRI with performance comparable to neuroradiologists. We leveraged 496 clinical MRI exams collected retrospectively at a single clinical site from patients referred for any reason. This diagnostic dataset was enriched to have 259 hydrocephalus cases. A 3D convolutional neural network was trained on 16 manually segmented exams (ten hydrocephalus) and subsequently used to automatically segment the remaining 480 exams and extract volumetric anatomical features. A linear classifier of these features was trained on 240 exams to detect cases of hydrocephalus that required treatment with surgical intervention. Performance was compared to four neuroradiologists on the remaining 240 exams. Performance was also evaluated on a separate screening dataset of 451 exams collected from a routine clinical population to predict the consensus reading from four neuroradiologists using images alone. The pipeline was also tested on an external dataset of 31 exams from a 2nd clinical site. The most discriminant features were the Magnetic Resonance Hydrocephalic Index (MRHI), ventricle volume, and the ratio between ventricle and brain volume. At matching sensitivity, the specificity of the machine and the neuroradiologists did not show significant differences for detection of hydrocephalus on either dataset (proportions test, p > 0.05). ROC performance compared favorably with the state-of-the-art (AUC 0.90-0.96), and replicated in the external validation. Hydrocephalus cases requiring treatment can be detected automatically from MRI in a heterogeneous patient population based on quantitative characterization of brain anatomy with performance comparable to that of neuroradiologists.
PMID: 35581409
ISSN: 1618-727x
CID: 5284262

Cortical Myelin Profile Variations in Healthy Aging Brain: A T1w/T2w Ratio Study

Sui, Yu-Veronica; Masurkar, Arjun V; Rusinek, Henry; Reisberg, Barry; Lazar, Mariana
Demyelination is observed in both healthy aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. While the significance of myelin within the cortex is well acknowledged, studies focused on intracortical demyelination and depth-specific structural alterations in normal aging are lacking. Using the recently available Human Connectome Project Aging dataset, we investigated intracortical myelin in a normal aging population using the T1w/T2w ratio. To capture the fine changes across cortical depths, we employed a surface-based approach by constructing cortical profiles traveling perpendicularly through the cortical ribbon and sampling T1w/T2w values. The curvatures of T1w/T2w cortical profiles may be influenced by differences in local myeloarchitecture and other tissue properties, which are known to vary across cortical regions. To quantify the shape of these profiles, we parametrized the level of curvature using a nonlinearity index (NLI) that measures the deviation of the profile from a straight line. We showed that NLI exhibited a steep decline in aging that was independent of local cortical thinning. Further examination of the profiles revealed that lower T1w/T2w near the gray-white matter boundary and superficial cortical depths were major contributors to the apparent NLI variations with age. These findings suggest that demyelination and changes in other T1w/T2w related tissue properties in normal aging may be depth-specific and highlight the potential of NLI as a unique marker of microstructural alterations within the cerebral cortex.
PMID: 36368498
ISSN: 1095-9572
CID: 5357642

Generalizable deep learning model for early Alzheimer's disease detection from structural MRIs

Liu, Sheng; Masurkar, Arjun V; Rusinek, Henry; Chen, Jingyun; Zhang, Ben; Zhu, Weicheng; Fernandez-Granda, Carlos; Razavian, Narges
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease plays a pivotal role in patient care and clinical trials. In this study, we have developed a new approach based on 3D deep convolutional neural networks to accurately differentiate mild Alzheimer's disease dementia from mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal individuals using structural MRIs. For comparison, we have built a reference model based on the volumes and thickness of previously reported brain regions that are known to be implicated in disease progression. We validate both models on an internal held-out cohort from The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and on an external independent cohort from The National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC). The deep-learning model is accurate, achieved an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 85.12 when distinguishing between cognitive normal subjects and subjects with either MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia. In the more challenging task of detecting MCI, it achieves an AUC of 62.45. It is also significantly faster than the volume/thickness model in which the volumes and thickness need to be extracted beforehand. The model can also be used to forecast progression: subjects with mild cognitive impairment misclassified as having mild Alzheimer's disease dementia by the model were faster to progress to dementia over time. An analysis of the features learned by the proposed model shows that it relies on a wide range of regions associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that deep neural networks can automatically learn to identify imaging biomarkers that are predictive of Alzheimer's disease, and leverage them to achieve accurate early detection of the disease.
PMID: 36253382
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 5352422

Radiomics-Based Image Phenotyping of Kidney Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Maps: Preliminary Feasibility & Efficacy

Li, Lu-Ping; Leidner, Alexander S; Wilt, Emily; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Sprague, Stuart M; Kohn, Orly F; Srivastava, Anand; Prasad, Pottumarthi V
Given the central role of interstitial fibrosis in disease progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD), a role for diffusion-weighted MRI has been pursued. We evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of using radiomic features to phenotype apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and hence to the clinical classification(s) of the participants. The study involved 40 individuals (10 healthy and 30 with CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2)). Machine learning methods, such as hierarchical clustering and logistic regression, were used. Clustering resulted in the identification of two clusters, one including all individuals with CKD (n = 17), while the second one included all the healthy volunteers (n = 10) and the remaining individuals with CKD (n = 13), resulting in 100% specificity. Logistic regression identified five radiomic features to classify participants as with CKD vs. healthy volunteers, with a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 70%, respectively, and an AUC of 0.95. Similarly, four radiomic features were able to classify participants as rapid vs. non-rapid CKD progressors among the 30 individuals with CKD, with a sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 43%, respectively, and an AUC of 0.75. These promising preliminary data should support future studies with larger numbers of participants with varied disease severity and etiologies to improve performance.
PMID: 35407587
ISSN: 2077-0383
CID: 5218972

Decreased CSF clearance and increased brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease

Li, Yi; Rusinek, Henry; Butler, Tracy; Glodzik, Lidia; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Babich, John; Mozley, P David; Nehmeh, Sadek; Pahlajani, Silky; Wang, Xiuyuan; Tanzi, Emily B; Zhou, Liangdong; Strauss, Sara; Carare, Roxana O; Theise, Neil; Okamura, Nobuyuki; de Leon, Mony J
BACKGROUND:F-THK5117, we previously reported that the ventricular CSF clearance of the PET tracer was reduced in AD and associated with elevated brain Aβ levels. METHODS:C-PiB to estimate CSF clearance calculated from early dynamic PET frames in 9 normal controls and 15 AD participants. RESULTS:F-THK5351) and brain Aβ load (r =  - 0.64, n = 24, p < 0.01). With a larger sample size, we extended our observations to show that reduced CSF clearance is associated with reductions in cortical thickness and cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that failed CSF clearance is a feature of AD that is related to Aβ deposition and to the pathology of AD. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether failed CSF clearance is a predictor of progressive amyloidosis or its consequence.
PMID: 35287702
ISSN: 2045-8118
CID: 5183812

Quantitative imaging features predict spinal tap response in normal pressure hydrocephalus

Lotan, Eyal; Damadian, Brianna E; Rusinek, Henry; Griffin, Megan; Ades-Aron, Benjamin; Lu, Ning; Golomb, James; George, Ajax E
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Gait improvement following high-volume lumbar puncture (HVLP) and continuous lumbar drain (cLD) is widely used to predict shunt response in patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Here, we investigate differences in MRI volumetric and traditional measures between HVLP/cLD responders and non-responders to identify imaging features that may help predict HVLP/cLD response. METHODS:Eighty-two patients with suspected NPH were studied retrospectively. Gait testing was performed before and immediately/24 h/72 h after HVLP/cLD. A positive response was defined as improvement in gait post-procedure. Thirty-six responders (26 men; mean age 79.3 ± 6.3) and 46 non-responders (25 men; mean age 77.2 ± 6.1) underwent pre-procedure brain MRI including a 3D T1-weighted sequence. Subcortical regional volumes were segmented using FreeSurfer. After normalizing for total intracranial volume, two-way type III ANCOVA test and chi-square test were used to characterize statistical group differences. Evans' index, callosal angle (CA), and disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression models were tested using Akaike information criterion to determine which combination of metrics most accurately predicts HVLP/cLD response. RESULTS:Responders and non-responders demonstrated no differences in total ventricular and white/gray matter volumes. CA (men only) and third and fourth ventricular volumes were smaller; and hippocampal volume was larger in responders (p < 0.05). Temporal horns volume correlated with degree of improvement in gait velocity in responders (p = 0.0006). The regression model was 76.8% accurate for HVLP/cLD response. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:CA and third and fourth ventricular volumes and hippocampal volume may serve as potentially useful imaging features that may help predict spinal tap response and hence potentially shunt response.
PMID: 34417636
ISSN: 1432-1920
CID: 4989012