Osteoradionecrosis following radiation to reconstructedÂ mandibleÂ with titanium plate and osseointegrated dental implants
The impact of age on outcome in phase III NRG Oncology/RTOG trials of radiotherapy (XRT) +/- systemic therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To examine the role age plays in the treatment and prognosis of locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) treated definitively with radiation alone or combined modality therapy. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed of three NRG/RTOG trials examining either radiation alone or combined radiation and systemic therapy for LAHNC. The effect of age (â‰¥70 yrs.) on cause-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity was evaluated. RESULTS:A total of 2688 patients were analyzed, of whom 309 patients (11.5%) were â‰¥ 70. For all studies combined, the hazard ratio (HR) for CSS for patients age â‰¥ 70 vs. those <70 was 1.33 (95%CI: 1.14-1.55, p < 0.001). For OS, the HR for patients age â‰¥ 70 vs. those <70 for all studies combined was 1.55 (95% CI 1.35-1.77, p < 0.001). After adjustment for all covariates, age â‰¥ 70 was associated with worse OS regardless of adjustment for smoking and p16 status. The survival difference was more pronounced in those receiving combined radiation and systemic therapy. Hematologic and renal toxicities were increased in combined modality trials in patients â‰¥70 years old. CONCLUSIONS:Patients age â‰¥ 70 with LAHNC were underrepresented in these clinical trials. Their CSS and OS proved inferior to patients <70 years old.
Radiotherapy in Metastatic Oropharyngeal Cancer
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The role of locoregional radiotherapy for metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) is unclear. We investigated the impact of head and neck radiotherapy on survival in de novo metastatic OPSCC patients who received systemic therapy. METHODS:We queried the NCDB from 2004-2015 for metastatic OPSCC patients at diagnosis with known HPV-status who received systemic therapy. The association of head and neck radiotherapy with overall survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score-matched analysis adjusting for demographic and disease-specific prognostic factors. RESULTS:Of the 2,139 patients with metastatic OPSCC who presented with metastases and received systemic treatment, we identified 556 patients with known HPV-status. Among these 556 patients, 49% were HPV-positive and 56% received head and neck radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 17.5â€‰months (IQR 6.0-163.4â€‰months), radiotherapy was associated with significantly improved 1-year OS (67% vs 58%, log-rank Pâ€‰<â€‰.001) which remained significant on MVA (HR 0.78 95% CI 0.62-0.97 P = .029). In HPV-status subgroup analysis, a survival benefit was identified in HPV-positive patients (1-year OS 77% vs 67%, log-rank Pâ€‰<â€‰.001) but not in HPV-negative patients. Results were consistent on a propensity score-matched analysis of 212 HPV-positive matched patients (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.83, Pâ€‰<â€‰.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The survival of metastatic OPSCC remains limited. In this large series of patients with known HPV-status, head and neck radiotherapy was associated with longer survival in those with HPV-associated disease. These data could guide management of this challenging group of patients for head and neck cancer practitioners. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:3 Laryngoscope, 2020.
Dose analysis of photobiomodulation for oral mucositis: A systematic review [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction Photobiomodulation therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis (OM). The objective of this study is to determine the range of effective PBM dose, and review the adequacy of reporting irradiation parameters. Methods Online databases were searched to compare efficacy of PBM versus controls for preventing or treating cancer therapy-induced OM. Irradiation parameters were reviewed for accuracy. Results A total of 53 clinical trials were identified and 29 papers were excluded, leaving 24 papers for review. Only 1 study reported all parameters accurately. Seven studies reported a difference in OMgrade >= 3 (WHO) between the placebo and PBM groups greater than 40% when PBM was used prophylactically with greater irradiation parameters (mean energy dose 50%, beam area 58%, irradiance 246%, and treatment time per point 290% greater than the overall mean values).Aplot of effect size (%) vs. total energy per session was created using studies that reported adequate information to determine both total energy per session and the difference in the percent of patients with OMgrade >= 3 between the study group and placebo group. These data points were fit with a quadratic curve to evaluate if the data may resemble the parabolic relationship observed in previous studies. Conclusions This review has reconfirmed the lack of accurate reporting of PBM parameters. Total energy per session may be used to guide PBM dose parameters
Data-driven generation of CBCT-to-CT HU mapping for adaptive radiotherapy in H&N cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: This study aims to develop a data-driven method to derive a patient-specific CBCT to CT HU mapping function and evaluate the method for dose calculation on CBCT in H&N cancer radiotherapy.
Method(s): Eleven patients receiving VMAT for oropharyngeal cancer in a dose de-escalation clinical trial were enrolled in this study. Daily CBCT and a mid-course CT for re-assessment were acquired. The study derived a CBCT-to-CT mapping from one pair of CT and its closest CBCT, and applied to CBCT in the other set for independent dose calculation evaluation. The mapping was created by spatially-constraint fuzzy c-mean clustering (FC) on (CBCT, CT) HU vectors in the regions of air, soft tissue and bone that were thresholded on CBCT. To generate pseudo-CT, the probabilities of a CBCT voxel belonging to subtypes were computed by clustering with the CBCT centroids, and a CT value was created from the CT centroids weighting with the probabilities. The methods of using a HU-density curve (HC) from Catphan phantom imaging and air-water-bone density assignment (DA) were also evaluated for CBCT-based dose calculations. Dose differences between the three methods and CT calculations were assessed.
Result(s): Mean absolute differences of CT numbers in entire CBCT body of the patients are 110, 136 and 147 between FC, HC and DA method generated pseudo-CT and planning CTs, respectively. DVH differences between the three CBCT-based methods and CT calculated doses were within 3% for the PTV and related OARs. The percentage differences in parotid mean doses were 0.5+/-0.4%, 0.7+/-0.5%, 0.9+/-0.4% for FC, HC, and DA methods, respectively.
Conclusion(s): The fuzzy clustering on planning CT and 1st-day CBCT could generate a patient-specific CBCT-to-CT mapping for accurate dose calculation on patient CBCT in the subsequent fractions. The method may be used for CBCT-based daily dose assessment and adaptive replanning
Overview on Adjuvant Vaginal Brachytherapy in Stage I to II Endometrial Carcinoma According to ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Risk Classification: Long-Term Data from a Multi-Institutional Analysis in China [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: This research aimed to perform an overview on adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in stage I to II endometrial carcinoma (EC) according to ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO risk group consensus in China from multi-institutional analysis.Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyze patients with stage I to II EC at 13 institutions in China treated between 2003 and 2015. All patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and were divided into low-risk (LR), intermediate-risk (IR), high-intermediate risk (HIR) and high-risk (HR) groups according to ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO risk group consensus. XXResult(s): A total of 1048 cases were included. Stage I disease accounted for 85.9% of the cohort. Proportion of HR disease was 27.6%, HIR 17.7%, IR 27.7% and LR 27.1%. Patients received adjuvant VBT alone (n = 474), pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone (n = 116) or combined EBRT with VBT (n = 458). An increasing trend was found toward referrals for VBT alone. Historical data demonstrate that the clinical practice of adjuvant VBT alone increased significantly in the LR to HIR groups over the past 13 years. However, in the HR group, the proportion of VBT alone or as a boost after EBRT stayed stable in the corresponding period.All institutions commonly use High-dose-rate VBT prescribed to 0.5-cm depth from the vaginal surface with 14 and 17 different dose-fractionation schedules for VBT alone and VBT boost, respectively. The most common fractionation for VBT alone is 5 Gy in six fraction (407/474) and the most common fractionation for VBT as a boost after EBRT is 5 Gy in two fractions (178/458). Proximal 2-3 cm vagina was the most often irradiated vaginal target (61.3%). The most commonly used applicators were the multichannel vaginal cylinder (79.6%). The median follow-up time was 56 months. For LR to HIR patients, VBT alone achieved comparable survival to EBRT. Compared to EBRT, patients receiving VBT had significantly decreased incidence of grade 1-2 early and late gastrointestinal and urinary reactions, and the rate of grade 3-4 acute hematological toxicity. XXConclusion(s): There is remarkable heterogeneity among VBT dose-fractionation schedules. An increasing trend was found toward referrals for VBT alone. The clinical practice of adjuvant VBT alone increased significantly in LR to HIR groups over the past 13 years. In LR to HIR group, VBT alone achieved comparable survival to EBRT.XXCopyright
Tumor sphericity as predictor of tumor changes in patients with HPV positive oropharyngeal carcinoma
[S.l.] : American Institute of Physics Inc., 2021
Vocal-cord Only vs. Complete Laryngeal radiation (VOCAL): a randomized multicentric Bayesian phase II trial
BACKGROUND:Radiotherapy, along with laser surgery, is considered a standard treatment option for patients with early glottic squamous cell cancer (SCC). Historically, patients have received complete larynx radiotherapy (CL-RT) due to fear of swallowing and respiratory laryngeal motion and this remains the standard approach in many academic institutions. Local control (LC) rates with CL-RT have been excellent, however this treatment can carry significant toxicities include adverse voice and swallowing outcomes, along with increased long-term risk of cerebrovascular morbidity. A recent retrospective study reported improved voice quality and similar local control outcomes with focused vocal cord radiotherapy (VC-RT) compared to CL-RT. There is currently no prospective evidence on the safety of VC-RT. The primary objective of this Bayesian Phase II trial is to compare the LC of VC-RT to that of CL-RT in patients with T1N0 glottic SCC. METHODS:One hundred and fifty-five patients with T1a-b N0 SCC of the true vocal cords that are n ot candidate or declined laser surgery, will be randomized in a 1:3 ratio the control arm (CL-RT) and the experimental arm (VC-RT). Randomisation will be stratified by tumor stage (T1a/T1b) and by site (each site will be allowed to select one preferred radiation dose regimen, to be used in both arms). CL-RT volumes will correspond to the conventional RT volumes, with the planning target volume extending from the top of thyroid cartilage lamina superiorly to the bottom of the cricoid inferiorly. VC-RT volumes will include the involved vocal cord(s) and a margin accounting for respiration and set-up uncertainty. The primary endpoint will be LC at 2-years, while secondary endpoints will include patient-reported outcomes (voice impairment, dysphagia and symptom burden), acute and late toxicity radiation-induced toxicity, overall survival, progression free survival, as well as an optional component of acoustic and objective measures of voice analysis using the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study would constitute the first prospective evidence on the efficacy and safety of VC-RT in early glottic cancer. If positive, this study would result in the adoption of VC-RT as standard approach in early glottic cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03759431 Registration date: November 30, 2018.
Human Papillomavirus in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
OBJECTIVE:Assess the testing rates and prognostic significance of human papilloma virus (HPV) status in hypopharynx malignancies. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database. METHODS:Review of the National Cancer Database was conducted between 2010 and 2017 for squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the hypopharynx. We investigated how often the tumors were tested for HPV and whether it was associated with survival outcomes. RESULTS:< .001). CONCLUSIONS:HPV-positive tumors constitute a sizable minority of hypopharynx tumors and are associated with improved survival. Expansion of HPV testing to hypopharynx malignancies may be warranted.
Primary Surgical Treatment in Very Advanced (T4b) Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinomas
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To describe patterns of primary surgical treatments in patients with T4b oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database. METHODS:Review of the National Cancer Database between 2004 and 2017 for all T4b OCSCCs. Only patients with curative treatment methods were included in the survival analysis. Surgical and nonsurgical outcomes were compared by multivariable and propensity score matching analysis. RESULTS:= .20). CONCLUSIONS:A minority of patients with T4b OCSCC undergo treatments with curative intent. A subset of patients underwent primary surgical treatment, which was associated with longer survival. The T4b classification might entail a heterogenous group, and further studies in revision of this classification might be justified.