Cold Snare Polypectomy for Small Pedunculated Polyps: Next Step in the Cold Revolution? [Comment]
Cross-sectional study on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) and violations of tobacco sale regulations in Myanmar: do these factors affect current tobacco use among Myanmar high school students?
OBJECTIVES:To examine the associations of current tobacco use with tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS), and illicit tobacco sales exposures among Myanmar high school students. DESIGN:A quantitative, cross-sectional study. SETTING:Seven high schools from both urban and rural areas of four states and regions in Myanmar. PARTICIPANTS:In total, 1174 high school students (482 males and 692 females) were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Current tobacco use of participants, defined as using any kind of smoked or smokeless tobacco product at least one occasion within the past 30 days. RESULTS:The prevalence of TAPS exposure was 90.9% among high school students in Myanmar. Current tobacco use was positively associated with being over 14 years old (adjusted OR (AOR) 9.81; 95%â€‰CI 4.54 to 21.19), being male (AOR 28.06; 95%â€‰CI 13.29 to 59.25), exposure to any kind of TAPS (AOR 6.59; 95%â€‰CI 2.33 to 18.64), having seen any smoked tobacco product for sale inside or within 100 feet of the school premises (AOR 4.17; 95%â€‰CI 1.65 to 10.58), having seen the sale or gifting of any smoked tobacco product to minors (AOR 6.46; 95%â€‰CI 2.18 to 19.12) and having seen the sale or distribution of any smoked tobacco product by minors (AOR 2.42; 95%â€‰CI 1.42 to 4.10). Having ever received health education about tobacco use (AOR 0.45; 95%â€‰CI 0.27 to 0.78), or having a higher perception score of tobacco use (AOR 0.17; 95%â€‰CI 0.10 to 0.30) were negatively associated with current tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS:There was an alarming prevalence of TAPS exposure among Myanmar high school students. TAPS exposure and violations of tobacco sale regulations were strong risk factors for current tobacco use among Myanmar high school students, while health education about tobacco products was reported as an effective protective factor. Specific smokeless tobacco sale regulations for minors are needed immediately in Myanmar.
Association between body mass index and ready-to-eat food consumption among sedentary staff in Nay Pyi Taw union territory, Myanmar
BACKGROUND:Ready-to-eat (RTE) food consumption has become popular in the working community with the increase in full-time jobs and the limited time to prepare food. Although RTE food is essential for this community, its consumption causes obesity. In Myanmar, obesity is a modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases, causing increases in morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and RTE food consumption among sedentary staff in Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory, Myanmar. METHODS:). Overweight and obesity were categorized by World Health Organization cut-off points. The collected data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR), and the 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS:This study revealed that sedentary staff who consumed RTE food once or more per month were nearly five times more likely to be overweight and obese (AORâ€‰=â€‰4.78, 95% CI 1.44-15.85) than those who consumed RTE food less frequently. In addition, five factors namely being older than 32â€‰years (AORâ€‰=â€‰3.97, 95% CI 1.82-8.69), preference for RTE food (AORâ€‰=â€‰8.93, 95% CI 2.54-31.37), light-intensity of physical exercise (AORâ€‰=â€‰3.55, 95% CI 1.63-7.73), sedentary leisure activities (AORâ€‰=â€‰3.32, 95% CI 1.22-9.03), and smoking (AORâ€‰=â€‰5.62, 95% CI 1.06-29.90) were positively associated with overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Frequent consumers of RTE food and less physically active sedentary staff were more likely to be overweight and obese. This study highlights the urgent need to raise awareness regarding healthy lifestyle behaviors among the working community to reduce the burden of obesity-related chronic diseases. Moreover, sedentary workers should be aware of the food-based dietary guidelines of the country. Policy makers should strictly enforce nutritional labeling of RTE food, and strictly prohibit over-branding of RTE food.
Assessing risk factors and impact of cyberbullying victimization among university students in Myanmar: A cross-sectional study
BACKGROUND:Cyberbullying is a global public health concern with tremendous negative impacts, not only on the physical and mental health of students but also on their well-being and academic performance. However, there are very few studies on cyberbullying among university students, especially in Myanmar. This study aims to determine the percentage of university students who suffered cyberbullying victimization in the last 12 months, and the association between students' socio-demographic characteristics, adverse events following cyberbullying and cyberbullying victimization. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among university students aged 18 years and older at one medical university in Magway, Myanmar. A total of 412 students (277 males and 135 females) participated in the study. Data were collected from August to September, 2018 using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses (models I and II) were performed to estimate the unadjusted (UOR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:In total, 40.8% of males and 51.1% of females in the study had suffered cyberbullying victimization in the past 12 months. In model I, students who had been studying at the university for 3 years or less (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.14-2.85), and who had witnessed psychological, physical or sexual violence, or cyberbullying in their neighborhoods, (AOR = 2.95; 95% CI 1.48-5.91) were more likely to have suffered cyberbullying victimization in the past 12 months. In model II, being a victim of cyberbullying was associated with difficulties in concentrating and understanding lectures (AOR = 3.96; 95% CI 1.72-9.11), and substance abuse (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.02-5.49). Non-resident students were at a higher risk of being cyberbullying victims than their resident peers (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI 1.04-3.34). CONCLUSION:Two out of five students had suffered cyberbullying victimization in the past 12 months, and only half of the victims discussed their experience(s) with someone else. Students who suffered cyberbullying victimization faced academic difficulties and started or increased smoking, betel chewing or alcohol drinking. Counter measures to prevent and mitigate the adverse events related to cyberbullying victimization are urgently needed among university students in Myanmar. Periodic screening for cyberbullying, counseling services, cyber-safety educational programs, and awareness raising campaigns should be implemented.
Prevalence of alcohol consumption and its risk factors among university students: A cross-sectional study across six universities in Myanmar
BACKGROUND:Globally, alcohol consumption is a significant public health concern and it is one of the most important risk behaviours among university students. Alcohol consumption can lead to poor academic performance, injuries, fights, use of other substances, and risky sexual behaviours among students. However, the study explored the prevalence of alcohol consumption and the associated risk factors among university students since these have not been fully examined in previous research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol consumption and the associated risk factors among university students in Myanmar. METHODS:The present cross-sectional study was conducted using a sample of 15-24-year-old university students who were selected from six universities in Mandalay, Myanmar, in August 2018. In total, 3,456 students (males: 1,301 and females: 2,155) were recruited and asked to respond to a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for alcohol consumption among university students. RESULTS:The prevalence of alcohol consumption in the previous 30 days was 20.3% (males: 36.0%, females: 10.8%). The alcohol consumption was significantly higher among males (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI; 1.9-2.9), truant students (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI; 1.3-3.3), smokers (AOR = 7.0, 95% CI; 5.1-9.7), students who reported feeling of hopelessness or sadness (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI; 1.2-1.8), peers' alcohol consumption (AOR = 7.5, 95% CI; 4.8-11.7). CONCLUSION:The present study revealed that males, smokers, peer alcohol consumption, and truant students had higher odds of alcohol consumption among the students. Therefore, effective campus-based counselling, peer education, and national surveillance systems that can monitor risky drinking behaviours among university students should be implemented. Further, government regulations that control the production, sale, promotion, advertising, and restriction of alcohol should be well developed and strengthened, as in the case of other Southeast Asian countries.
New Ultra Low Volume Bowel Preparation and Overview of Existing Bowel Preparations
BACKGROUND:Adequate bowel cleansing is essential in achieving a good quality colonoscopy. However, one of the barriers to achieving high-quality bowel cleansing is the patient's tolerability. Different bowel preparations have been developed to improve tolerability while maintaining adequate bowel cleansing. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We aim to explore the pros and cons of commonly used bowel preparations, particularly highlighting the new ultra-low volume bowel preparation. METHODS:Extensive literature search was carried out on various databases to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of different bowel cleansing agents, including findings of recent clinical trials on ultra-low bowel preparation. RESULTS:Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been commonly used as a bowel prep. Due to its high volume required to ingest to achieve an adequate effect, it has been combined with various adjuncts to reduce the volume to make it more tolerable. Magnesium and phosphate-based preps can achieve low volume, but they can be associated with multiple side effects, mainly electrolyte disturbances. Ultra low volume prep (NER1006) was achieved by combing PEG with ascorbic acid, and its efficacy and side effects were demonstrated in three noninferiority studies. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:It is important to consider patient preferences, co-morbidities and tolerability, and efficacy and side effect profiles when choosing bowel prep for patients undergoing colonoscopy. New ultra-low bowel prep showed promising results in initial clinical trials, but further real-world post-marketing data will inform its value in clinical practice.
Sore throat in a young man: guess what...
Sore throat is a common complaint in the outpatient and emergency room settings. Typically, little workup is necessary and includes visual inspection with or without swabs for bacterial infection. We present a case that demonstrates an important entity to be excluded by simple history and physical examination in patients presenting with pain in the throat or neck. The most important cause of pneumomediastinum is previous instrumentation. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is uncommonly seen in young adults. Most cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum are uncomplicated, as mediastinal pressures rarely mount to dangerous levels. However, when the patient presents with distended neck veins, cyanosis or marked dyspnoea, further action is necessary. Lastly, since pneumomediastinum can be caused by oesophageal rupture and occasionally present with concurrent pneumothorax, these dangerous entities must be excluded.