Development of a WeChat-based Mobile Messaging Smoking Cessation Intervention for Chinese Immigrant Smokers: Qualitative Interview Study
BACKGROUND:Smoking remains a major public health issue among Chinese immigrants. Smoking cessation programs that focus on this population are scarce and have a limited population-level impact due to their low reach. Mobile messaging interventions have the potential to reach large audiences and expand smokers' access to smoking cessation treatment. OBJECTIVE:This study describes the development of a culturally and linguistically appropriate mobile messaging smoking cessation intervention for Chinese immigrant smokers delivered via WeChat, the most frequently used social media platform among Chinese people globally. METHODS:This study had 2 phases. In phase 1, we developed a mobile message library based on social cognitive theory and the US Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. We culturally adapted messages from 2 social cognitive theory-based text messaging smoking cessation programs (SmokefreeTXT and DecÃdetexto). We also developed new messages targeting smokers who were not ready to quit smoking and novel content addressing Chinese immigrant smokers' barriers to quitting and common misconceptions related to willpower and nicotine replacement therapy. In phase 2, we conducted in-depth interviews with 20 Chinese immigrant smokers (including 7 women) in New York City between July and August 2021. The interviews explored the participants' smoking and quitting experiences followed by assessment of the text messages. Participants reviewed 17 text messages (6 educational messages, 3 self-efficacy messages, and 8 skill messages) via WeChat and rated to what extent the messages enhanced their motivation to quit, promoted confidence in quitting, and increased awareness about quitting strategies. The interviews sought feedback on poorly rated messages, explored participant preferences for content, length, and format, discussed their concerns with WeChat cessation intervention, and solicited recommendations for frequency and timing of messages. RESULTS:Overall, participants reported that the messages enhanced their motivation to quit, offered encouragement, and made them more informed about how to quit. Participants particularly liked the messages about the harms of smoking and strategies for quitting. They reported barriers to applying some of the quitting strategies, including coping with stress and staying abstinent at work. Participants expressed strong interest in the WeChat mobile messaging cessation intervention and commented on its potential to expand their access to smoking cessation treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Mobile messages are well accepted by Chinese immigrant smokers. Research is needed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of WeChat mobile messaging smoking cessation interventions for promoting abstinence among Chinese immigrant smokers.
An Evaluation of Alternative Technology-Supported Counseling Approaches to Promote Multiple Lifestyle Behavior Changes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Although technology-supported interventions are effective for reducing chronic disease risk, little is known about the relative and combined efficacy of mobile health strategies aimed at multiple lifestyle factors. The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of technology-supported behavioral intervention strategies for managing multiple lifestyle-related health outcomes in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:, age â‰¥40Â years), T2D, and CKD stages 2-4 were randomized to an advice control group, or remotely delivered programs consisting of synchronous group-based education (all groups), plus (1) Social Cognitive Theory-based behavioral counseling and/or (2) mobile self-monitoring of diet and physical activity. All programs targeted weight loss, greater physical activity, and lower intakes of sodium and phosphorus-containing food additives. RESULTS:Of 256 randomized participants, 186 (73%) completed 6-month assessments. Compared to the ADVICE group, mHealth interventions did not result in significant changes in weight loss, or urinary sodium and phosphorus excretion. In aggregate analyses, groups receiving mobile self-monitoring had greater weight loss at 3Â months (PÂ =Â .02), but between 3 and 6Â months, weight losses plateaued, and by 6Â months, the differences were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:When engaging patients with T2D and CKD in multiple behavior changes, self-monitoring diet and physical activity demonstrated significantly larger short-term weight losses. Theory-based behavioral counseling alone was no better than baseline advice and demonstrated no interaction effect with self-monitoring.
A Social Media-Based Diabetes Intervention for Low-Income Mandarin-Speaking Chinese Immigrants in the United States: Feasibility Study
BACKGROUND:Chinese immigrants bear a high diabetes burden and face significant barriers to accessing diabetes self-management education (DSME) and counseling programs. OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability and to pilot test the potential efficacy of a social media-based DSME intervention among low-income Chinese immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in New York City. METHODS:), self-efficacy, dietary intake, and physical activity, were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and paired 2-sided t tests were used to summarize the baseline characteristics and changes before and after the intervention. RESULTS:level was 7.3% (SD 1.3%), and this level declined by 0.5% (95% CI -0.8% to -0.2%; P=.003) at 6 months. The mean satisfaction score was 9.9 (SD 0.6) out of 10, indicating a high level of satisfaction with the program. All strongly agreed or agreed that they preferred this video-based DSME over face-to-face visits. Compared to baseline, there were significant improvements in self-efficacy, dietary, and physical activity behaviors at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study demonstrated that a social media-based DSME intervention is feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious in a low-income Chinese immigrant population with T2D. Future studies need to examine the efficacy in an adequately powered clinical trial.
Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) Isoforms Predict Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure in Adults with Obesity during Weight Loss
Background/UNASSIGNED:Accruing evidence indicates that accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and activation of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) play a significant role in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The concentrations of circulating RAGE isoforms, such as soluble RAGE (sRAGE), cleaved RAGE (cRAGE), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), collectively sRAGE isoforms, may be implicit in weight loss and energy compensation resulting from caloric restriction. Objectives/UNASSIGNED:We aimed to evaluate whether baseline concentrations of sRAGE isoforms predicted changes (âˆ†) in body composition [fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM)], resting energy expenditure (REE), and adaptive thermogenesis (AT) during weight loss. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Data were collected during a behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with obesity. At baseline and 3 mo, participants were assessed for body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) and REE (indirect calorimetry), and plasma was assayed for concentrations of sRAGE isoforms (sRAGE, esRAGE, cRAGE). AT was calculated using various mathematical models that included measured and predicted REE. A linear regression model that adjusted for age, sex, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and randomization arm was used to test the associations between sRAGE isoforms and metabolic outcomes. Results/UNASSIGNED:) experienced modest and variable weight loss over 3 mo. Although baseline sRAGE isoforms did not predict changes in âˆ†FM or âˆ†FFM, all baseline sRAGE isoforms were positively associated with âˆ†REE at 3 mo. Baseline esRAGE was positively associated with AT in some, but not all, AT models. The association between sRAGE isoforms and energy expenditure was independent of HbA1c, suggesting that the relation was unrelated to glycemia. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:This study demonstrates a novel link between RAGE and energy expenditure in human participants undergoing weight loss.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03336411.
Mobile Device Ownership, Current Use, and Interest in Mobile Health Interventions Among Low-Income Older Chinese Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-sectional Survey Study
BACKGROUND:Chinese immigrants suffer a disproportionately high type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden and tend to have poorly controlled disease. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase access to care and improve chronic disease management in minority populations. However, such interventions have not been developed for or tested in Chinese immigrants with T2D. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to examine mobile device ownership, current use, and interest in mHealth interventions among Chinese immigrants with T2D. METHODS:In a cross-sectional survey, Chinese immigrants with T2D were recruited from Chinese community centers in New York City. Sociodemographic characteristics, mobile device ownership, current use of social media software applications, current use of technology for health-related purposes, and interest in using mHealth for T2D management were assessed. Surveys were administered face-to-face by bilingual study staff in the participant's preferred language. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the study sample and summarize technology use. RESULTS:The sample (N=91) was predominantly female (n=57, 63%), married (n=68, 75%), and had a high school education or less (n=58, 64%); most participants had an annual household income of less than US $25,000 (n=63, 69%) and had limited English proficiency (n=78, 86%). The sample had a mean age of 70 (SD 11) years. Almost all (90/91, 99%) participants had a mobile device (eg, basic cell phones, smart devices), and the majority (n=83, 91%) reported owning a smart device (eg, smartphone or tablet). WeChat was the most commonly used social media platform (65/91, 71%). When asked about their top source for diabetes-related information, 63 of the 91 participants (69%) reported health care providers, followed by 13 who reported the internet (14%), and 10 who reported family, friends, and coworkers (11%). Less than one-quarter (21/91, 23%) of the sample reported using the internet to search for diabetes-related information in the past 12 months. About one-third of the sample (34/91, 37%) reported that they had watched a health-related video on their cell phone or computer in the past 12 months. The majority (69/91, 76%) of participants reported interest in receiving an mHealth intervention in the future to help with T2D management. CONCLUSIONS:Despite high mobile device ownership, the current use of technology for health-related issues remained low in older Chinese immigrants with T2D. Given the strong interest in future mHealth interventions and high levels of social media use (eg, WeChat), future studies should consider how to leverage these existing low-cost platforms and deliver tailored mHealth interventions to this fast-growing minority group.
Geospatial Food Environment Exposure and Obesity among Low Income Baltimore City Children: Associations Differ by Data Source and Processing Method
Due to the high prevalence of childhood obesity, it is imperative to assess the relationship children"™s access to food retailers and obesity. However, the influence of methodological decisions on these associations has been understudied. We examined relationships between different measures of geospatial food environment (using 4 data sources, and 2 data processing methods), and BMI in a sample of low-income children in Baltimore, Maryland. The choice of data sources and data processing methods produced large differences in estimates of children"™s exposures to certain store types, such as supermarket-like stores, but had less impact on associations with BMI z-scores.
Monday-focused tailored rapid interactive mobile messaging for weight management 2 (MTRIMM2): results from a randomized controlled trial
Background/UNASSIGNED:Text-messaging interventions can reach many individuals across a range of socioeconomic groups, at a low cost. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of text-messaging weight loss interventions have been conducted in United States. Methods/UNASSIGNED:From September of 2016 to September of 2018, we conducted a two-parallel group, superiority, RCT of a 16-week text-messaging, weight loss intervention in Baltimore, Maryland, in overweight and obese adults younger than 71, who were able to receive text-messages. Our objective was to assess the effect of receiving the message content only (in printed documents distributed at baseline and week 8), versus receiving messages via short messaging service (SMS) on weight loss (primary outcome), body mass index, perceived exercise benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, and physical activity (PA). The random allocation sequence was equally balanced intervention groups by gender and age groups. Participants were randomized after the baseline assessment. Then, participants and most study staff were unblinded. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 8-, 16-, and 42-week post randomization. We performed intention-to-treat analysis using mixed linear regression models. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 155 adults randomized (printed messages =77, SMS =78), 87.1% were women, 53.5% were African Americans, and 93.5% non-Hispanic. Participants who completed at least one follow-up assessment were included in regression analyses (n=145, printed messages =74, SMS =71). Compared to baseline, at the 42-week assessment, the average percent weight loss was 1.23 for the SMS group (P=0.006) and 0.86 for the printed messages group (P=0.047). Both groups experienced small reductions in weight (printed messages: -0.96 kg, P=0.022; SMS: -1.19 kg, P=0.006), BMI (printed messages: -0.32, P=0.035; SMS: -0.52, P=0.002), and percent energy from fat consumption (printed messages: -1.43, P=0.021; SMS: -2.14, Pâ‰¤0.001). No statistically significant between groups differences were detected for any of the study outcomes. SMS response rates were not statistically significantly associated with study outcomes. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:A semi-tailored SMS weight loss intervention among overweight and obese adults was not statistically superior in efficacy to paper-based messaging. Trial Registration/UNASSIGNED:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04506996.
TECHNOLOGY ACCESS AND USE AND PREFERENCES FOR HEALTH COMMUNICATION IN SOUTH ASIAN IMMIGRANTS WITH PREDIABETES OR DIABETES [Meeting Abstract]
Temporal Eating Patterns and Eating Windows among Adults with Overweight or Obesity
We aim to describe temporal eating patterns in a population of adults with overweight or obesity. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were combined from two separate pilot studies during which participants entered the timing of all eating occasions (>0 kcals) for 10-14 days. Data were aggregated to determine total eating occasions, local time of the first and last eating occasions, eating window, eating midpoint, and within-person variability of eating patterns. Eating patterns were compared between sexes, as well as between weekday and weekends. Participants (n = 85) had a median age of 56 Â± 19 years, were mostly female (>70%), white (56.5%), and had a BMI of 31.8 Â± 8.0 kg/m2. The median eating window was 14 h 04 min [12 h 57 min-15 h 21 min], which was significantly shorter on the weekend compared to weekdays (p < 0.0001). Only 13.1% of participants had an eating window <12 h/d. Additionally, there was greater irregularity with the first eating occasion during the week when compared to the weekend (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, adults with overweight or obesity have prolonged eating windows (>14 h/d). Future trials should examine the contribution of a prolonged eating window on adiposity independent of energy intake.
Challenges of conducting a remote behavioral weight loss study: Lessons learned and a practical guide
OBJECTIVES:To describe challenges and lessons learned in conducting a remote behavioral weight loss trial. METHODS:The Personal Diet Study is an ongoing randomized clinical trial which aims to compare two mobile health (mHealth) weight loss approaches, standardized diet vs. personalized feedback, on glycemic response. Over a six-month period, participants attended dietitian-led group meetings via remote videoconferencing and were encouraged to self-monitor dietary intake using a smartphone app. Descriptive statistics were used to report adherence to counseling sessions and self-monitoring. Challenges were tracked during weekly project meetings. RESULTS:Challenges in connecting to and engaging in the videoconferencing sessions were noted. To address these issues, we provided a step-by-step user manual and video tutorials regarding use of WebEx, encouraged alternative means to join sessions, and sent reminder emails/texts about the WebEx sessions and asking participants to join sessions early. Self-monitoring app-related issue included inability to find specific foods in the app database. To overcome this, the study team incorporated commonly consumed foods as "favorites" in the app database, provided a manual and video tutorials regarding use of the app and checked the self-monitoring app dashboard weekly to identify nonadherent participants and intervened as appropriate. Among 135 participants included in the analysis, the median attendance rate for the 14 remote sessions was 85.7% (IQR: 64.3%-92.9%). CONCLUSIONS:Experience and lessons shared in this report may provide critical and timely guidance to other behavioral researchers and interventionists seeking to adapt behavioral counseling programs for remote delivery in the age of COVID-19.