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Corrigendum to "RPN (Radius, Position of tumour, iNvasion of renal sinus) Classification and Nephrometry Scoring System: An Internationally Developed Clinical Classification To Describe the Surgical Difficulty for Renal Masses for Which Robotic Partial Nephrectomy Is Planned" [Eur. Urol. Open Sci. 54 (2023) 33-42]

Agarwal, Dinesh K; Mulholland, Clancy; Koye, Digsu N; Sathianathen, Niranjan; Yao, Henry; Dundee, Philip; Moon, Daniel; Furrer, Marc; Giudice, Christina; Wang, Wayland; Simpson, Julie A; Kearsley, Jamie; Norris, Briony; Zargar, Homi; Pan, Henry Y C; Mottrie, Alex; Fuller, Andrew; Mottaran, Angelo; Challacombe, Ben; Kua, Boon; Metcalfe, Charles; Wagner, Christian; Dubey, Deepak; Gomez Sancha, Fernando; Bruyère, Franck; Gautam, Gagan; Pooleri, Ginil K; Bozzini, Giorgio; Lau, Howard; Thyer, Isaac; Teoh, Jeremy; Vass, Justin; Vivian, Justin; McDermott, Kara; Winter, Mathew; Ragavan, Narasimhan; Campbell, Nicholas; Harke, Nina N; Richard, Patrick O; Teloken, Patrick; Dekuyper, Peter; Sutherland, Peter; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Nair, Rajesh; Pemberton, Richard; Catterwell, Rick; Oomen, Robert J A; Weston, Robin; Moritz, Rudolf; Krishnappa, Raghunath S; Leslie, Scott; Van Appledorn, Scott; Yuvaraja, T B; Meert, Thibault; Dujardin, Thierry; Gross, Tobias; Walton, Tom; Huang, William C; Caumartin, Yves; Agarwal, Ashwin; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Corcoran, Niall M
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.euros.2023.05.007.].
PMID: 38523653
ISSN: 2666-1683
CID: 5644392

Interaction of patient age and high-grade prostate cancer on targeted biopsies of MRI suspicious lesions

Pak, Jamie S; Huang, Richard; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wysock, James S; Taneja, Samir S
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the interaction of patient age and Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score in determining the grade of prostate cancer (PCa) identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsy in older men. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:From a prospectively accrued Institutional Review Board-approved comparative study of MRI-targeted and systematic biopsy between June 2012 and December 2022, men with at least one PI-RADS ≥3 lesion on pre-biopsy MRI and no prior history of PCa were selected. Ordinal and binomial logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS:A total of 2677 men met study criteria. The highest PI-RADS score was 3 in 1220 men (46%), 4 in 950 men (36%), and 5 in 507 men (19%). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age was 66.7 (60.8-71.8) years, median (IQR) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 6.1 (4.6-9.0) ng/mL, median (IQR) prostate volume was 48 (34-68) mL, and median (IQR) PSA density was 0.13 (0.08-0.20) ng/mL/mL. Clinically significant (cs)PCa and high-risk PCa were identified on targeted biopsy in 1264 (47%) and 321 (12%) men, respectively. Prevalence of csPCa and high-risk PCa were significantly higher in the older age groups. On multivariable analyses, patient age was significantly associated with csPCa but not high-risk PCa; PI-RADS score and the interaction of age and PI-RADS score were significantly associated with high-risk PCa but not csPCa. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort, the substantial rate of high-risk PCa on MRI-ultrasound fusion targeted biopsies in older men, and its significant association with MRI findings, supports the value of pre-biopsy MRI to localise disease that could cause cancer mortality even in older men.
PMID: 38533536
ISSN: 1464-410x
CID: 5644852

Chronic kidney disease and risk of kidney or urothelial malignancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

Brooks, Emily R; Siriruchatanon, Mutita; Prabhu, Vinay; Charytan, David M; Huang, William C; Chen, Yu; Kang, Stella K
BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent, affecting approximately 11% of U.S. adults. Multiple studies have evaluated a potential association between CKD and urinary tract malignancies. Summary estimates of urinary tract malignancy risk in CKD patients with and without common co-existing conditions may guide clinical practice recommendations. METHODS:Four electronic databases were searched for original cohort studies evaluating the association between CKD and urinary tract cancers (kidney cancer and urothelial carcinoma) through May 25, 2023, in persons with at least moderate CKD and no dialysis or kidney transplantation. Quality assessment was performed for studies meeting inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis with a random-effects model was performed for unadjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) as well as adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for confounding conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and/or tobacco use), shown to have association with kidney cancer and urothelial carcinoma. Sub-analysis was conducted for estimates associated with CKD stages separately. RESULTS:Six cohort studies with 8 617 563 persons were included. Overall, methodological quality of the studies was good. CKD was associated with both higher unadjusted incidence and adjusted hazard of kidney cancer (IRR, 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-4.88; aHR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.77-2.36) and urothelial cancer (IRR, 3.96; 95% CI, 2.44-6.40; aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.22-1.68) compared with persons without CKD. Examining incident urinary tract cancers by CKD severity, risks were elevated in stage 3 CKD (kidney aHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.56-2.30; urothelial carcinoma aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.65) as well as in stages 4/5 CKD (kidney cancer aHR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.00-2.66, UC aHR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.49). CONCLUSIONS:Even moderate CKD is associated with elevated risk of kidney cancer and UC. Providers should consider these elevated risks when managing individuals with CKD, particularly when considering evaluation for the presence and etiology of hematuria.
PMID: 38037426
ISSN: 1460-2385
CID: 5617042

Treatment of Low-grade Intermediate-risk Nonmuscle-invasive Bladder Cancer With UGN-102 ± Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor Compared to Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor Monotherapy: A Randomized, Controlled, Phase 3 Trial (ATLAS)

Prasad, Sandip M; Huang, William C; Shore, Neal D; Hu, Brian; Bjurlin, Marc; Brown, Gordon; Genov, Pencho; Shishkov, Dimitar; Khuskivadze, Alexandre; Ganev, Tosho; Marchev, Dobri; Orlov, Igor; Kopyltsov, Evgeny; Zubarev, Vadim; Nosov, Alexander; Komlev, Dmitrii; Burger, Brent; Raju, Sunil; Meads, Andrew; Schoenberg, Mark
PURPOSE:Low-grade intermediate-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is a chronic illness commonly treated by repetitive transurethral resection of bladder tumor. We compared the efficacy and safety of intravesical chemoablation with UGN-102 (a reverse thermal gel containing mitomycin), with or without subsequent transurethral resection of bladder tumor, to transurethral resection of bladder tumor alone in patients with low-grade intermediate-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This prospective, randomized, phase 3 trial recruited patients with new or recurrent low-grade intermediate-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer to receive initial treatment with either UGN-102 once weekly for 6 weeks or transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Patients were followed quarterly by endoscopy, cytology, and for-cause biopsy. The primary end point was disease-free survival. All patients were followed for adverse events. RESULTS:Trial enrollment was halted by the sponsor to pursue an alternative development strategy after 282 of a planned 632 patients were randomized to UGN-102 ± subsequent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (n=142) or transurethral resection of bladder tumor monotherapy (n=140), rendering the trial underpowered to perform hypothesis testing. Patients were predominantly male and ≥65 years of age. Tumor-free complete response 3 months after initial treatment was achieved by 92 patients (65%) who received UGN-102 and 89 patients (64%) treated by transurethral resection of bladder tumor. The estimated probability of disease-free survival 15 months after randomization was 72% for UGN-102 ± transurethral resection of bladder tumor and 50% for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (hazard ratio 0.45). The most common adverse events (incidence ≥10%) in the UGN-102 group were dysuria, micturition urgency, nocturia, and pollakiuria. CONCLUSIONS:Primary, nonsurgical chemoablation with UGN-102 for the management of low-grade intermediate-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer offers a potential therapeutic alternative to immediate transurethral resection of bladder tumor monotherapy and warrants further investigation.
PMID: 37548555
ISSN: 1527-3792
CID: 5593912

Stimulated Raman histology as a method to determine the adequacy of renal mass biopsy and identify malignant subtypes of renal cell carcinoma

Mannas, Miles P; Deng, Fang-Ming; Belanger, Eric C; Jones, Derek; Ren, Joyce; Huang, William; Orringer, Daniel A; Taneja, Samir S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Renal tumor biopsy requires adequate tissue sampling to aid in the investigation of small renal masses. In some centers the contemporary nondiagnostic renal mass biopsy rate may be as high as 22% and may be as high as 42% in challenging cases. Stimulated Raman Histology (SRH) is a novel microscopic technique which has created the possibility for rapid, label-free, high-resolution images of unprocessed tissue which may be viewed on standard radiology viewing platforms. The application of SRH to renal biopsy may provide the benefits of routine pathologic evaluation during the procedure, thereby reducing nondiagnostic results. We conducted a pilot feasibility study, to assess if renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes may be imaged and to see if high-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) could subsequently be generated. METHODS/MATERIALS/METHODS:. The cores were then processed as per routine pathologic protocols. The SRH images and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides were then viewed by a genitourinary pathologist. RESULTS:The SRH microscope took 8 to 11 minutes to produce high-quality images of the renal biopsies. Total of 25 renal tumors including 1 oncocytoma, 3 chromophobe RCC, 16 clear cells RCC, 4 papillary RCC, and 1 medullary RCC were included. All renal tumor subtypes were captured, and the SRH images were easily differentiated from adjacent normal renal parenchyma. High quality H&E slides were produced from each of the renal biopsies after SRH was completed. Immunostains were performed on selected cases and the staining was not affected by the SRH image process. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SRH produces high quality images of all renal cell subtypes that can be rapidly produced and easily interpreted to determine renal mass biopsy adequacy, and on occasion, may allow renal tumor subtype identification. Renal biopsies remained available to produce high quality H&E slides and immunostains for confirmation of diagnosis. Procedural application has promise to decrease the known rate of renal mass nondiagnostic biopsies, and application of convolutional neural network methodology may further improve diagnostic capability and increase utilization of renal mass biopsy among urologists.
PMID: 37225634
ISSN: 1873-2496
CID: 5508442

Editorial Commentary

Persily, Jesse B; Huang, William C
PMID: 37155951
ISSN: 2352-0787
CID: 5544502

Incidence of Benign Renal Masses in a Contemporary Cohort of Patients Receiving Partial Nephrectomy for Presumed Renal Cell Carcinoma

Vijay, Varun; Vokshi, Fjolla Hyseni; Smigelski, Michael; Nagpal, Shavy; Huang, William C
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Over the past decade and a half, advances in diagnostic imaging as well as an increased utilization of active surveillance (AS) and renal mass biopsy (RMB) have led to an improved ability to identify benign lesions prior to partial nephrectomy (PN). We seek to examine the incidence of benign pathology at the time of PN in a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing PN for presumed renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:We performed a chart review on a prospectively maintained database on a series of patients who underwent PN between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2021 for solid renal masses concerning for RCC. RESULTS:One thousand two hundred twenty-nine patients were included in the analysis, with 240 patients (19.2%) identified to have benign disease on final pathology. Of patients with benign disease, (23%) of patients had angiomyolipoma (AML) and 64% had oncocytoma. Between 2006 and 2021, there was a significant increase in the incidence of benign pathology after PN. When examining 3-year rolling averages over this same time period, the incidence of oncocytoma appeared to increase while the incidence of AML decreased. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite improvements in diagnostic tools and increased utilization of active surveillance, the overall incidence of benign pathology, particularly oncocytoma, did not decrease over time in this contemporary cohort of patients undergoing PN.
PMID: 36535809
ISSN: 1938-0682
CID: 5394592

Single-cell analysis of localized prostate cancer patients links high Gleason score with an immunosuppressive profile

Adorno Febles, Victor R; Hao, Yuan; Ahsan, Aarif; Wu, Jiansheng; Qian, Yingzhi; Zhong, Hua; Loeb, Stacy; Makarov, Danil V; Lepor, Herbert; Wysock, James; Taneja, Samir S; Huang, William C; Becker, Daniel J; Balar, Arjun V; Melamed, Jonathan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Ren, Qinghu; Kufe, Donald; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Adeegbe, Dennis O; Deng, Jiehui; Wise, David R
BACKGROUND:Evading immune surveillance is a hallmark for the development of multiple cancer types. Whether immune evasion contributes to the pathogenesis of high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) remains an area of active inquiry. METHODS:Through single-cell RNA sequencing and multicolor flow cytometry of freshly isolated prostatectomy specimens and matched peripheral blood, we aimed to characterize the tumor immune microenvironment (TME) of localized prostate cancer (PCa), including HGPCa and low-grade prostate cancer (LGPCa). RESULTS: TILs. The PCa TME was infiltrated by macrophages but these did not clearly cluster by M1 and M2 markers. CONCLUSIONS:T cell exhaustion in localized PCa, a finding enriched in HGPCa relative to LGPCa. These studies suggest a possible link between the clinical-pathologic risk of PCa and the associated TME. Our results have implications for our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of PCa pathogenesis and the implementation of immunotherapy for localized PCa.
PMID: 36988342
ISSN: 1097-0045
CID: 5463282

Impact of 3D printed models on quantitative surgical outcomes for patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: a cohort study

Wake, Nicole; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Huang, Richard; Ginocchio, Luke A; Wysock, James S; Taneja, Samir S; Huang, William C; Chandarana, Hersh
BACKGROUND:Three-dimensional (3D) printed anatomic models can facilitate presurgical planning by providing surgeons with detailed knowledge of the exact location of pertinent anatomical structures. Although 3D printed anatomic models have been shown to be useful for pre-operative planning, few studies have demonstrated how these models can influence quantitative surgical metrics. OBJECTIVE:To prospectively assess whether patient-specific 3D printed prostate cancer models can improve quantitative surgical metrics in patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). METHODS:Patients with MRI-visible prostate cancer (PI-RADS V2 ≥ 3) scheduled to undergo RARP were prospectively enrolled in our IRB approved study (n = 82). Quantitative surgical metrics included the rate of positive surgical margins (PSMs), operative times, and blood loss. A qualitative Likert scale survey to assess understanding of anatomy and confidence regarding surgical approach was also implemented. RESULTS:The rate of PSMs was lower for the 3D printed model group (8.11%) compared to that with imaging only (28.6%), p = 0.128. The 3D printed model group had a 9-min reduction in operating time (213 ± 42 min vs. 222 ± 47 min) and a 5 mL reduction in average blood loss (227 ± 148 mL vs. 232 ± 114 mL). Surgeon anatomical understanding and confidence improved after reviewing the 3D printed models (3.60 ± 0.74 to 4.20 ± 0.56, p = 0.62 and 3.86 ± 0.53 to 4.20 ± 0.56, p = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS:3D printed prostate cancer models can positively impact quantitative patient outcomes such as PSMs, operative times, and blood loss in patients undergoing RARP.
PMID: 36749368
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5420812

Prostate magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy global grade correlates better than highest grade with prostatectomy grade

Ren, Joyce; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S; Wysock, James S; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Deng, Fang-Ming
BACKGROUND:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy has become an increasingly common method of diagnosing prostate cancer. A previous study from our institution demonstrated that the biopsy global Grade Group (gGG, aggregate GG of all positive cores) and highest Grade Group (hGG in any core) both show substantial concordance with the Grade Group at radical prostatectomy (RPGG) while the discordance predominantly consists of upgrading in gGG and downgrading in hGG. We performed a larger cohort study focused on biopsy cases in which gGG and hGG differ, to determine their relative concordance with RPGG. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of radical prostatectomy specimens with prior MRI-targeted biopsies from our institution between 2016 and 2020. Separate gGG and hGG were assigned to each MRI-targeted lesion. Targeted lesions with different gGG versus hGG were segregated from those with identical gGG and hGG. The concordance of biopsy GG with RPGG was evaluated using κ coefficient analysis. RESULTS:Of the 489 lesions with MRI-targeted biopsies, 82 (17%) differed in gGG versus hGG. The gGG of 46 (56%), 33 (40%), and 3 (4%) lesions were unchanged, upgraded, and downgraded at radical prostatectomy, respectively (κ= 0.302, weighted κ = 0.334). The hGG of 24 (29%), 9 (11%), and 49 (60%) lesions were unchanged, upgraded, and downgraded at radical prostatectomy, respectively (κ = 0.040, weighted κ = 0.198). When stratified by the biopsy GG, gGG showed the highest concordance in GG2 (61%) and GG3 (54%) lesions. The hGG resulted in substantial downgrading (60%) with less optimal concordance regardless of the biopsy GG. Neither the prebiopsy prostate specific antigen level nor the PI-RADS score was predictive of upgrading of gGG. CONCLUSIONS:When gGG and hGG differ, gGG method more accurately predicts the RPGG than hGG, particularly in GG2 and GG3 lesions which comprised the majority of targeted lesions.
PMID: 36461793
ISSN: 1097-0045
CID: 5374232