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Insulin Adjustments for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients on a Fixed Dexamethasone Protocol

Aqbal, Daliha; Zakher, Mariam; Nicolich-Henkin, Sophie; Alku, Dajana; Choi, Paula; Bansal, Neha; Islam, Shahidul
Introduction: COVID-19, in combination with steroid treatment, is known to propagate hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to establish a new insulin protocol for diabetic patients with COVID-19 on the dexamethasone protocol for better glycemic control. Research Design and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at NYU Langone Long Island Hospital from 1 July 2020 to 1 July 2021. Eligible cases had to meet the following inclusion criteria: age of 18 years or greater, history of or new-onset diabetes, diagnosis of COVID-19 and receiving the 10 day dexamethasone treatment, length of stay of at least 3 days with a minimum of 48 h of glucose monitoring, and requiring basal and prandial insulin with correction during hospital stay. Data were collected using the hospital"™s electronic record system. The total basal, prandial, and daily doses of insulin on the day at which glycemic control was achieved, or if glycemic control was not achieved by the discharge date, then on the completion date of the dexamethasone treatment, were collected and assessed. Results: A total of 145 patient cases were analyzed. About 46% of patients achieved glycemic control. The average insulin dose required was 0.67 (0.61"“0.74) unit/kg. The mean total dose of insulin was 59 units. The mean total basal dose was 21 units. The mean total prandial dose was 38 units. The average prandial doses were higher than the basal doses for all participants. Conclusions: Diabetic patients with COVID-19 on dexamethasone should be initiated on at least 0.6"“0.7 u/kg of insulin to achieve glycemic control.
ISSN: 2673-8112
CID: 5660172

Glycemic Management in Insulin Naive Patients in the Inpatient Setting

Goldstein, Michael B; Islam, Shahidul; Nicolich-Henkin, Sophie; Bellavia, Lauren; Klek, Stanislaw
ISSN: 1040-9165
CID: 5637082

Bulky hydrophobic side chains in the β1-sandwich of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein are critical for the transfer of both triglycerides and phospholipids

Anaganti, Narasimha; Valmiki, Swati; Recacha, Rosario; Islam, Shahidul; Farber, Steven; Ruddock, Lloyd; Hussain, M Mahmood
Hyperlipidemia predisposes individuals to cardio-metabolic diseases, the most common cause of global mortality. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) transfers multiple lipids and is essential for the assembly of apoB-containing lipoproteins. MTP inhibition lowers plasma lipids but causes lipid retention in the liver and intestine. Previous studies suggested two lipid transfer domains in MTP and that specific inhibition of triglycerides (TG) and not phospholipids (PL) transfer can lower plasma lipids without significant tissue lipid accumulation. However, how MTP transfers different lipids and the domains involved in these activities are unknown. Here, we tested a hypothesis that two different β-sandwich domains in MTP transfer TG and PL. Mutagenesis of charged amino acids in β2-sandwich had no effect on PL transfer activity indicating that they are not critical. In contrast, amino acids with bulky hydrophobic side chains in β1-sandwich were critical for both TG and PL transfer activities. Substitutions of these residues with smaller hydrophobic side chains or positive charges reduced, while negatively charged side chains severely attenuated MTP lipid transfer activities. These studies point to a common lipid transfer domain for TG and PL in MTP that is enriched with bulky hydrophobic amino acids. Furthermore, we observed a strong correlation in different MTP mutants with respect to loss of both the lipid transfer activities, again implicating a common binding site for TG and PL in MTP. We propose that targeting of areas other than the identified common lipid transfer domain might reduce plasma lipids without causing cellular lipid retention.
PMID: 38325741
ISSN: 1083-351x
CID: 5632252

Lipoprotein(a) and the Effect of Alirocumab on Revascularization Following Acute Coronary Syndrome

Steg, P Gabriel; Szarek, Michael; Valgimigli, Marco; Islam, Shahidul; Zeiher, Andreas M; Bhatt, Deepak L; Bittner, Vera A; Chiang, Chern-En; Diaz, Rafael; Goodman, Shaun G; Gotcheva, Nina; Harrington, Robert A; Jukema, J Wouter; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Morais, Joao; Pordy, Robert; Scemama, Michel; White, Harvey D; Schwartz, Gregory G
BACKGROUND:Many patients require revascularization after an index acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Lipoprotein(a) is thought to play a pathogenic role in atherothrombosis. In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES, alirocumab reduced major adverse cardiovascular events after ACS, with greater reduction among those with higher lipoprotein(a) levels. We explored whether risk of revascularization after ACS was modified by the level of lipoprotein(a) and treatment with alirocumab or placebo. METHODS:ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin treatment. In this post hoc analysis, treatment effects are summarized by competing-risks proportional hazard models. RESULTS:<0.001). Alirocumab produced the greatest reduction of coronary revascularization in patients with baseline lipoprotein(a) in the top quartile (≥59.6 mg/dL) (HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.57-0.84]), but no apparent reduction in the bottom quartile (HR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.82-1.22]). Findings were similar for the effect of alirocumab on any revascularization. CONCLUSIONS:Alirocumab reduced revascularization after ACS. The risk of revascularization and reduction in that risk with alirocumab were greatest in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) at baseline. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES NCT01663402).
PMID: 37116789
ISSN: 1916-7075
CID: 5465622

Low dose vs high dose tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure

Chung, Juri; Brosnahan, Shari B; Islam, Shahidul; Altshuler, Diana; Spiegler, Peter; Li, Wai Kin; Wang, Wai Man; Chen, Xian Jie Cindy
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Tocilizumab has been shown to decrease mortality when used concomitantly with steroids in COVID-19 with 8 mg/kg (max 800 mg) being the standard dose. Our study sought to assess whether a low dose (400 mg) shows similar benefit compared to a high dose for COVID patients concurrently on the same median dose of steroids. MATERIALS/METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective, multihospital observational study of COVID-19 patients who received tocilizumab in conjunction with steroids between March 2020 and August 2021 was conducted. RESULTS:A total of 407 patients were analyzed with low dose group being significantly more ill at baseline as a higher percentage of patients received vasopressors, were admitted to the ICU and on mechanical ventilation. In the propensity-matched analysis, both groups receiving a median dexamethasone equivalent dose of 10 mg showed no difference in 28-day mortality (p = 0.613). The high dose group had a higher rate of fungal and viral infections. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Compared to low dose tocilizumab, the high dose did not provide additional efficacy and mortality benefit but resulted in higher fungal and viral infections. This study illustrates that low dose tocilizumab can be an alternative to high dose during a drug shortage of tocilizumab without compensating for efficacy and safety, conserving resources for more patients.
PMID: 37043893
ISSN: 1557-8615
CID: 5464172

Proportion of Malignancy and Evaluation of Sonographic Features of Thyroid Nodules Classified As Highly Suspicious Using ACR TI-RADS Criteria

Hussain, Najia; Goldstein, Michael B; Zakher, Mariam; Katz, Douglas S; Brandler, Tamar C; Islam, Shahidul; Rothberger, Gary D
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The reported malignancy rate of highly suspicious thyroid nodules based on the ACR TI-RADS criteria (TI-RADS category 5 [TR5]) varies widely. The objective of our study was to determine the rate of malignancy of TR5 nodules at our institution. We also aimed to determine the predictive values of individual sonographic features, as well as the correlation of total points assigned to a nodule and rate of malignancy. METHODS:Our single-institution retrospective study evaluated 450 TR5 nodules that had cytology results available, in 399 patients over a 1-year period. Sonographic features and total TI-RADS points were determined by the interpreting radiologist. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models to find factors associated with increased odds of malignancy, and computing sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of various individual sonographic features. RESULTS:Of the 450 nodules, 95 (21.1%, 95% exact confidence interval 17.4-25.2%) were malignant. Each additional TI-RADS point increased the odds of malignancy (adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.60, P < .001). "Very hypoechoic" was the sonographic feature with the highest specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy (95.5 and 44.8%, respectively), while "punctate echogenic foci" had the lowest positive predictive value (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS:The rate of malignancy of TR5 nodules at our institution was 21.1%, which is lower than other malignancy rates reported in the literature. The total number of points assigned on the basis of the TI-RADS criteria was positively associated with malignancy, which indicates that TR5 should be viewed as a spectrum of risk.
PMID: 36106704
ISSN: 1550-9613
CID: 5336322

Racial Disparities in Hospitalization Rates During Long-Term Follow-Up After Deceased-Donor Kidney Transplantation

Islam, Shahidul; Zhang, Donglan; Ho, Kimberly; Divers, Jasmin
Objective: To compare hospitalization rates between African American (AA) and European American (EA) deceased-donor (DD) kidney transplant (KT) recipients during over a10-year period. Method: Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and social determinants of health (SDoH), measured by the Social Deprivation Index, were used. Hospitalization rates were estimated for kidney recipients from AA and EA DDs who had one kidney transplanted into an AA and one into an EA, leading to four donor/recipient pairs (DRPs): AA/AA, AA/EA, EA/AA, and EA/EA. Poisson-Gamma models were fitted to assess post-transplant hospitalizations. Result: Unadjusted hospitalization rates (95% confidence interval) were higher among all DRP involving AA, 131.1 (122.5, 140.3), 134.8 (126.3, 143.8), and 102.4 (98.9, 106.0) for AA/AA, AA/EA, and EA/AA, respectively, compared to 97.1 (93.7, 100.6) per 1000 post-transplant person-years for EA/EA pairs. Multivariable analysis showed u-shaped relationships across SDoH levels within each DRP, but findings varied depending on recipients"™ race, i.e., AA recipients in areas with the worst SDoH had higher hospitalization rates. However, EA recipients in areas with the best SDoH had higher hospitalization rates than their counterparts. Conclusions: Relationship between healthcare utilization and SDoH depends on DRP, with higher hospitalization rates among AA recipients living in areas with the worst SDoH and among EA recipients in areas with the best SDoH profiles. SDoH plays an important role in driving disparities in hospitalizations after kidney transplantation.
ISSN: 2197-3792
CID: 5616342


Coltrane, M; Nieves, S; Wang, S; Islam, S
INTRODUCTION: In 2017, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) sought to define treatment areas in which nutrition support provided significant clinical or cost improvement. In 2020, these findings published in the Journal of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (JPEN), found an estimated annual savings of $580 million when patients received appropriate nutrition support. In acute pancreatitis (AP), an evaluated treatment area, early enteral nutrition (EN) was associated with decreased multiorgan failure and mortality compared to delayed EN. Our goal is to assess institutional adherence to nutrition support recommendations as per ASPEN guidelines in patients diagnosed with AP.
METHOD(S): This study is a multicenter, retrospective chart review. The patient population included adult patients (age > 18 years) hospitalized at NYU Langone Hospitals - Tisch, Brooklyn, and Long Island, with the diagnosis of AP. Our time frame for analysis spanned between September 1st, 2019 and September 1st, 2021. Patients admitted for less than 48 hours were excluded. The study population was generated through the reporting function within EPIC, our institution's electronic medical record system. Per institutional protocol, our project was deemed a quality improvement, and therefore, exempt of institutional review board (IRB) review. The prevalence of the adherence was computed using the Clopper-Pearson method. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics.
RESULT(S): Based on ASPEN guidelines, 2 out of 89 (2.2%) patients were adherent (95% CI: 0.27%, 7.9%.)
CONCLUSION(S): Based on ASPEN guidelines, 2.2% of identified patients were adherent. The study was limited due to sample size and incomplete documentation. A larger sample would allow for better assessment of adherence as well as a more thorough evaluation of patient outcomes
ISSN: 1530-0293
CID: 5513692


Wang, W M; Chen, X J; Chung, J; Kin, Li W; Islam, S; Altshuler, D; Spiegler, P; Brosnahan, S
INTRODUCTION: Tocilizumab has been shown to decrease mortality when used concomitantly with steroids in COVID-19. Tocilizumab dose of 8 mg/kg (max: 800 mg), stemmed from the RECOVERY trial, has been the standard dose for COVID. Due to a drug shortage of tocilizumab, our study seeks to assess whether low dose (400 mg) shows similar benefit compared to high dose for COVID patients concurrently on same median dose of steroids.
METHOD(S): This was a retrospective observational study of COVID-19 patients who received tocilizumab in conjunction with steroids. Between March 2020 and August 2021, adult patients with positive COVID-19 PCR, hypoxic respiratory failure defined as FiO2>70%, and received a dose of tocilizumab in conjunction with steroids were included. Patients were excluded if they have died within 24 hours of treatment initiation. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality and secondary outcomes included biomarker improvement and relative risk of infection. Propensity matched analysis between groups was performed.
RESULT(S): A total of 407 patients met the study criteria and were analyzed. The low dose and high dose tocilizumab group had 222 and 185 patients respectively. Gender and age were similar between groups and all patients received steroids. The low dose group was significantly more ill at baseline as a higher percentage of patients received vasopressors, were admitted to the ICU and on mechanical ventilation. In the propensity-matched analysis of 56 patients in each group, with a median dose of steroid of 10 mg in both groups showed no difference in 28 day mortality (HR 0.82 [95% CI: 0.41-1.67]; p=0.6138). A greater decrease to normalization of CRP (p< 0.0001) and downtrend of ferritin (p=0.503) was observed in the high dose group at day 14. The high dose group trended a higher rate of fungal and viral infections.
CONCLUSION(S): Compared to low dose tocilizumab, high dose did not provide additional efficacy and mortality benefit but resulted in uptrend of fungal and viral infections. While a greater decrease in CRP was seen in the high dose group, it did not translate into lower mortality. This study illustrates that low dose tocilizumab can be an alternative to high dose during a drug shortage of tocilizumab without compensating for efficacy and safety, conserving resources for more patients
ISSN: 1530-0293
CID: 5513732

Machine Learning Approach to Predict In-Hospital Mortality in Patients Admitted for Peripheral Artery Disease in the United States

Zhang, Donglan; Li, Yike; Kalbaugh, Corey Andrew; Shi, Lu; Divers, Jasmin; Islam, Shahidul; Annex, Brian H
Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects >10 million people in the United States. PAD is associated with poor outcomes, including premature death. Machine learning (ML) has been increasingly used on big data to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to develop ML models to predict in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized for PAD based on a national database. Methods and Results Inpatient hospitalization data were obtained from the 2016 to 2019 National Inpatient Sample. A total of 150 921 inpatients were identified with a primary diagnosis of PAD and PAD-related procedures using codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS). Four ML models, including logistic regression, random forest, light gradient boosting, and extreme gradient boosting models, were trained to predict the risk of in-hospital death based on a selection of variables, including patient characteristics, comorbidities, procedures, and hospital-related factors. In-hospital mortality occurred in 1.8% of patients. The performance of the 4 models was comparable, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, sensitivity of 77% to 82%, and specificity of 72% to 75%. These results suggest adequate predictability for clinical decision-making. In all 4 models, the total number of diagnoses and procedures, age, endovascular revascularization procedure, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and diabetes with complications were critical predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of ML in predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with a primary PAD diagnosis. Findings highlight the potential of ML models in identifying high-risk patients for poor outcomes and guiding personalized intervention.
PMID: 36216437
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5351942