Robotic-Assisted Testicular Autotransplantation
Silber and Kelly first described the successful autotransplantation of an intra-abdominal testis in 1976. Subsequent authors incorporated laparoscopy and demonstrated the viability of transplanted testes based on serial postoperative exams. We sought to extend this experience with use of the da Vinci surgical robot, thereby demonstrating a novel robotic technique for the management of cryptorchidism. The procedure was performed for an 18-year-old male with a solitary left intra-abdominal testis. Following establishment of pneumoperitoneum, the robot is docked with four trocars oriented towards the left lower quadrant. Testicular dissection is carried out as shown. The gonadal and inferior epigastric vessels are isolated and mobilized; once adequate length is achieved, the former is clipped and transected, and the testicle and inferior epigastric vessels are delivered out of the body. The robot is then undocked and exchanged for the operating microscope. Arterial and venous anastomoses are completed with interrupted and running 9-0 Nylon, respectively, and satisfactory re-anastomosis is confirmed visually and with Doppler. The transplanted testicle is then fixed inferiorly and laterally within the left hemiscrotum, and all incisions are closed. We note that intraoperative testicular biopsy was not performed, for three reasons: (1) to avoid further risk to an already tenuous, solitary organ, (2) because our primary aim was to preserve testicular endocrine function, and (3) because the presence of ITGCN would neither prompt orchiectomy nor obviate the need for ongoing surveillance via periodic self-examination and ultrasonography. The patient is maintained on bed rest for two days and discharged on postoperative day seven in good condition. Over one year since autotransplantation, his now intra-scrotal testicle remains palpable and stable in size. Serum testosterone is unchanged from preoperative measurements. Robotic-assisted testicular autotransplantation is a feasible and efficacious management option for the solitary intra-abdominal testis.
Anesthesia Exposure in Children: Practitioners Respond to the 2016 FDA Drug Safety Communication
In December 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a drug safety warning stating that 11 commonly used anesthetic and sedative medications had potential neurotoxic effects when used in children under the age of 3 years and in pregnant women during the third trimester. A panel presentation at the sixth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) symposium addressed the FDA announcement in a session entitled "Anesthesia Exposure in Children During Surgical and Non-Surgical Procedures: How Do We Respond to the 2016 FDA Drug Safety Communication?" Panelists included representatives from pediatric anesthesiology, obstetrics, pediatric surgery, and several pediatric surgical subspecialties. Each panelist was asked to address the following questions: How has the FDA labelling change affected your clinical practice including patient discussions, timing, and frequency of procedures? Has your professional society provided any guidelines for this discussion? Has there been any discussion of this topic at your national meetings? The panelists provided important perspectives specific to each specialty, which generated a lively discussion and a detailed response from the Deputy Director of the Division of Anesthesia and Addiction of the FDA describing the FDA procedures that led to this drug safety warning.
H-RAS mutation is a key molecular feature of pediatric urothelial bladder cancer. A detailed report of three cases [Case Report]
INTRODUCTION: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is a rare entity in the pediatric population, with an incidence of less than 0.4% in patients younger than 20 years. These patients overwhelmingly present with non-muscle-invasive low-grade disease and an indolent behavior. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the source of the different natural history between pediatric population and adults; we hypothesized that pediatric bladder cancer may stem from different molecular pathways. Our objective with this descriptive case series was to study the main genes involved in pediatric urothelial bladder carcinoma using immunohistochemical (IHC) and mutational analysis. By studying the genetic alterations and immunophenotype of the most commonly altered genes in bladder urothelial cancer in three pediatric tumors we could gain better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis in this rare disease. STUDY DESIGN: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue slides of urothelial bladder tumors from three pediatric patients were retrospectively identified at Columbia University pathology archives (1990-2011) and re-evaluated. FGFR3, H-RAS, and PI3K hotspots mutational analyses were conducted by polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing from the FFPE tissue blocks. IHC analysis was conducted using antibodies against p53, PTEN, RB, EGFR, and HER2. Proliferative rate was assessed by Ki-67 expression. RESULTS: Two patients had low-grade Ta disease, whereas the other tumor was classified as a papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential. None of the lesions recurred. Notably, all specimens showed H-RAS G12V mutation, whereas they were characterized by wild-type FGFR3 and PI3K. Nuclear p53 was not detected, whereas PTEN and RB expression were maintained. EGFR was expressed in the three cases and HER2 was negative. The proliferation rate was very low in all cases. DISCUSSION: It is difficult to draw strong conclusions from the study of three tumors treated at the same institution and from the same referral population, and a multicentric study should be performed to confirm these preliminary results. However, we propose that H-RAS mutation analysis could be performed on urothelial bladder tumors of pediatric patients. The knowledge in the molecular basis of urothelial bladder tumors in children opens a promising field which could lead us to establish different guidelines for surveillance and follow-up of pediatric urothelial bladder cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Pediatric tumors are characterized by a consistent H-RAS mutation status, whereas FGFR3 and p53 pathways are not involved in this tumor initiation. These results may explain the few recurrences seen in this population.
H-RAS Mutation Is the Key Molecular Feature of Pediatric Bladder Cancer [Meeting Abstract]
H-RAS Mutation Is the Key Molecular Feature of Pediatric Bladder Cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Circumcision on the web: a comparison of quality, content, and bias online
OBJECTIVE: In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) newborn circumcision policy statement expressed that although benefits outweigh risks, final decisions lie with parents. Although health information on the Internet is plentiful, the quality and availability of information on circumcision, including dissemination of AAP and AUA policy statements, is unknown. We analyzed English and Spanish circumcision websites to evaluate their overall quality, detail, accuracy, and bias. METHODS: In April 2013, three search engines were queried for English and Spanish circumcision websites, which were analyzed utilizing the DISCERN Plus scale for content quality as well as additional study-specific criteria. RESULTS: We analyzed 214 websites (141 English, 73 Spanish). Most websites in both languages had very good content quality and were neutral regarding circumcision. Regardless of language, only 21% of sites mentioned the updated AAP guidelines. Surprisingly, the AUA circumcision policy statement did not appear in the top results. Spanish sites were more likely to give good descriptions of circumcision procedures than English sites (p < 0.04), less likely to cite sources (p < 0.01), and more likely to describe benefits (p = 0.02).. CONCLUSIONS: Newborn circumcision information on the Internet is of very good quality, but different English and Spanish characteristics possibly reflect cultural bias, which may explain the disparate rates of circumcision between different groups in the USA. The AAP's circumcision policy statement was referenced by a minority (20%) of websites, and AUA's policy statement was not even part of the top results. The AUA should have a more active role in providing accurate and comprehensive online information to parents regarding circumcision.
WOMEN IN UROLOGY: TIME TO LEAN IN [Meeting Abstract]
Varicocele repair for low testosterone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several recent clinical studies have added to the existing literature on the impact of varicocelectomy on serum testosterone levels. These studies were not included in the most recent previous review of this topic and strengthen considerably the evidence base supporting the claim that varicocele repair can reliably restore below-normal testosterone levels. RECENT FINDINGS: Three studies were published in 2011 on the effect of varicocele repair on testosterone levels. These studies were all adequately powered to detect statistically significant changes in testosterone preprocedure and postprocedure, and all demonstrated significant increases in testosterone levels in patients who had low preprocedure testosterone levels. SUMMARY: Varicocele repair can restore testosterone to the eugonadal range in hypogonadal patients with either unilateral or bilateral varicocele.
Simplifying the diagnosis of 4 common voiding conditions using uroflow/electromyography, electromyography lag time and voiding history
PURPOSE: Noninvasive uroflowmetry with simultaneous electromyography is useful to triage cases of lower urinary tract symptoms into 4 urodynamically defined conditions, especially when incorporating short and long electromyography lag times in the analysis. We determined the prevalence of these 4 conditions at a single referral institution and the usefulness of uroflowmetry with simultaneous electromyography and electromyography lag time to confirm the diagnosis, guide treatment and monitor response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 100 consecutive normal children who presented with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms, underwent uroflowmetry with electromyography as part of the initial evaluation and were diagnosed with 1 of 4 conditions based on certain uroflowmetry/electromyography features. The conditions included 1) dysfunctional voiding--active pelvic floor electromyography during voiding with or without staccato flow, 2a) idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-A--a quiet pelvic floor during voiding and shortened lag time (less than 2 seconds), 2b) idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-B--a quiet pelvic floor with a normal lag time, 3) detrusor underutilization disorder--volitionally deferred voiding with expanded bladder capacity but a quiet pelvic floor, and 4) primary bladder neck dysfunction--prolonged lag time (greater than 6 seconds) and a depressed, right shifted uroflowmetry curve with a quiet pelvic floor during voiding. Treatment was tailored to the underlying condition in each patient. RESULTS: The group consisted of 50 males and 50 females with a mean age of 8 years (range 3 to 18). Dysfunctional voiding was more common in females (p <0.05) while idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-B and primary bladder neck dysfunction were more common in males (p <0.01). With treatment uroflowmetry parameters normalized for all types. Electromyography lag time increased in idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-A cases and decreased in primary bladder neck dysfunction cases. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive uroflowmetry with simultaneous electromyography offers an excellent alternative to invasive urodynamics to diagnose 4 urodynamically defined conditions. It identifies the most appropriate therapy for the specific condition and objectively monitors the treatment response.