Relative Effect of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Alone or in Combination with Noninjective Treatments on Pain and Physical Function in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has been recommended for managing pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). The difference in therapeutic effects between radial shockwave characteristics (RaSW) and focused shockwave characteristics (FoSW) with different energy levels for KOA remains controversial. The purpose of this network meta-analysis (NMA) was to identify the effects relative to the different ESWT regime and combination treatments on pain and functional outcomes in individuals with KOA. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which investigated the efficacy of RaSW, FoSW, and combination treatments in patients with KOA were identified by searches of electronic databases. The included RCTs were analyzed through NMA and risk-of-bias assessment. We analyzed 69 RCTs with a total of 21 treatment arms in the NMA. Medium-energy FoSW plus physical therapy, medium-energy acupoint RaSW plus Chinese medicine, and high-energy FoSW alone were the most effective treatments for reducing pain [standard mean difference (SMD) = -4.51], restoring function (SMD = 4.97), and decreasing joint inflammation (SMD = -5.01). Population area and study quality influenced the treatment outcomes, particularly pain. Our findings indicate that medium-energy ESWT combined with physical therapy or Chinese medicine is beneficial for treating pain and increasing function in adults with KOA.
Effects of Sarcopenic Obesity and Its Confounders on Knee Range of Motion Outcome after Total Knee Replacement in Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Retrospective Study
Sarcopenic obesity is closely associated with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and has high risk of total knee replacement (TKR). In addition, poor nutrition status may lead to sarcopenia and physical frailty in KOA and is negatively associated with surgery outcome after TKR. This study investigated the effects of sarcopenic obesity and its confounding factors on recovery in range of motion (ROM) after total knee replacement (TKR) in older adults with KOA. A total of 587 older adults, aged â‰¥60 years, who had a diagnosis of KOA and underwent TKR, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Sarcopenia and obesity were defined based on cutoff values of appendicular mass index and body mass index for Asian people. Based on the sarcopenia and obesity definitions, patients were classified into three body-composition groups before TKR: sarcopenic-obese, obese, and non-obese. All patients were asked to attend postoperative outpatient follow-up admissions. Knee flexion ROM was measured before and after surgery. A ROM cutoff of 125 degrees was used to identify poor recovery post-surgery. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis was performed to measure the probability of poor ROM recovery among study groups. Cox multivariate regression models were established to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of postoperative poor ROM recovery, using potential confounding factors including age, sex, comorbidity, risk of malnutrition, preoperative ROM, and outpatient follow-up duration as covariates. Analyses results showed that patients in the obese and sarcopenic-obese groups had a higher probability of poor ROM recovery compared to the non-obese group (all p < 0.001). Among all body-composition groups, the sarcopenic-obese group yielded the highest risk of postoperative physical difficulty (adjusted HR = 1.63, p = 0.03), independent to the potential confounding factors. Sarcopenic obesity is likely at the high risk of poor ROM outcome following TKR in older individuals with KOA.