Trends and Outcomes of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis in the TAVI Era [Editorial]
Platelets contribute to disease severity in COVID-19
OBJECTIVE:Heightened inflammation, dysregulated immunity, and thrombotic events are characteristic of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Given that platelets are key regulators of thrombosis, inflammation, and immunity they represent prime candidates as mediators of COVID-19-associated pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to understand the contribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to the platelet phenotype via phenotypic (activation, aggregation) and transcriptomic characterization. APPROACH AND RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:In a cohort of 3915Â hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we analyzed blood platelet indices collected at hospital admission. Following adjustment for demographics, clinical risk factors, medication, and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis, we find platelet count, size, and immaturity are associated with increased critical illness and all-cause mortality. Bone marrow, lung tissue, and blood from COVID-19 patients revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virions in megakaryocytes and platelets. Characterization of COVID-19 platelets found them to be hyperreactive (increased aggregation, and expression of P-selectin and CD40) and to have a distinct transcriptomic profile characteristic of prothrombotic large and immature platelets. In vitro mechanistic studies highlight that the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with megakaryocytes alters the platelet transcriptome, and its effects are distinct from the coronavirus responsible for the common cold (CoV-OC43). CONCLUSIONS:Platelet count, size, and maturity associate with increased critical illness and all-cause mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Profiling tissues and blood from COVID-19 patients revealed that SARS-CoV-2 virions enter megakaryocytes and platelets and associate with alterations to the platelet transcriptome and activation profile.
Sex-Based Differences in Outcomes With Percutaneous Transcatheter Repair of Mitral Regurgitation With the MitraClip System: Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry From 2011 to 2017
BACKGROUND:Women have a higher rate of adverse events after mitral valve surgery. We sought to evaluate whether outcomes after transcatheter edge-to-edge repair intervention by sex have similar trends to mitral valve surgery. METHODS:The primary outcome was 1-year major adverse events defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, stroke, and any bleeding in the overall study cohort. Patients who underwent transcatheter edge-to-edge repair for mitral regurgitation with the MitraClip system in the Society of Thoracic Surgery/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy registry were evaluated. Linked administrative claims from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services were used to evaluate 1-year clinical outcomes. Associations between sex and outcomes were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model for in-hospital outcomes and Cox model for 1-year outcomes. RESULTS:<0.001) and had a lower adjusted odds ratio of device success (adjusted odds ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), driven by lower odds of residual mitral gradient <5 mmâ€‰Hg (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54 [CI, 0.46-0.63]) when compared with males. At 1-year follow-up, the primary outcome did not differ by sex. Female sex was associated with lower adjusted 1-year risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.80 [CI, 0.68-0.94]), but the adjusted 1-year risk of stroke and any bleeding did not differ by sex. CONCLUSIONS:No difference in composite outcome of all-cause mortality, stroke, and any bleeding was observed between females and males. Adjusted 1-year all-cause mortality was lower in females compared with males.
Multiphase Assessment of Mitral Annular Dynamics in Consecutive Patients With Significant Mitral Valve Disease
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to clarify the dynamics of the mitral annulus throughout the cardiac cycle and its relevance to transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) sizing and case selection. BACKGROUND:Limited data are available regarding the relevance of mitral annular (MA) and neo-left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) dynamics in the overall population presenting with significant mitral valve disease. METHODS:Patients attending a combined surgical-transcatheter heart valve clinic for severe symptomatic mitral valve disease were assessed using multiphase computed tomography. The relative influence of MA and neo-LVOT dynamics to TMVR case selection was studied. RESULTS:A total of 476 patients with significant mitral valve disease were evaluated. In 99 consecutive patients with severe mitral regurgitation, a 10-phase assessment showed that the mitral annulus was on average largest in late systole. On comparing maximal MA dimension with late systolic dimension, TMVR size assignment changed in 24.2% of patients. If the average MA perimeter was used to determine sizing, 48.5% were excluded because of MA dimension being too large; in a multiphase assessment of the neo-LVOT, an additional 16.2% were excluded on the basis of neo-LVOT dimension. In an expanded series of 312 consecutive patients, selection protocol influenced anatomical exclusion: a manufacturer-proposed early systolic approach excluded 69.2% of patients, whereas a late systolic approach excluded 82.7% of patients, the vast majority because of large mitral annuli. CONCLUSIONS:Contemporary TMVR can treat only a minority of patients with severe mitral regurgitation, principally because of limitations of large MA dimension.
Early outcomes from the CLASP IID trial roll-in cohort for prohibitive risk patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We report the 30-day outcomes from the roll-in cohort of the CLASP IID trial, representing the first procedures performed by each site. BACKGROUND:The currently enrolling CLASP IID/IIF pivotal trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial assessing the safety and effectiveness of the PASCAL transcatheter valve repair system in patients with clinically significant MR. The trial allows for up to three roll-in patients per site. METHODS:Eligibility criteria were: DMR â‰¥3+, prohibitive surgical risk, and deemed suitable for transcatheter repair by the local heart team. Trial oversight included a central screening committee and echocardiographic core laboratory. The primary safety endpoint was a 30-day composite MAE: cardiovascular mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), new need for renal replacement therapy, severe bleeding, and non-elective mitral valve re-intervention, adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. Thirty-day echocardiographic, functional, and quality of life outcomes were assessed. RESULTS:A total of 45 roll-in patients with mean age of 83â€‰years and 69% in NYHA class III/IV were treated. Successful implantation was achieved in 100%. The 30-day composite MAE rate was 8.9% including one cardiovascular death (2.2%) due to severe bleeding from a hemorrhagic stroke, one MI, and no need for re-intervention. MRâ‰¤1+ was achieved in 73% and â‰¤2+ in 98% of patients. 89% of patients were in NYHA class I/II (pâ€‰<â€‰.001) with improvements in 6MWD (30â€‰m; p = .054) and KCCQ (17 points; pâ€‰<â€‰.001). CONCLUSIONS:Early results representing sites with first experience with the PASCAL repair system showed favorable 30-day outcomes in patients with DMRâ‰¥3+ at prohibitive surgical risk.
Long-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement with minimal contrast in chronic kidney disease
BACKGROUND:Patients with renal insufficiency have poor short-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS:Retrospective chart review identified 575 consecutive patients not on hemodialysis who underwent TAVR between September 2014 and January 2017. Outcomes were defined by VARC-2 criteria. Primary outcome of all-cause mortality was evaluated at a median follow-up of 811â€‰days (interquartile range 125-1,151). RESULTS:Preprocedural glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was â‰¥60â€‰ml/min in 51.7%, 30-60â€‰ml/min in 42.1%, andâ€‰<â€‰30â€‰ml/min in 6.3%. Use of transfemoral access (98.8%) and achieved device success (91.0%) did not differ among groups, but less contrast was used with lower GFR (23â€‰ml [15-33], 24â€‰ml [14-33], 13â€‰ml [8-20]; pâ€‰<â€‰.001). Peri-procedural stroke (0.7%, 2.1%, 11.1%; pâ€‰<â€‰.001) was higher with lower GFR. Core lab analysis of preprocedural computed tomography scans of patients who developed a peri-procedural stroke identified potential anatomic substrate for stroke in three out of four patients with GFR 30-60â€‰ml/min and all three with GFR <30â€‰ml/min (severe atheroma was the most common subtype of anatomical substrate present). Compared to GFR â‰¥60â€‰ml/min, all-cause mortality was higher with GFR 30-60â€‰ml/min (HR 1.61 [1.00-2.59]; aHR 1.61 [0.91-2.83]) and GFR <30â€‰ml/min (HR 2.41 [1.06-5.48]; aHR 2.34 [0.90-6.09]) but not significant after multivariable adjustment. Follow-up echocardiographic data, available in 63%, demonstrated no difference in structural heart valve deterioration over time among groups. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with baseline renal insufficiency remain a challenging population with poor long-term outcomes despite procedural optimization with a transfemoral-first and an extremely low-contrast approach.
Orbital Atherectomy of the Iliofemoral Arteries Facilitates Large-Bore Access Prior to Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To describe the use of orbital atherectomy to prepare iliofemoral vessels for large-bore access prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND:Transfemoral (TF)-TAVR has been shown to be at least equivalent to surgery. Nevertheless, many patients do not qualify for the TF approach due to severe iliofemoral occlusive disease. The use of an atherectomy device in order to facilitate TF-TAVR has only been reported in case reports. METHODS:We performed 1000 TAVR procedures from June 2017 to October 2019. Patient demographics, procedural characteristics, computed tomography characteristics, and short-term outcomes were recorded. Hostile access was defined as luminal size <5 mm, or <5.5 mm along with the presence of >270Â° calcification. The primary endpoint was the ability to successfully deliver a transcatheter valve via the intended pretreated access site. RESULTS:During the study period, 6 subjects (0.6%) required alternative access and 68 patients (6.8%) were considered to have a hostile iliofemoral anatomy that required vessel preparation prior to TAVR. Forty-eight patients (70.6%) had angioplasty only and 20 patients (29.4%) required atherectomy and angioplasty. Out of 20 patients treated with atherectomy, successful TF delivery of the valve was achieved in 19 patients (95%). There was no in-hospital mortality or stroke. There were no perforations. One subject required placement of a self-expandable stent due to severe dissection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Orbital atherectomy used for vessel preparation is a safe and very effective technique to facilitate TF-TAVR in patients with hostile peripheral anatomy.
Anesthetic Management of Conduction Disturbances Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Review of the 2020 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway [Editorial]
Three-Dimensional Imaging and Dynamic Modeling of Systolic Anterior Motion of the Mitral Valve
Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve caused by the interplay between increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and an abnormal mitral valve anatomy and geometry. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve has revolutionized the practice of cardiology, paving the way for new methods to see and treat valvular heart disease. Here we present the novel and incremental value of 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) of SAM visualization. This review first provides step-by-step instructions on acquiring and optimizing 3D TEE imaging of SAM. It then describes the unique and novel findings using standard 3D TEE rendering as well as dynamic mitral valve modeling of SAM from 3D data sets, which can provide a more detailed visualization of SAM features. The findings include double-orifice LVOT caused by the residual leaflet, the dolphin smile phenomenon, and delineation of SAM width. Finally, the review discusses the essential role of 3D TEE imaging for preprocedural assessment and intraprocedural guidance of surgical and novel percutaneous treatments of SAM.
Transcatheter Mitral Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair for Patients With Surgical Mitral Valve Repair Failure and Severe Mitral Regurgitation [Meeting Abstract]