Multimodal single-cell analysis of cutaneous T cell lymphoma reveals distinct sub-clonal tissue-dependent signatures
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T cell neoplasms characterized by the accumulation of clonal malignant CD4+ T cells in the skin. The most common variant of CTCL, Mycosis Fungoides, is confined to the skin in early stages but can be accompanied by extracutaneous dissemination of malignant T cells to the blood and lymph nodes in advanced stages of disease. SÃ©zary Syndrome, a leukemic form of disease is characterized by significant blood involvement. Little is known about the transcriptional and genomic relationship between skin and blood residing malignant T cells in CTCL. To identify and interrogate malignant clones in matched skin and blood from leukemic MF and SS patients, we combine T cell receptor clonotyping, with quantification of gene expression and cell surface markers at the single cell level. Our data reveals clonal evolution at a transcriptional and genetic level within the malignant populations of individual patients. We highlight highly consistent transcriptional signatures delineating skin-derived and blood-derived malignant T cells. Analysis of these two populations suggests that environmental cues, along with genetic aberrations, contribute to transcriptional profiles of malignant T cells. Our findings indicate that the skin microenvironment in CTCL promotes a transcriptional response supporting rapid malignant expansion, as opposed to the quiescent state observed in the blood, potentially influencing efficacy of therapies. These results provide insight into tissue-specific characteristics of cancerous cells and underscore the need to address the patients' individual malignant profiles at the time of therapy to eliminate all sub-clones.
Impaired Humoral Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and CLL Patients
Patients with hematologic malignancies are a high priority for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, yet the benefit they will derive is uncertain. We investigated the humoral response to vaccination in 53 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), or CLL patients. Peripheral blood was obtained 2 weeks after first vaccination and 6 weeks after second vaccination for antibody profiling using the multiplex bead-binding assay. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody levels to the spike specific receptor binding domain (RBD) were evaluated as a measure of response. Subsequently, antibody-positive serum were assayed for neutralization capacity against authentic SARS-CoV-2. Histology was 68% lymphoma and 32% CLL; groups were: patients receiving anti-CD20-based therapy (45%), monitored with disease (28%), receiving BTK inhibitors (19%), or chemotherapy (all HL) (8%). SARS-CoV-2 specific RBD IgG antibody response was decreased across all NHL and CLL groups: 25%, 73%, and 40%, respectively. Antibody IgG titers were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) for CD20 treated and targeted therapy patients, and (p = 0.003) for monitored patients. In 94% of patients evaluated after first and second vaccination, antibody titers did not significantly boost after second vaccination. Only 13% of CD20 treated and 13% of monitored patients generated neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with ICD50s 135 to 1767, and 445 and > 10240. This data has profound implications given the current guidance relaxing masking restrictions and for timing of vaccinations. Unless immunity is confirmed with laboratory testing, these patients should continue to mask, socially distance, and to avoid close contact with non-vaccinated individuals.
Microbial dysbiosis is associated with aggressive histology and adverse clinical outcome in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell survival depends on poorly understood immune evasion mechanisms. In melanoma, the composition of the gut microbiota (GMB) is associated with immune system regulation and response to immunotherapy. We investigated the association of GMB composition and diversity with lymphoma biology and treatment outcome. Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), marginal zone (MZL), and follicular lymphoma (FL) were recruited at Mayo Clinic, Minnesota, and Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health. The pretreatment GMB was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We examined GMB compositions in 3 contexts: lymphoma patients (51) compared with healthy controls (58), aggressive (DLBCL) (8) compared with indolent (FL, MZL) (18), and the association of GMB with immunochemotherapy treatment outcomes (8 responders, 6 nonresponders). Respectively, we found that the pretreatment GMB in lymphoma patients had a distinct composition compared with healthy controls (P < .001); GMB compositions in DLBCL patients were significantly different than indolent patients (P = .01) with a trend toward reduced microbial diversity in DLBCL patients (P = .08); and pretreatment GMB diversity and composition were significant predictors of treatment responses (P = .01). The impact of these pilot results is limited by our small sample size, and should be considered a proof of principle. If validated, our results could lead toward improved treatment outcomes by improving medication stewardship and informing which GMB-targeted therapies should be tested to improve patient outcomes.
Esophageal Cancer as initial presentation of Fanconi anemia in patients with a hypomorphic FANCA variant
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a clinically heterogenous and genetically diverse disease with 22 known complementation groups (FA-A to FA-W), resulting from the inability to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks. This rare disorder is characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. FANCA is the most commonly mutated gene in FA and a variety of mostly private mutations have been documented, including small and large indels, and point and splicing variants. Genotype-phenotype associations in FA are complex and a relationship between particular FANCA variants and the observed cellular phenotype or illness severity remains unclear. In this study, we describe two siblings with compound heterozygous FANCA variants (c.3788_3790delTCT and c.4199G>A) who both presented with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at the age of 51. The proband came to attention when he developed pancytopenia after a single cycle of low-dose chemotherapy including platinum-based therapy. Other than a minor thumb abnormality, neither patient had prior findings to suggest FA, including normal blood counts and intact fertility. Patient fibroblasts from both siblings display increased chromosomal breakage and hypersensitivity to interstrand crosslinking agents as seen in typical FA. Based on our functional data demonstrating that the c.4199G>A/p.R1400H variant represents a hypomorphic FANCA allele, we conclude that the residual activity of the Fanconi anemia repair pathway accounts for lack of spontaneous bone marrow failure or infertility with the late presentation of malignancy as the initial disease manifestation. This and similar cases of adult-onset esophageal cancer stress the need for chromosome breakage testing in patients with early onset of aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinomas before platinum-based therapy is initiated.
STAT3 Dysregulation in Mature T and NK Cell Lymphomas
Abstract: T cell lymphomas comprise a distinct class of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, which include mature T and natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms. While each malignancy within this group is characterized by unique clinicopathologic features, dysregulation in the Janus tyrosine family of kinases/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway, specifically aberrant STAT3 activation, is a common feature among these lymphomas. The mechanisms driving dysregulation vary among T cell lymphoma subtypes and include activating mutations in upstream kinases or STAT3 itself, formation of oncogenic kinases which drive STAT3 activation, loss of negative regulators of STAT3, and the induction of a pro-tumorigenic inflammatory microenvironment. Constitutive STAT3 activation has been associated with the expression of targets able to increase pro-survival signals and provide malignant fitness. Patients with dysregulated STAT3 signaling tend to have inferior clinical outcomes, which underscores the importance of STAT3 signaling in malignant progression. Targeting of STAT3 has shown promising results in pre-clinical studies in T cell lymphoma lines, ex-vivo primary malignant patient cells, and in mouse models of disease. However, targeting this pleotropic pathway in patients has proven difficult. Here we review the recent contributions to our understanding of the role of STAT3 in T cell lymphomagenesis, mechanisms driving STAT3 activation in T cell lymphomas, and current efforts at targeting STAT3 signaling in T cell malignancies.
Skin Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Contributes to Disease Progression in CTCL [Meeting Abstract]
Management of Intraoperative Coagulopathy
Intraoperative bleeding can be minimized with optimal preoperative preparation but cannot be completely prevented. There are circumstances when patients need emergent operative intervention, and thorough hemostatic evaluation and preparation is not possible. In this review, the authors summarize the recommendations for rapid reversal of vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants before procedures. The authors review the potential causes for intraoperative bleeding and the methods for rapid and accurate diagnosis. The authors summarize the current evidence for treatment options, including transfusion of platelets and coagulation factors and the use of topical agents, antidotes to direct-acting anticoagulants, antifibrinolytics, and desmopressin.
Role of dysregulated cytokine signaling and bacterial triggers in the pathogenesis of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of lymphomas characterized by the accumulation of malignant T cells in the skin. The molecular and cellular etiology of this malignancy remains enigmatic and what role antigenic stimulation plays in the initiation and/or progression of the disease remains to be elucidated. Deep sequencing of the tumor genome revealed a highly heterogeneous landscape of genetic perturbations and transcriptome analysis of transformed T cells further highlighted the heterogeneity of this disease. Nonetheless, using data harvested from high-throughput transcriptional profiling allowed us to develop a reliable signature of this malignancy. Focusing on a key cytokine signaling pathway, previously implicated in CTCL pathogenesis, JAK/STAT signaling, we used conditional gene targeting to develop a fully penetrant small animal model of this disease that recapitulates many key features of mycosis fungoides, a common variant of CTCL. Using this mouse model, we demonstrate that T cell receptor engagement is critical for malignant transformation of the T lymphocytes and that progression of the disease is dependent on microbiota.
Analysis of molecular etiology and bacterial triggers of cutaneous T cell lymphoma [Meeting Abstract]
An Index Case of Concomitant Tumoral and Ichthyosiform Mycosis Fungoides-Like Presentation of Chronic Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Associated With Upregulation of TOX
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare and often aggressive lymphoid malignancy known to be associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. There are 2 broad categories: acute and chronic. In the acute category, there is a leukemic and a lymphomatous variant, whereas in the designated "chronic" form, there is mild peripheral blood lymphocytosis. The intermediate "smoldering" category is without peripheral blood lymphocytosis with only discernible skin involvement. We present a 68-year-old human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 seropositive female with a mild peripheral blood atypical lymphocytosis who had indurated nodules on her hands of 2 years duration and a new scaly ichthyosiform eruption on her lower extremities. Histopathologic examination of the hand biopsy revealed coalescing nodules of large atypical noncerebriform lymphocytes with focal areas of epidermotropism. Phenotypically, the infiltrate was positive for beta-F1, CD2, CD4, CD5, CD7, Foxp3, and CD25. In both biopsies, there was striking upregulation of TOX (thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box factor) in the nuclei of neoplastic cells. The second biopsy taken from the ichthyotic patch on the patient's left leg showed a subtle pattern of epidermal infiltration by atypical noncerebriform lymphocytes and a distinct compact scale consistent with the clinical picture of ichthyosis. The histopathologic appearance was that of a yet undescribed ichthyosiform mycosis fungoides-like presentation of chronic ATLL. In addition, the observed upregulation of nuclear TOX may play an oncogenic role in ATLL. The course to date in this patient has been relatively indolent, although the patients believe that large cell transformation could portend more aggressive disease.