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The bone marrow microenvironment at single-cell resolution

Tikhonova, Anastasia N; Dolgalev, Igor; Hu, Hai; Sivaraj, Kishor K; Hoxha, Edlira; Cuesta-Domínguez, Álvaro; Pinho, Sandra; Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Gao, Jie; Witkowski, Matthew; Guillamot, Maria; Gutkin, Michael C; Zhang, Yutong; Marier, Christian; Diefenbach, Catherine; Kousteni, Stavroula; Heguy, Adriana; Zhong, Hua; Fooksman, David R; Butler, Jason M; Economides, Aris; Frenette, Paul S; Adams, Ralf H; Satija, Rahul; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Aifantis, Iannis
The bone marrow microenvironment has a key role in regulating haematopoiesis, but its molecular complexity and response to stress are incompletely understood. Here we map the transcriptional landscape of mouse bone marrow vascular, perivascular and osteoblast cell populations at single-cell resolution, both at homeostasis and under conditions of stress-induced haematopoiesis. This analysis revealed previously unappreciated levels of cellular heterogeneity within the bone marrow niche and resolved cellular sources of pro-haematopoietic growth factors, chemokines and membrane-bound ligands. Our studies demonstrate a considerable transcriptional remodelling of niche elements under stress conditions, including an adipocytic skewing of perivascular cells. Among the stress-induced changes, we observed that vascular Notch delta-like ligands (encoded by Dll1 and Dll4) were downregulated. In the absence of vascular Dll4, haematopoietic stem cells prematurely induced a myeloid transcriptional program. These findings refine our understanding of the cellular architecture of the bone marrow niche, reveal a dynamic and heterogeneous molecular landscape that is highly sensitive to stress and illustrate the utility of single-cell transcriptomic data in evaluating the regulation of haematopoiesis by discrete niche populations.
PMID: 30971824
ISSN: 1476-4687
CID: 3809302

Extensive Remodeling of the Immune Microenvironment in B Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Witkowski, Matthew T; Dolgalev, Igor; Evensen, Nikki A; Ma, Chao; Chambers, Tiffany; Roberts, Kathryn G; Sreeram, Sheetal; Dai, Yuling; Tikhonova, Anastasia N; Lasry, Audrey; Qu, Chunxu; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Robbins, Gabriel A; Pierro, Joanna; Selvaraj, Shanmugapriya; Mezzano, Valeria; Daves, Marla; Lupo, Philip J; Scheurer, Michael E; Loomis, Cynthia A; Mullighan, Charles G; Chen, Weiqiang; Rabin, Karen R; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Carroll, William L; Aifantis, Iannis
A subset of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients will relapse and succumb to therapy-resistant disease. The bone marrow microenvironment may support B-ALL progression and treatment evasion. Utilizing single-cell approaches, we demonstrate B-ALL bone marrow immune microenvironment remodeling upon disease initiation and subsequent re-emergence during conventional chemotherapy. We uncover a role for non-classical monocytes in B-ALL survival, and demonstrate monocyte abundance at B-ALL diagnosis is predictive of pediatric and adult B-ALL patient survival. We show that human B-ALL blasts alter a vascularized microenvironment promoting monocytic differentiation, while depleting leukemia-associated monocytes in B-ALL animal models prolongs disease remission in vivo. Our profiling of the B-ALL immune microenvironment identifies extrinsic regulators of B-ALL survival supporting new immune-based therapeutic approaches for high-risk B-ALL treatment.
PMID: 32470390
ISSN: 1878-3686
CID: 4452012

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the effects of chemotherapy on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its tumor microenvironment

Werba, Gregor; Weissinger, Daniel; Kawaler, Emily A; Zhao, Ende; Kalfakakou, Despoina; Dhara, Surajit; Wang, Lidong; Lim, Heather B; Oh, Grace; Jing, Xiaohong; Beri, Nina; Khanna, Lauren; Gonda, Tamas; Oberstein, Paul; Hajdu, Cristina; Loomis, Cynthia; Heguy, Adriana; Sherman, Mara H; Lund, Amanda W; Welling, Theodore H; Dolgalev, Igor; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Simeone, Diane M
The tumor microenvironment (TME) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a complex ecosystem that drives tumor progression; however, in-depth single cell characterization of the PDAC TME and its role in response to therapy is lacking. Here, we perform single-cell RNA sequencing on freshly collected human PDAC samples either before or after chemotherapy. Overall, we find a heterogeneous mixture of basal and classical cancer cell subtypes, along with distinct cancer-associated fibroblast and macrophage subpopulations. Strikingly, classical and basal-like cancer cells exhibit similar transcriptional responses to chemotherapy and do not demonstrate a shift towards a basal-like transcriptional program among treated samples. We observe decreased ligand-receptor interactions in treated samples, particularly between TIGIT on CD8 + T cells and its receptor on cancer cells, and identify TIGIT as the major inhibitory checkpoint molecule of CD8 + T cells. Our results suggest that chemotherapy profoundly impacts the PDAC TME and may promote resistance to immunotherapy.
PMID: 36781852
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5427092

Inflammation in the tumor-adjacent lung as a predictor of clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma

Dolgalev, Igor; Zhou, Hua; Murrell, Nina; Le, Hortense; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Coudray, Nicolas; Zhu, Kelsey; Vasudevaraja, Varshini; Yeaton, Anna; Goparaju, Chandra; Li, Yonghua; Sulaiman, Imran; Tsay, Jun-Chieh J; Meyn, Peter; Mohamed, Hussein; Sydney, Iris; Shiomi, Tomoe; Ramaswami, Sitharam; Narula, Navneet; Kulicke, Ruth; Davis, Fred P; Stransky, Nicolas; Smolen, Gromoslaw A; Cheng, Wei-Yi; Cai, James; Punekar, Salman; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Sterman, Daniel H; Poirier, J T; Neel, Ben; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Chiriboga, Luis; Heguy, Adriana; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Nadorp, Bettina; Snuderl, Matija; Segal, Leopoldo N; Moreira, Andre L; Pass, Harvey I; Tsirigos, Aristotelis
Approximately 30% of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients present with disease progression after successful surgical resection. Despite efforts of mapping the genetic landscape, there has been limited success in discovering predictive biomarkers of disease outcomes. Here we performed a systematic multi-omic assessment of 143 tumors and matched tumor-adjacent, histologically-normal lung tissue with long-term patient follow-up. Through histologic, mutational, and transcriptomic profiling of tumor and adjacent-normal tissue, we identified an inflammatory gene signature in tumor-adjacent tissue as the strongest clinical predictor of disease progression. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis demonstrated the progression-associated inflammatory signature was expressed in both immune and non-immune cells, and cell type-specific profiling in monocytes further improved outcome predictions. Additional analyses of tumor-adjacent transcriptomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas validated the association of the inflammatory signature with worse outcomes across cancers. Collectively, our study suggests that molecular profiling of tumor-adjacent tissue can identify patients at high risk for disease progression.
PMID: 37938580
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5609852

Connecting the Dots: Resolving the Bone Marrow Niche Heterogeneity

Dolgalev, Igor; Tikhonova, Anastasia N
Single-cell sequencing approaches have transformed our understanding of stem cell systems, including hematopoiesis and its niche within the bone marrow. Recent reports examined the bone marrow microenvironment at single-cell resolution at steady state, following chemotherapy treatment, leukemic onset, and aging. These rapid advancements significantly informed our understanding of bone marrow niche heterogeneity. However, inconsistent representation and nomenclature among the studies hinder a comprehensive interpretation of this body of work. Here, we review recent reports interrogating bone marrow niche architecture and present an integrated overview of the published datasets.
PMID: 33777933
ISSN: 2296-634x
CID: 4830472

Restoration of TET2 Function Blocks Aberrant Self-Renewal and Leukemia Progression

Cimmino, Luisa; Dolgalev, Igor; Wang, Yubao; Yoshimi, Akihide; Martin, Gaelle H; Wang, Jingjing; Ng, Victor; Xia, Bo; Witkowski, Matthew T; Mitchell-Flack, Marisa; Grillo, Isabella; Bakogianni, Sofia; Ndiaye-Lobry, Delphine; Martin, Miguel Torres; Guillamot, Maria; Banh, Robert S; Xu, Mingjiang; Figueroa, Maria E; Dickins, Ross A; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Park, Christopher Y; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Neel, Benjamin G; Aifantis, Iannis
Loss-of-function mutations in TET2 occur frequently in patients with clonal hematopoiesis, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a DNA hypermethylation phenotype. To determine the role of TET2 deficiency in leukemia stem cell maintenance, we generated a reversible transgenic RNAi mouse to model restoration of endogenous Tet2 expression. Tet2 restoration reverses aberrant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) self-renewal in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with vitamin C, a co-factor of Fe2+ and alpha-KG-dependent dioxygenases, mimics TET2 restoration by enhancing 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation in Tet2-deficient mouse HSPCs and suppresses human leukemic colony formation and leukemia progression of primary human leukemia PDXs. Vitamin C also drives DNA hypomethylation and expression of a TET2-dependent gene signature in human leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, TET-mediated DNA oxidation induced by vitamin C treatment in leukemia cells enhances their sensitivity to PARP inhibition and could provide a safe and effective combination strategy to selectively target TET deficiency in cancer.
PMID: 28823558
ISSN: 1097-4172
CID: 2676732

Prognostic relevance of integrated genetic profiling in acute myeloid leukemia

Patel, Jay P; Gonen, Mithat; Figueroa, Maria E; Fernandez, Hugo; Sun, Zhuoxin; Racevskis, Janis; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Dolgalev, Igor; Thomas, Sabrena; Aminova, Olga; Huberman, Kety; Cheng, Janice; Viale, Agnes; Socci, Nicholas D; Heguy, Adriana; Cherry, Athena; Vance, Gail; Higgins, Rodney R; Ketterling, Rhett P; Gallagher, Robert E; Litzow, Mark; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Lazarus, Hillard M; Rowe, Jacob M; Luger, Selina; Ferrando, Adolfo; Paietta, Elisabeth; Tallman, Martin S; Melnick, Ari; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Levine, Ross L
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to presentation and clinical outcome. The prognostic value of recently identified somatic mutations has not been systematically evaluated in a phase 3 trial of treatment for AML. METHODS: We performed a mutational analysis of 18 genes in 398 patients younger than 60 years of age who had AML and who were randomly assigned to receive induction therapy with high-dose or standard-dose daunorubicin. We validated our prognostic findings in an independent set of 104 patients. RESULTS: We identified at least one somatic alteration in 97.3% of the patients. We found that internal tandem duplication in FLT3 (FLT3-ITD), partial tandem duplication in MLL (MLL-PTD), and mutations in ASXL1 and PHF6 were associated with reduced overall survival (P=0.001 for FLT3-ITD, P=0.009 for MLL-PTD, P=0.05 for ASXL1, and P=0.006 for PHF6); CEBPA and IDH2 mutations were associated with improved overall survival (P=0.05 for CEBPA and P=0.01 for IDH2). The favorable effect of NPM1 mutations was restricted to patients with co-occurring NPM1 and IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. We identified genetic predictors of outcome that improved risk stratification among patients with AML, independently of age, white-cell count, induction dose, and post-remission therapy, and validated the significance of these predictors in an independent cohort. High-dose daunorubicin, as compared with standard-dose daunorubicin, improved the rate of survival among patients with DNMT3A or NPM1 mutations or MLL translocations (P=0.001) but not among patients with wild-type DNMT3A, NPM1, and MLL (P=0.67). CONCLUSIONS: We found that DNMT3A and NPM1 mutations and MLL translocations predicted an improved outcome with high-dose induction chemotherapy in patients with AML. These findings suggest that mutational profiling could potentially be used for risk stratification and to inform prognostic and therapeutic decisions regarding patients with AML. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
PMID: 22417203
ISSN: 0028-4793
CID: 306772

Loss of Keap1 promotes KRAS-driven lung cancer and results in genotype-specific vulnerabilities. [Meeting Abstract]

Romero, Rodrigo; Sayin, Volkan I.; Shawn, Davidson M.; Bauer, Matthew; Singh, Simranjit X.; LeBoeuf, Sarah; Karakousi, Triantafyllia R.; Ellis, Donald C.; Bhutkar, Arjun; Sanchez-Rivera, Francisco; Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya; Martinez, Britney; Bronson, Roderick T.; Prigge, Justin R.; Schmidt, Edward E.; Thomas, Craig J.; Davies, Angela; Dolgalev, Igor; Heguy, Adriana; Allaj, Viola; Piorier, John T.; Moreira, Andre L.; Rudin, Charles M.; Pass, Harvey I.; Heiden, Matthew G. Vander; Jacks, Tyler; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales
ISSN: 0008-5472
CID: 3132562

Genome-Wide CRISPR Screens Identify Multiple Synthetic Lethal Targets That Enhance KRASG12C Inhibitor Efficacy

Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ziyan; Ranieri, Michela; Li, Shuai; Sahu, Soumyadip; Liu, Yingzhuo; Ban, Yi; Guidry, Kayla; Hu, Hai; Lopez, Alfonso; Sherman, Fiona; Tan, Yi Jer; Lee, Yeuan Ting; Armstrong, Amanda P; Dolgalev, Igor; Sahu, Priyanka; Zhang, Tinghu; Lu, Wenchao; Gray, Nathanael S; Christensen, James G; Tang, Tracy T; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Neel, Benjamin G
UNLABELLED:Non-small lung cancers (NSCLC) frequently (∼30%) harbor KRAS driver mutations, half of which are KRASG12C. KRAS-mutant NSCLC with comutated STK11 and/or KEAP1 is particularly refractory to conventional, targeted, and immune therapy. Development of KRASG12C inhibitors (G12Ci) provided a major therapeutic advance, but resistance still limits their efficacy. To identify genes whose deletion augments efficacy of the G12Cis adagrasib (MRTX-849) or adagrasib plus TNO155 (SHP2i), we performed genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screens on KRAS/STK11-mutant NSCLC lines. Recurrent, potentially targetable, synthetic lethal (SL) genes were identified, including serine-threonine kinases, tRNA-modifying and proteoglycan synthesis enzymes, and YAP/TAZ/TEAD pathway components. Several SL genes were confirmed by siRNA/shRNA experiments, and the YAP/TAZ/TEAD pathway was extensively validated in vitro and in mice. Mechanistic studies showed that G12Ci treatment induced gene expression of RHO paralogs and activators, increased RHOA activation, and evoked ROCK-dependent nuclear translocation of YAP. Mice and patients with acquired G12Ci- or G12Ci/SHP2i-resistant tumors showed strong overlap with SL pathways, arguing for the relevance of the screen results. These findings provide a landscape of potential targets for future combination strategies, some of which can be tested rapidly in the clinic. SIGNIFICANCE/UNASSIGNED:Identification of synthetic lethal genes with KRASG12C using genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening and credentialing of the ability of TEAD inhibition to enhance KRASG12C efficacy provides a roadmap for combination strategies. See related commentary by Johnson and Haigis, p. 4005.
PMID: 37729426
ISSN: 1538-7445
CID: 5606372

A Population of Tumor-Infiltrating CD4+ T Cells Co-Expressing CD38 and CD39 Is Associated with Checkpoint Inhibitor Resistance

Mitra, Ankita; Thompson, Brian; Strange, Ann; Amato, Carol M; Vassallo, Melinda; Dolgalev, Igor; Hester-McCullough, Jonathan; Muramatsu, Tomoaki; Kimono, Diana; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Weber, Jeffrey S; Woods, David
PURPOSE:We previously showed that elevated frequencies of peripheral blood CD3+CD4+CD127-GARP-CD38+CD39+ T cells were associated with checkpoint immunotherapy resistance in patients with metastatic melanoma. In the present study, we sought to further investigate this population of ectoenzyme-expressing T cells (Teee). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Teee derived from the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic melanoma were evaluated by bulk RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and flow cytometry. The presence of Teee in the tumor microenvironment was assessed using publically available single-cell RNA-seq datasets of melanoma, lung, and bladder cancers along with multispectral immunofluorescent imaging of melanoma patient formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. Suppressive function of Teee was determined by an in vitro autologous suppression assay. RESULTS:Teee had phenotypes associated with proliferation, apoptosis, exhaustion, and high expression of inhibitory molecules. Cells with a Teee gene signature were present in tumors of patients with melanoma, lung, and bladder cancers. CD4+ T cells co-expressing CD38 and CD39 in the tumor microenvironment were preferentially associated with Ki67- CD8+ T cells. Co-culture of patient Teee with autologous T cells resulted in decreased proliferation of target T cells. High baseline intratumoral frequencies of Teee were associated with checkpoint immunotherapy resistance and poor overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that a novel population of CD4+ T cells co-expressing CD38 and CD39 is found both in the peripheral blood and tumor of patients with melanoma and is associated with checkpoint immunotherapy resistance.
PMID: 37505479
ISSN: 1557-3265
CID: 5613952