Childhood trauma and treatment outcomes during mood-stabilising treatment with lithium or quetiapine among outpatients with bipolar disorder
BACKGROUND:Childhood trauma affects the course of mood disorders. Researchers are now considering childhood trauma as an influential factor in the treatment of mood disorders. However, the role of childhood trauma in the treatment of bipolar disorder remains understudied. METHODS:The effect of childhood trauma on treatment outcomes was evaluated among participants randomised to treatment with lithium or quetiapine in the Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiatives in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study by clinician assessment. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to analyse rates of improvement in symptom severity (assessed with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale for Bipolar Disorder) and functional impairment (assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation-Range of Impaired Functioning Tool). RESULTS:A history of any childhood trauma was reported by 52.7% of the sample (N = 476). Although participants with a history of any childhood trauma presented with greater symptom severity and functional impairment at most study visits, participants with and without a history of any childhood trauma showed similar rates of improvement in symptom severity and functional impairment over the 24 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to explore the association between childhood trauma and treatment outcomes during treatment with lithium or quetiapine in the context of a randomised trial. In Bipolar CHOICE, a history of childhood trauma did not inhibit improvement in symptom severity or functional impairment. Nevertheless, these findings need replication across different settings.
Relationships between interoceptive sensibility and resting-state functional connectivity of the insula in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit abnormality in their subjective perception of internal sensation, a process known as interoceptive sensibility (IS), as well as altered functioning of the insula, a key neural structure for interoception. We investigated the multivariate structure of IS in 77 OCD patients and 53 controls and examined associations of IS with resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the insula within the OCD group. For each group, principal component analysis was performed on 8 subscales of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness assessing putatively "adaptive" and "maladaptive" aspects of IS. Associations between IS components and insula FC in the OCD group were evaluated using seed regions placed in each of 3 subdivisions of the insula (posterior, anterior dorsal, and anterior ventral). Behaviorally, controls showed a 2-component solution broadly categorized into "adaptive" and "maladaptive" IS, while OCD patients exhibited a 3-component solution. The general tendency to notice or be aware of sensation loaded onto an "adaptive" IS component in controls but loaded onto both "adaptive" and "maladaptive" IS components in OCD. Within OCD, insula FC was differentially associated with distinct aspects of IS, identifying network connections that could serve as future targets for the modulation of IS in OCD.
Comparison of Sodium Lactate Infusion and Carbon Dioxide Inhalation Panic Provocation Tests: A Meta-analysis
BACKGROUND:) inhalation are proven to provoke acute panic attacks (PAs) in patients with panic disorder (PD). A systematic literature search and meta-analysis were performed to compare the effect sizes of these methods. METHODS:Odds ratios were calculated for each of the original studies and were pooled using the random-effects model. RESULTS:=7.88-14.21). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:for the brain suffocation detector.
Imbalance between default mode and sensorimotor connectivity is associated with perseverative thinking in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly heterogeneous. Although perseverative negative thinking (PT) is a feature of OCD, little is known about its neural mechanisms or relationship to clinical heterogeneity in the disorder. In a sample of 85 OCD patients, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PT, clinical symptom subtypes, and resting-state functional connectivity measures of local and global connectivity. Results indicated that PT scores were highly variable within the OCD sample, with greater PT relating to higher severity of the "unacceptable thoughts" symptom dimension. PT was positively related to local connectivity in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), pregenual ACC, and the temporal poles-areas that are part of, or closely linked to, the default mode network (DMN)-and negatively related to local connectivity in sensorimotor cortex. While the majority of patients showed higher local connectivity strengths in sensorimotor compared to DMN regions, OCD patients with higher PT scores had less of an imbalance between sensorimotor and DMN connectivity than those with lower PT scores, with healthy controls exhibiting an intermediate pattern. Clinically, this imbalance was related to both the "unacceptable thoughts" and "symmetry/not-just-right-experiences" symptom dimensions, but in opposite directions. These effects remained significant after accounting for variance related to psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in the OCD sample, and no significant relationships were found between PT and global connectivity. These data indicate that PT is related to symptom and neural variability in OCD. Future work may wish to target this circuity when developing personalized interventions for patients with these symptoms.
Affective and somatic symptom clusters in depression and their relationship to treatment outcomes in the STAR*D sample
BACKGROUND:The heterogenous nature of depression continues to stymie efforts to identify biomarkers or predict treatment response. Efforts leveraging large datasets to define more uniform subtypes of depression or subgroups of depressed patients have considered only small subsets of symptoms. We aimed to understand how inclusion of more diverse complaints would impact data-emergent symptom and patient clusters. METHODS:We applied principal components analysis to baseline IDS data from 1491 STAR-D patients with major depressive disorder to derive naturally co-occurring symptom subsets before utilizing k-means clustering to divide patients into groups based on standardized residuals of each symptom subset score. We evaluated the clinical utility of our approach by comparing how cluster membership impacted response to citalopram. RESULTS:PCA identified nine naturally co-occurring symptom clusters: core affective symptoms, appetite/weight loss, anxiety, somatic symptoms, insomnia, negative intrusive thoughts, leaden paralysis/mood quality, diurnal mood variation, and irritability. Cluster analysis identified two patient groups, differing significantly in 7 of 9 clusters. Patients distinguished by the prominence of somatic vs. core affective symptoms exhibited greater reduction in depression severity with citalopram treatment. LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Results depend not only on raw data, but also parameter selection, and interpretation. Replication is indicated. CONCLUSIONS:Findings are consistent with previous reports linking somatic symptoms and treatment resistance and demonstrating that SSRIs are most effective in treating affective symptoms. A novel distinction between physical somatic symptoms and psychic anxiety highlights the utility of assessing a broad spectrum of symptoms when exploring heterogeneity in depression and the need for treatments targeting physical somatic symptoms specifically.
Correlation between S100B and severity of depression in MDD: A meta-analysis
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Previous studies have demonstrated elevated levels of the S100B protein (located in glial cells) in major depressive disorder (MDD) as compared to healthy controls. However, studies reporting correlation between S100B levels and depression severity have been conflicting. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We investigated, through systematic review and meta-analysis, whether the correlation between S100B levels and depression severity is significant in patients with MDD. Pearson correlation coefficients reported in the individual studies were converted to Fisher's Z scores, then pooled using the random effects model. Meta-regression was used to test modifiers of the effect size. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:16 studies including 658 patients with MDD met eligibility criteria. No publication bias was observed. There was a significant and positive correlation between serum S100B level and depression severity (râ€‰=â€‰0.204, zâ€‰=â€‰2.297, pâ€‰=â€‰0.022). A meta-regression determined that onset age of MDD and percentage of female participants are significant modifiers of this correlation. A moderate, but non-significant heterogeneity was observed in serum studies (44%). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:As many studies have reported significantly increased levels of S100B in MDD compared to controls, this meta-analysis supports the assumption that the increase in S100B correlates with the severity of MDD. Additional studies investigating the precise biological connection between S100B and MDD are indicated.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis of carbon dioxide provocation in psychiatric disorders
BACKGROUND:False suffocation alarm hypothesis has been widely used to explain carbon dioxide hypersensitivity in panic disorder (PD). However, hypersensitivity to carbon dioxide has been observed in other psychiatric disorders. We explored the specificity of carbon dioxide inhalation as a panic provocation test among psychiatric disorders via network meta-analysis. METHODS:A systematic literature search on PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycNET was performed to acquire the studies using the carbon dioxide provocation test in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklists. Odds ratios (OR) for a panic attack (PA) induced by the carbon dioxide inhalation tests were extracted from each of the original studies and were pooled using the random-effects model. RESULTS:Network meta-analysis on a pool of 2181 participants from 41 studies was used to compare the efficacy of carbon dioxide provocation tests among psychiatric disorders. The network meta-analysis showed that the odds for PA in response to carbon dioxide inhalation are higher in patients with PD, premenstrual dysphoric syndrome (PMDD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) than healthy controls (HC). The odds for PA were not significantly different among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and healthy controls (HC). CONCLUSIONS:The vulnerability to the carbon dioxide provocation test is not limited to PD. The specificity of the test for PD is questionable, as individuals suffering from PMDD and SAD are also significantly more responsive to carbon dioxide inhalation compared to HC, OCD, MDD, and GAD. There may be shared underpinning biological mechanisms between PD, PMDD, and SAD.
Response and remission rates during 24 weeks of mood-stabilizing treatment for bipolar depression depending on early non-response
BACKGROUND:We aimed to study the probability of bipolar depression response at 24 weeks given initial non-response. METHODS:We combined two multi-site, 24-week trials including similar populations following the same evidence-based guidelines randomizing patients to lithium or quetiapine. Additional mood-stabilizing treatment was possible if clinically indicated. We report cumulative proportions of response (>50% improvement in MADRS) and remission (MADRS<10). RESULTS:We included 592 participants with bipolar depression (mean 39 years, 59% female, mean MADRS 25). Among 393 (66%) participants without response after 2 weeks, 46% responded by 24 weeks; for 291 (49%) without response at 4 weeks, 40% responded and 33% remitted by 24 weeks; for 222 (38%) without a response at 6 weeks, 36% responded and 29% remitted by 24 weeks; for 185 (31%) without a response at 8 weeks, 29% responded and 24% remitted by 24 weeks. Rates were similar for participants who had started an additional mood-stabilizing drug during the first 6 or 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with bipolar depression and non-response after 6 weeks treatment, representing an adequate bipolar depression trial, only one-third responded by 24 weeks. These results highlight the need for better treatment alternatives for non-responders to evidence-based treatments for bipolar depression.
Correction to: Selective kappa-opioid antagonism ameliorates anhedonic behavior: evidence from the Fast-fail Trial in Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Disorders (FAST-MAS)
"Selective kappa-opioid antagonism ameliorates anhedonic behavior: evidence from the Fast-fail Trial in Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Disorders (FAST-MAS)": Correction
Reports an error in "Selective kappa-opioid antagonism ameliorates anhedonic behavior: Evidence from the fast-fail Trial in Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Disorders (FAST-MAS)" by Diego A. Pizzagalli, Moria Smoski, Yuen-Siang Ang, Alexis E. Whitton, Gerard Sanacora, Sanjay J. Mathew, John Nurnberger Jr., Sarah H. Lisanby, Dan V. Iosifescu, James W. Murrough, Hongqiu Yang, Richard D. Weiner, Joseph R. Calabrese, Wayne Goodman, William Z. Potter and Andrew D. Krystal (Neuropsychopharmacology, 2020[Sep], Vol 45, 1656-1663). In the original article, conflict of interest was missing. The co-author Sanjay J. Mathew served as a consultant to Alkermes. The original article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2020-45589-001). Anhedonia remains a major clinical issue for which there is few effective interventions. Untreated or poorly controlled anhedonia has been linked to worse disease course and increased suicidal behavior across disorders. Taking a proof-of-mechanism approach under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health FAST-FAIL initiative, we were the first to show that, in a transdiagnostic sample screened for elevated self-reported anhedonia, 8 weeks of treatment with a kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist resulted in significantly higher reward-related activation in one of the core hubs of the brain reward system (the ventral striatum), better reward learning in the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT), and lower anhedonic symptoms, relative to 8 weeks of placebo. Here, we performed secondary analyses of the PRT data to investigate the putative effects of KOR antagonism on anhedonic behavior with more precision by using trial-level model-based Bayesian computational modeling and probability analyses. We found that, relative to placebo, KOR antagonism resulted in significantly higher learning rate (i.e., ability to learn from reward feedback) and a more sustained preference toward the more frequently rewarded stimulus, but unaltered reward sensitivity (i.e., the hedonic response to reward feedback). Collectively, these findings provide novel evidence that in a transdiagnostic sample characterized by elevated anhedonia, KOR antagonism improved the ability to modulate behavior as a function of prior rewards. Together with confirmation of target engagement in the primary report (Krystal et al., Nat Med, 2020), the current findings suggest that further transdiagnostic investigation of KOR antagonism for anhedonia is warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)