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Disparities in Survival Outcomes among Racial/Ethnic Minorities with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in the United States

Baliga, Sujith; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Bazan, Jose; Palmer, Joshua D.; Jhawar, Sachin R.; Konieczkowski, David J.; Grecula, John; Blakaj, Dukagjin M.; Mitchell, Darrion; Henson, Christina; Hu, Kenneth; Yamoah, Kosj; Gamez, Mauricio E.
Background: Racial/ethnic (R/E) minorities with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have worse survival outcomes compared to White patients. While disparities in patient outcomes for R/E minorities have been well documented, the specific drivers of the inferior outcomes remain poorly understood. Patients and Methods: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study that analyzed HNSCC patients using the National Cancer Database (NCDB) from 2000"“2016. Patient outcomes were stratified by R/E groups including White, Black, Hispanic, Native American/Other, and Asian. The main outcome in this study was overall survival (OS). Univariate time-to-event survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan"“Meier product limit estimates and the log-rank test to evaluate the differences between strata. Results: There were 304,138 patients with HNSCC identified in this study, of which 262,762 (86.3%) were White, 32,528 (10.6%) were Black, 6191 were Asian (2.0%), and 2657 were Native American/Other (0.9%). Black R/E minorities were more likely to be uninsured (9% vs. 5%, p < 0.0001), have Medicaid insurance (22% vs. 8%, p < 0.0001), be in a lower income quartile (<30,000, 42% vs. 13%, p < 0.0001), have metastatic disease (5% vs. 2%, p < 0.001), and have a total treatment time 6 days longer than White patients (median 107 vs. 101 days, p < 0.001). The 5-year OS for White, Black, Native American/Other, and Asian patients was 50.8%, 38.6%, 51.1%, and 55.8%, respectively. Among the oropharynx HNSCC patients, the 5-year OS rates in p16+ White, Black, and Asian patients were 65.7%, 39.4%%, and 55%, respectively. After a multivariate analysis, Black race was still associated with an inferior OS (HR:1.09, 95% CI: 1.03"“1.15, p = 0.002). Conclusions: This large cohort study of HNSCC patients demonstrates that Black race is independently associated with worse OS, in part due to socioeconomic, clinical, and treatment-related factors.
ISSN: 2072-6694
CID: 5460262

Adoption of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk salivary gland malignancies

Gordon, Alex J; Chow, Michael S; Patel, Aneek; Hu, Kenneth S; Li, Zujun; Jacobson, Adam S; Vaezi, Alec E; Tam, Moses M; Givi, Babak
BACKGROUND:The present study characterizes national trends in the utilization of adjuvant chemotherapy to treat salivary gland malignancies. METHODS:The National Cancer Database was queried for salivary gland malignancies treated by surgery with radiation in 2004-2019. Proportions of patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy over the study period were analyzed by linear regression. The impact of chemotherapy on overall survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS:Among 15 965 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 2355 (14.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapy utilization significantly increased from 4.9% to 16.5% over the study period (p < 0.001). No survival benefit was observed with adjuvant chemotherapy on propensity score-matched Kaplan-Meier analysis (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.86-1.11; p = 0.72) or multivariable Cox regression (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.78-1.09; p = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS:Adjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly utilized to treat salivary gland malignancies in recent years. Our findings highlight the importance of obtaining high-quality prospective data regarding the benefit of chemotherapy.
PMID: 36245302
ISSN: 1097-0347
CID: 5360072

Repeat re-irradiation with interstitial HDR-brachytherapy for an in-field isolated nodal recurrence in a patient with HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [Case Report]

Kim, Joseph K; Hardy-Abeloos, Camille; Purswani, Juhi M; Kamen, Emily; Concert, Catherine M; Duckworth, Tamara; Tam, Moses; Haas, Jonathan; Rybstein, Marissa; Vaezi, Alec; Jacobson, Adam; Hu, Kenneth S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Locoregionally recurrent head and neck cancer is a complex clinical scenario that often requires multimodality treatment. These patients have often previously received definitive treatment with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapy, which can make further management difficult. A second isolated locoregional failure is rare and clinicians are faced with a challenge to optimize disease control while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS/METHODS:In this report, we present the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of a patient with an isolated locoregional recurrence who was previously treated with two courses of radiation. The patient was treated with a second course of reirradiation using interstitial brachytherapy as well as a discussion regarding patient selection and optimal management for recurrent head and neck cancer. RESULTS:Repeat reirradiation using interstitial HDR-brachytherapy with the use of an alloderm spacer was successfully delivered to the patient for an in-field right neck nodal recurrence. He received a total EQD2/BED dose of 127.70/153.24 Gy. At 1-year followup, the patient was without evidence of recurrent disease or new significant side effects. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Recurrent head and neck cancer should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach given the complex clinical scenario. Reirradiation is a commonly used salvage measure for recurrent head and neck cancer that requires careful planning and patient selection due to prior treatment-related effects and dose constraints. We reported a case of a second course of reirradiation using interstitial HDR-brachytherapy for locoregionally recurrent head and neck cancer and showed no recurrence of disease or worsening long term side effects at 1 year.
PMID: 36593130
ISSN: 1873-1449
CID: 5409832

Circulating Tumor HPV-DNA Kinetics in p16+ Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients Undergoing Adaptive Radiation De-Escalation Based on Mid-Treatment Nodal Response [Meeting Abstract]

Kim, J K; Tam, M; Oh, C; Feron-Rigodon, M; Joseph, B; Vaezi, A E; Li, Z; Tran, T; Kim, G; Zan, E; Corby, P; Vecchio, Fitz C D; Goldberg, J D; Hochman, T; Givi, B; Jacobson, A; Persky, M; Hu, K S
Purpose/Objective(s): Human-papilloma virus-positive (HPV+) OPSCC is known to have an excellent prognosis with a favorable response to CRT. Several studies have shown that de-intensified treatment in select patients (pts) can achieve similar survival outcomes to standard treatment while reducing acute and long-term toxicity. Additionally, rapid clearance of circulating tumor HPV DNA may be useful in predicting the likelihood of disease control. Materials/Methods: We evaluated pts enrolled on a phase II institutional clinical trial. Pts with HPV+ OPSCC were included and were treated with definitive CRT with cisplatin. All pts were initially planned to receive standard radiation dose (S-RT) to 70 Gy; those who achieved a favorable mid-treatment response (FMTR) of >40% lymph node shrinkage at week 4 of radiation (RT) received a de-escalated dose (D-RT) to 60 Gy. Blood samples were taken at screening, week 4 of RT, and at follow-up visit after RT and circulating tumor tissue modified viral HPV NDA (TTMV) was qualtified. We define a "substantial TTMV clearance" as either >95% reduction in TTMV from screening to week 4 (screening level >200 copies/ml) or undetectable ctHPVDNA at week 4 (any detectable screening level). Fisher tests were used to evaluate the association of TTMV and treatment group.
Result(s): At the time of this analysis, 35 pts were enrolled in the clinical trial with a median age of 60 years at diagnosis (range 38 to 76). 25 pts achieved a FMTR and received D-RT while 10 pts received S-RT. 29 pts (7 S-RT, 18 D-RT) had detectable screening TTMV and week 4 TTMV samples available for analysis. D-RT pts had a significantly higher rate of substantial TTMV clearance at week 4 compared to S-RT: 14.3% (1/7) pts in the S-RT vs. 61.1% (11/18) pts in the D-RT (OR 0.090 [0.002 - 0.105], p=0.036). 6 of 25 pts (24%) had a flare in their TTMV from screening to week 4 including 57.1% (4/7) of the S-RT and 11.1% (2/18) of the D-RT; there was a significantly higher likelihood of TTMV flare in the S-RT group (OR 9.34 [0.898 - 150.960], p=0.032). 24 pts (6 S-RT, 18 D-RT) with initial detectable screening TTMV also had a follow-up TTMV sample available. The median time from screening to follow-up was 81.0 days for all pts (76.5 days for D-RT, 84.0 days for S-RT). 95.7% of pts (83.3% of S-RT, 100%% of D-RT) had complete TTMV clearance at follow-up.
Conclusion(s): We report a statistically significant correlation between substantial TTMV clearance and a FMTR of >40% nodal shrinkage. 61.1% of D-RT pts achieved a substantial TTMV clearance compared to 14.3% in the S-RT group. Additionally, we observed that pts who did not achieve a FMTR had a higher likelihood of TTMV flare at week 4. Nearly all pts achieved a complete TTMV clearance by follow-up. Mid-treatment TTMV clearance may help identify pts who may benefit from further de-escalation as well as those who should continue with standard therapy. This study has the identifier NCT03215719.
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5366202

Disease Characteristics, Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes in Patients with Synovial Cell Sarcoma of the Head and Neck (HNSCS) [Meeting Abstract]

Kim, J K; Karp, J M; Hu, K S; Vaezi, A E; Liu, C Z; Rybstein, M; Li, Z; Jacobson, A; Persky, M; Givi, B; Tam, M
Purpose/Objective(s): HNSCS is a rare diagnosis with an overall poor prognosis. Due to its rarity, our understanding of HNSCS and its optimal management is mainly derived from retrospective and single-institution studies. We aimed to evaluate the disease characteristics, patterns of care, and survival outcomes in patients with HNSCS. Materials/Methods: Using the National Cancer Database (NC
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5366292

Early-onset osteoradionecrosis following adjuvant volumetric-modulated arc therapy to an osteocutaneous free fibula flap with customized titanium plate [Case Report]

Daar, David A; Byun, David J; Spuhler, Karl; Anzai, Lavinia; Witek, Lukasz; Barbee, David; Hu, Kenneth S; Levine, Jamie P; Jacobson, Adam S
BACKGROUND:Computerized surgical planning (CSP) in osseous reconstruction of head and neck cancer defects has become a mainstay of treatment. However, the consequences of CSP-designed titanium plating systems on planning adjuvant radiation remains unclear. METHODS:Two patients underwent head and neck cancer resection and maxillomandibular free fibula flap reconstruction with CSP-designed plates and immediate placement of osseointegrated dental implants. Surgical treatment was followed by adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). RESULTS:Both patients developed osteoradionecrosis (ORN), and one patient had local recurrence. The locations of disease occurred at the areas of highest titanium plate burden, possibly attributed to IMRT dosing inaccuracy caused by the CSP-designed plating system. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite proven benefits of CSP-designed plates in osseous free flap reconstruction, there may be an underreported risk to adjuvant IMRT treatment planning leading to ORN and/or local recurrence. Future study should investigate alternative plating methods and materials to mitigate this debilitating outcome.
PMID: 34906727
ISSN: 2468-7855
CID: 5109702

Non-Squamous Cell Malignancies of the Larynx

Rotsides, Janine M; Patel, Evan; Oliver, Jamie R; Moses, Lindsey E; Jacobson, Adam S; Hu, Kenneth S; Vaezi, Alec; Tam, Moses; Givi, Babak
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Non-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) malignancies are rare, but well described laryngeal pathologies. However, the epidemiology and clinical behavior of these tumors is not well studied. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:Patients diagnosed with non-squamous cell larynx cancer from 2004 to 2017 in the National Cancer Database were selected. Demographic, clinicopathologic factors, treatments, and survival were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable cox regression were performed. Survival was compared with a propensity score-matched (PSM) population of laryngeal SCC patients. RESULTS:A total of 136,235 cases of larynx cancer were identified. After excluding SCC variants, 2,172 (1.6%) patients met inclusion criteria. The most common histology was chondrosarcoma (374, 17.2%), followed by small cell (345, 15.9%), and spindle cell carcinoma (268, 12.3%). The most common treatment was surgery (683, 31.4%) followed by chemoradiation (409, 18.8%) and surgery and adjuvant radiation (288, 13.3%). Overall, 3- and 5-year survival was 67.9% and 59.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis controlling for age, stage, comorbidity, histology, and treatment modality; chondrosarcoma had the best survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.11, confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.19, P < .001). In a PSM population, matched for age, stage, comorbidity, and treatments; non-SCC patients had significantly lower survival (51.5% vs. 59.9%, P < .001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A diverse range of non-squamous cell malignancies occur in the larynx. In general, these tumors have poor survival, with few exceptions such as chondrosarcoma. While the majority of these histologies undergo surgical-based treatments in other sites, only 53% of patients underwent surgical-based treatment in the larynx. These data could guide clinicians in determining the outcome of treatment in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:4 Laryngoscope, 2022.
PMID: 34994977
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5107502

Patterns of Care and Outcomes of Carcinosarcoma of the Major Salivary Glands

Talwar, Abhinav; Patel, Evan; Tam, Moses; Zhou, Fang; Hu, Kenneth; Persky, Michael; Vaezi, Alec; Jacobson, Adam; Givi, Babak
OBJECTIVE:Carcinosarcoma of the salivary gland is a rare malignant biphasic tumor. The present study investigates the epidemiology and clinical behavior of carcinosarcoma of the major salivary glands using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:NCDB. METHODS:All tumors were selected between 2004 and 2018. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatments, and survival were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was performed in surgically treated patients. RESULTS:= .008) remained significant. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Carcinosarcoma is a rare salivary gland tumor that frequently presents at a locally advanced stage. Despite multimodality treatments, the outcomes are poor. In the absence of clinical trial data, these data from the NCDB could guide clinicians in the management of this rare disease.
PMID: 35998038
ISSN: 1097-6817
CID: 5331582

Variation in Routine Use of a 60 to 63 Gy Intermediate Dose Clinical Target Volume With Primary Radiation therapy for Mucosal Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

Freedman, Laura; Galloway, Thomas; Hu, Kenneth; Mierzwa, Michelle
PMID: 36058619
ISSN: 1879-8519
CID: 5332292

Depth of Invasion in Oral Tongue Cancer and Risk of Regional Failure [Letter]

Hu, Kenneth; Persky, Michael
PMID: 35190055
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5167562