Prevalence, Predictors, and Disease Activity of Sacroiliitis Among Patients with Crohn's Disease
BACKGROUND:Sacroiliitis is an inflammatory arthritis of the sacroiliac joints and is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet, sacroiliitis often goes undiagnosed in IBD, and the clinical association between IBD disease activity and sacroiliitis is not well established. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often receive magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) to assess disease activity, affording clinicians the opportunity to evaluate for the presence of sacroiliitis. We aimed to identify the prevalence and disease characteristics associated with sacroiliitis in CD patients undergoing MRE. METHODS:All CD patients undergoing MRE for any indication between 2014 and 2018 at an IBD referral center were identified. The MREs were reviewed for the presence of sacroiliitis based on bone marrow edema (BME) and structural lesions. We analyzed demographics, IBD characteristics, clinical and endoscopic disease activity, and management between CD patients with and without sacroiliitis. RESULTS:Two hundred fifty-eight patients with CD underwent MRE during the study period. Overall, 17% of patients had MR evidence of sacroiliitis, of whom 73% demonstrated bone marrow edema. Female gender, back pain, and later age of CD diagnosis were associated with sacroiliitis (P = 0.05, P < 0.001, P = 0.04, respectively). Disease location and CD therapy were not associated with sacroiliitis on MRE. Clinical, endoscopic, and radiographic disease activity were not associated with sacroiliitis on MRE. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sacroiliitis is a common comorbid condition in CD. With limited clinical clues and disease characteristics to suggest sacroiliitis, physicians may utilize MRE to identify sacroiliitis, especially in CD patients with back pain.
Ustekinumab Does Not Increase Risk of Adverse Events: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
GOALS AND BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Ustekinumab (UST) is a monoclonal antibody inhibitor of IL-12/IL-23 approved for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We conducted a meta-analysis to compare rates of adverse events (AEs) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of UST for all indications. STUDY/METHODS:A systematic search was performed of MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed databases through November 2019. Study inclusion included RCTs comparing UST to placebo or other biologics in patients aged 18Â years or older with a diagnosis of an autoimmune condition. RESULTS:Thirty RCTs with 16,068 patients were included in our analysis. Nine thousand six hundred and twenty-six subjects were included in the UST vs placebo analysis. There was no significant difference in serious or mild/moderate AEs between UST and placebo with an OR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.66, 1.05) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.99, 1.18), respectively, over a median follow-up time of 16Â weeks. In a sub-analysis of CD and UC trials, no difference in serious or mild/moderate AEs in UST versus placebo was seen. CONCLUSIONS:UST was not associated with an increase in short-term risk of AEs.
From the American Epicenter: Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the New York City Metropolitan Area
BACKGROUND:We aimed to characterize patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:We performed a case series of patients with IBD and confirmed or highly suspected COVID-19 to assess rates of severe outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 83 patients with IBD with confirmed (54%) or highly suspected (46%) COVID-19. The overall hospitalization rate was 6%, generally comprising patients with active Crohn's disease or older men with comorbidities, and 1 patient expired. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this series of patients with IBD, severe outcomes of COVID-19 were rare and comparable to similarly aged individuals in the general population.
Single Cell Transcriptional Survey of Ileal-Anal Pouch Immune Cells from Ulcerative Colitis Patients
BACKGROUND & AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in patients with ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapies. Pouchitis, the most common complication, is inflammation of the pouch of unknown etiology. To define how the intestinal immune system is distinctly organized during pouchitis, we analyzed tissues from patients with and without pouchitis and from patients with ulcerative colitis using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). METHODS:We examined pouch lamina propria CD45+ hematopoietic cells from intestinal tissues of ulcerative colitis patients with (n=15) and without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n=11). Further in silico meta-analysis was performed to generate transcriptional interaction networks and identify biomarkers for patients with inflamed pouches. RESULTS:In addition to tissue-specific signatures, we identified a population of IL1B/LYZ+ myeloid cells and FOXP3/BATF+ T cells that distinguish inflamed tissues which we further validated in other single cell RNA-seq datasets from IBD patients. Cell type specific transcriptional markers obtained from single-cell RNA-sequencing was used to infer representation from bulk RNA sequencing datasets, which further implicated myeloid cells expressing IL1B and S100A8/A9 calprotectin as interacting with stromal cells, and Bacteroidiales and Clostridiales bacterial taxa. We found that non-responsiveness to anti-integrin biologic therapies in ulcerative colitis patients was associated with the signature of IL1B+/LYZ+ myeloid cells in a subset of patients. CONCLUSIONS:Features of intestinal inflammation during pouchitis and ulcerative colitis are similar, which may have clinical implications for the management of pouchitis. scRNA-seq enables meta-analysis of multiple studies, which may facilitate the identification of biomarkers to personalize therapy for IBD patients.
Implementation of an Inpatient IBD Service Is Associated with Improvement in Quality of Care and Long-Term Outcomes
BACKGROUND:There is wide variation in the quality of care of hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prior studies have demonstrated that a specialized inpatient IBD service improves short-term outcomes. In this study, we assessed the impact of a dedicated IBD service on the quality of care and long-term outcomes. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included adult patients admitted for a complication of IBD between March 2017 and February 2019 to a tertiary referral center. In March 2018, a dedicated inpatient IBD service co-managed by IBD gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons was implemented. Quality of care outcomes included C. difficile stool testing, confirmed VTE prophylaxis administration and opiate avoidance. Long-term outcomes were clinical remission, IBD-related surgery, ED visits, and hospital readmissions at 90 days and 12 months. RESULTS:In total, 143 patients were included; 66 pre- and 77 post-implementation of the IBD service. Fifty-two percent had ulcerative colitis and 48% had Crohn's disease. After implementation, there was improvement in C.difficile testing (90% vs. 76%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), early VTE prophylaxis (92% vs. 77%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.01) and decreases in narcotic use (14% vs. 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.02), IBD-related ED visits at 90Â days (7% vs 18%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.03) and 12Â months (16% vs 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), and IBD readmissions at 90Â days (16% vs. 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04). There were no differences in rates of clinical remission or surgery. CONCLUSIONS:The creation of a dedicated inpatient IBD service improved quality of IBD care and reduced post-discharge ED visits and readmissions and broader implementation of this strategy may help optimize care of hospitalized IBD patients.
Comparative Evaluation of Conventional Stool Testing and Multiplex Molecular Panel in Outpatients With Relapse of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
BACKGROUND:Differentiating between enteric infection and relapse of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common clinical challenge. Few studies have evaluated the impact of multiplex gastrointestinal polymerase chain reaction (GI PCR) pathogen panels on clinical practice compared to stool culture. Our aim was to compare the impact of PCR stool testing to conventional stool testing in outpatients presenting with relapse of IBD. METHODS:In a retrospective cohort study of outpatients with IBD presenting to NYU Langone Health with flare from September 2015 to April 2019, we compared patients who underwent stool testing with GI PCR to age-, sex-, and IBD-subtype-matched patients who underwent culture and ova and parasite exam (conventional testing). The primary outcome was IBD therapy escalation after testing. Secondary outcomes included rates of posttesting endoscopy, abdominal radiography, antibiotics, and IBD-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and abdominal surgeries. RESULTS:We identified 134 patients who underwent GI PCR matched to 134 patients who underwent conventional testing. Pathogens were more frequently identified on GI PCR (26 vs 5%; Pâ€…<â€…0.01). We found that GI PCR was associated with less escalation in IBD therapy (16 vs 29%; Pâ€…<â€…0.01) and fewer posttest endoscopies (10% vs 18%; Pâ€…=â€…0.04), with no differences in IBD outcomes. On multivariate analysis, testing with GI PCR was associated with an odds ratio of 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.84; Pâ€…=â€…0.02) for escalation of IBD therapies. CONCLUSIONS:Testing with GI PCR was associated with higher rates of pathogen detection and lower rates of IBD therapy escalation and endoscopy in the outpatient setting. These changes in management were not associated with a difference in IBD outcomes.
Real-World Effectiveness and Safety of Ustekinumab for Ulcerative Colitis from 2 Tertiary IBD Centers in the United States
Background: Ustekinumab has been recently approved for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC). The registry trials for ustekinumab in UC demonstrated efficacy and safety, but data on real-world outcomes are limited. We describe the effectiveness and safety of ustekinumab in patients with UC from 2 US tertiary inflammatory bowel disease centers. Methods: Patients with moderately to severely active UC treated with ustekinumab at NYU Langone Health (New York, New York) and University of Chicago Medical Center (Chicago, Illinois) between January 2016 and March 2020 were retrospectively included. The primary outcome was clinical remission at 3 and 12 months, defined as a partial Mayo score of â‰¤2, with a combined rectal bleeding and stool frequency subscore of â‰¤1. Results: Sixty-six UC patients were included. Ninety-two percent of patients had prior exposure to biologics or tofacitinib. Forty-three percent and 45% of patients achieved clinical remission by 3 and 12 months, respectively. Anti-TNF nonresponse and endoscopic Mayo score of 3 were negative predictors of clinical remission. Thirty-three percent of those followed for a year achieved concurrent endoscopic and histologic healing, which was significantly associated with lower partial Mayo score (P < 0.01) and lower stool frequency (P = 0.02). Serious adverse events occurred in 4 (6%) patients (3 UC exacerbations, 1 vasculitis). Conclusions: In this cohort of mostly biologic-refractory UC patients, treatment with ustekinumab achieved remission in nearly half of them at 12 months, and was associated with an overall favorable safety profile. These results are modestly better than the pivotal trials.
Serum Amyloid A Proteins Induce Pathogenic Th17 Cells and Promote Inflammatory Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Not Associated with Severe Outcomes of COVID-19: A Cohort Study from the United States Epicenter [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of novel severe acute respiratory virus syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV 2), the causative virus of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a global pandemic. In the United States, cases exceed 2 million, with the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area at the epicenter. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are generally considered higher risk of infection due to immunosuppressive therapies, however, data are lacking regarding outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with IBD compared to the general population. We aim to investigate the impact of IBD on COVID-19 outcomes.
METHOD(S): We prospectively collected data on all patients with IBD [Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC)] with confirmed or highly suspected COVID-19 (fever and/or close contact plus respiratory symptoms) and all non-IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19 from March 3 to May 10, 2020 at an academic medical center in NYC. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, and medication history were recorded. The endpoints were severe outcomes of COVID-19, including hospitalization, ventilator requirement, ICU admission and death. Adjusted analyses were performed for predictors of a composite endpoint of ventilator, ICU and death.
RESULT(S): We identified 83 patients with IBD [CD (n = 56, 67%) or UC (n = 27, 33%)] with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and 8277 non-IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19 (Table 1). IBD patients had a lower median age (34 vs. 53 years; P < 0.001) and a higher proportion of Caucasians (69% vs. 41%; P < 0.001). IBD patients were less likely to have any co-morbidity (29% vs. 52%; P < 0.001), and had higher rates of immunomodulator (IMM) or biologic use. IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19 had lower rates of hospitalizations (14% vs. 51%; P < 0.001) and ICU admissions (2% vs. 13%; P = 0.04; Table 2). On multivariable analysis restricted to confirmed COVID-19, the presence of IBD was not associated with severe outcomes (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.12-2.44, P = 0.43). Age, male gender, number of comorbidities, thiopurine and steroid use were significant predictors of severe COVID-19 outcomes, while TNF-antagonists had a protective effect (Table 3).
CONCLUSION(S): In this large cohort study, IBD was not a risk factor for severe outcomes of COVID-19. Age, co-morbidities, and exposure to thiopurines and steroids were associated with severe outcomes of COVID-19. TNF-antagonists may be protective from severe outcomes of COVID-19, but this requires further study
A Predictive Model of Length of Stay in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Hospitalized with Flare: A Multicenter Study [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Hospitalization for flare of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. We aimed to examine the relationship between IBD severity at presentation and adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized with flare. Additionally, we aimed to create and validate a predictive model for length of stay (LOS) using markers of disease severity.
METHOD(S): We conducted a retrospective cohort study of IBD patients hospitalized with flare at two urban academic medical centers. We collected demographic and IBD-related data including the presence of Clostridioides difficile and markers of disease severity at presentation. The primary outcome was a composite of adverse inpatient IBD outcomes, including LOS >7 days, anti-TNF administration, and surgery. The data was split into training (70%) and validation (30%) samples. Employing variables of disease severity, models (including logistic regression, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and Random Forest (RF) modeling techniques) were created to predict LOS >7 days using the training sample. These models were adjusted for surgery and anti-TNF administration, and their performance was subsequently validated.
RESULT(S): A total of 187 IBD patients hospitalized with flare were included (Table 1). The composite primary outcome was achieved in 71 patients (38%) with 51 (27%) hospitalized for >7 days. In univariate analyses, C-reactive protein and C. difficile positivity correlated with anti-TNF administration and surgery (Table 2). Adjusting for anti-TNF administration and surgery, tachycardia (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05-1.10), hypotension (1.07; 1.03-1.11), hypoalbuminemia (2.87; 1.81-4.74), leukocytosis (1.17; 1.09-1.27), anemia (1.10; 1.05-1.15) and C. difficile posi-tivity (2.63; 1.27-5.47) were predictive of prolonged LOS (Table 2). In multivariate analyses, tachycardia predicted the primary composite outcome of all adverse effects (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.11). C. difficile positivity (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.36-14.9), hypoalbuminemia (3.25; 1.29-9.01), and tachycardia (1.11; 1.06-1.16) predicted prolonged LOS (.7 days). The CART and RF models had acceptable accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for predicting LOS >7 days (Table 3).
CONCLUSION(S): C. difficile positivity, hypoalbuminemia, and tachycardia at presentation predicted prolonged length of stay in a multicenter cohort of IBD patients hospitalized with flare. CART and Random Forest models perform well in predicting prolonged length of stay in these patients