Incidence, Impact, and Management of Incidentalomas on Preoperative Computed Tomographic Angiograms for Breast Cancer Patients with and without Genetic Mutations
Lu, Stephen M; Waldman, Leah E; Boudiab, Elizabeth; Lopez, Christopher D; Bassiri-Tehrani, Brian; DelMauro, Matthew A; Israeli, Ron; Bank, Jonathan; Machnicki, Stephen C; Lerman, Oren Z
BACKGROUND:Preoperative abdominal computed tomographic angiograms for free flap breast reconstruction improve operative safety and efficiency, but incidental findings are common and potentially affect management. In addition, the authors hypothesized that patients with genetic mutations might have a higher rate of significant findings. The authors present the largest series of computed tomographic angiogram "incidentalomas" in these two populations and an evidence-based algorithm for managing common findings. METHODS:All patients undergoing free flap breast reconstruction at Northwell Health between 2009 and 2017 were eligible. Medical history, perioperative details, and radiology reports were examined with abnormal findings recorded. Published literature was reviewed with radiologists to develop standardized guidelines for incidentaloma management. RESULTS:Of 805 patients included, 733 patients had abdominal imaging. One hundred ninety-five (27 percent) had a completely negative examination. In the remaining 538 patients, benign hepatic (22 percent) and renal (17 percent) findings were most common. Sixteen patients (2.2 percent) required additional imaging (n = 15) or procedures (n = 5). One finding was concerning for malignancy-renal cell carcinoma-which interventional radiology ablated postoperatively. Seventy-nine patients (10.8 percent) had a genetic mutation but were not found to have a statistically significant higher rate of incidentalomas. CONCLUSIONS:The authors' rate of computed tomographic angiography incidental findings (73 percent) is consistent with previous studies, but the rate requiring further intervention (2.2 percent) is lower. Incidental findings were no more common or pathologic among genetic mutation carriers. The authors also introduce an evidence-based algorithm for the management of common incidentalomas. Using these guidelines, plastic surgeons can reassure patients, regardless of mutation status, that incidentalomas are most commonly benign and have minimal impact on their surgical plan.
Umbilical Ablation During Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest Decreases Donor Site Complications
Fisher, Mark; Bank, Jonathan; Alba, Brandon; Light, David; Korn, Peter T; Feingold, Randall S; Israeli, Ron
BACKGROUND:Donor site complications are a significant source of morbidity for patients undergoing abdominal-based free flap breast reconstruction, but there is a paucity of data regarding minimizing these postoperative complications. We hypothesize that selective ablation of the umbilicus at the time of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) harvest decreases the incidence of umbilical and abdominal wall complications in high-risk patients. METHODS:A retrospective review was performed of all patients (n = 117) who underwent DIEP harvest with concomitant umbilical ablation from 2010 to 2015. This cohort was paired with 117 patients who underwent DIEP harvest without umbilical ablation. Preoperative risk factors, intraoperative factors, and postoperative complications were compared. RESULTS:The umbilical ablation group had significantly higher body mass index (30.9 vs 27.4 kg/m, P < 0.001), presence of umbilical scar (20.9% vs 5.3%, P < 0.001), umbilical hernia (82.9% vs 8.5% P < 0.001), ventral hernia (23.9% vs 1.7%, P < 0.001), and rectus diastasis (10.3% vs 2.6%, P = 0.016). There were no significant differences of smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, prior abdominal surgery, or midline abdominal scar. The umbilical ablation group had a significantly lower rate of postoperative abdominal wound dehiscence and skin loss (11.1% vs 22.2%, P = 0.023) and overall donor site complications (24.8% vs 39.3%, P = 0.017). There was no significant difference in incidence of cellulitis, seroma, or abscess. Mean follow-up time was 1.8 years. CONCLUSIONS:Selective umbilical ablation in high-risk patients at the time of abdominal flap harvest can result in significantly fewer donor site wound complications, even in the setting of increased risk factors for poor wound healing. This is likely due to avoidance of umbilical incisions and decreased upper abdominal skin undermining. We conclude that umbilical ablation is a viable option to minimize donor site complications, especially in high-risk patients.
Comparative analysis of 18-month outcomes and costs of breast reconstruction flap procedures
Israeli, Ron; Funk, Susan; Reaven, Nancy L
BACKGROUND:Data from large-scale studies of breast reconstruction surgery outcomes and downstream costs are lacking. The authors assessed outcomes, patient return rates, and costs across a large, geographically diverse patient population undergoing autologous breast reconstruction. METHODS:Insurance claims for patients undergoing free flap, latissimus dorsi flap, or transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap autologous breast reconstruction were extracted from a U.S. health care database. Claims for an 18-month period after the initial (index) procedure were analyzed to assess episodes of care, complications, breast procedures, and costs. RESULTS:Of 828 patients (274 free flaps, 302 latissimus dorsi flaps, and 252 TRAM flaps), 35 percent experienced postindex complications: incidences related to implant/graft/mesh and hematoma/seroma were highest in the latissimus dorsi arm (19 percent and 6 percent, respectively); the incidence related to breast necrosis was highest in the free flap arm (8 percent); and that related to wound complications was highest in the TRAM arm (6 percent). Returns for complications were 92.7, 84.4, and 115.5 of 100 patients in the free, latissimus dorsi, and TRAM flap arms (p < 0.05, TRAM flap versus other arms), respectively, and 105.5, 116.6, and 87.7 of 100 patients, respectively, for procedures unrelated to complications (p < 0.05, latissimus dorsi versus TRAM flaps). Nearly all patients returned at least once for treatments unrelated to complications. Mean total costs for index surgery plus postindex events were $56,205, $30,783, and $33,380 in the free, latissimus dorsi, and TRAM flap arms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Eighteen-month complication and return rates for postindex events were similar across study arms. The frequency of returns and associated cost of procedures unrelated to complications point to the inherently staged nature of autologous breast reconstruction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic, III.
Lower extremity soft tissue defect reconstruction with the serratus anterior flap [Case Report]
Mastroianni, Melissa; Leto Barone, Angelo A; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Leonard, David A; Di Rosa, Luigi; Feingold, Randall S; Israeli, Ron; Cetrulo, Curtis L
Reconstruction of limb-threatening lower extremity defects presents unique challenges. The selected method must provide adequate coverage of exposed bone, joints, and tendons while maximizing function of the limb. The traditional workhorse flaps, the free latissimus dorsi and rectus abdominis flaps, have been associated with donor site morbidity and bulkiness that can impair rehabilitation. We report a case series (n = 18) in which the free serratus anterior muscle flap and split thickness skin graft (STSG) was used for lower limb soft tissue coverage. Injuries were due to diabetes (9/18), trauma (7/18), and chronic venous stasis (2/18). A 94% flap survival rate was observed and all but one patient was ambulatory. No donor site morbidity was reported. Our series demonstrates that serratus anterior is an advantageous, reliable free flap with minimal donor site morbidity.
Complications of acellular dermal matrices in breast surgery
Acellular dermal matrices have been used in breast surgery for a decade. They are widely used in implant-based breast reconstruction to provide coverage of the inferolateral aspects of the prosthesis. Numerous benefits have been reported with this approach including improved fold control, better support and control of the implant pocket with concomitant reduced risk of malposition, and improved lower pole expansion. Seroma, infection, mastectomy skin necrosis, and expander/implant loss are the most commonly reported complications with this approach, and the incidences vary widely among studies. Patient selection and adherence to established intraoperative technique principles related to acellular dermal matrix use are both critical to minimizing the risk of complications. Acellular dermal matrices are also being used in aesthetic breast surgery, revision breast surgery, and nipple reconstruction, but clinical experience is limited. This article reviews the complications associated with the use of matrices in breast surgery from the published literature.
Acellular dermal matrix in breast reconstruction in the setting of radiotherapy
Israeli, Ron; Feingold, Randall S
Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) are becoming an integral component of immediate implant-based breast reconstruction, providing inferolateral coverage and support of the implant. Currently, five ADM products are available on the market for this purpose. Although their application has resulted in improved aesthetic results with low complication rates, the clinical performance of ADM when radiotherapy is a component of breast cancer treatment has yet to be defined. In this article, we present a thorough review of the current literature on the performance of ADM in the setting of radiotherapy from both animal and human studies, including our own experience with two proprietary ADM products. The other three products have little literature documenting their application for this type of reconstruction, and further studies specifically evaluating the performance of all ADM formulations in the setting of radiotherapy are still needed.
Extended mesh repair with external oblique muscle reinforcement for abdominal wall contour abnormalities following TRAM flap [Case Report]
Israeli, Ron; Hazani, Ron; Feingold, Randall S; DeNoto, George; Scheiner, Marc S
Many patients undergoing reconstructive surgery after mastectomy opt for reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. Among the morbidities related to TRAM flap reconstruction is the development of abdominal wall contour abnormalities, including bulges or hernias. Several repair techniques at the flap abdominal wall donor site have been described for use at the time of flap harvest in an attempt to reduce the risk of such abdominal wall complications. For patients that develop abdominal wall contour abnormalities, numerous reconstructive options have been reported, with mixed results. Ten patients were identified as having abdominal wall contour abnormalities after a TRAM flap and underwent an extended mesh repair with external oblique muscle reinforcement. The mesh was secured to the bony landmarks of the lower abdomen and the abdominal wall fascia. All patients achieved complete resolution of abdominal wall bulging. In the follow-up period, no recurrences, infections, or seromas were noted. One patient, who failed an earlier repair at the inferior abdominal wall, reported symptoms consistent with a scar neuroma. Symptoms were treated successfully with gabapentin and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We propose a novel and reliable method of lower abdominal wall reconstruction for patients with post-TRAM flap abdominal wall contour abnormalities. This technique incorporates the use of a large Marlex mesh reinforced with bilateral external oblique muscle flaps. We report a series of 10 patients who have achieved resolution of their symptoms and have regained a natural, flat-appearing abdominal wall contour.
Reconstructing a natural looking umbilicus: a new technique
Hazani, Ron; Israeli, Ron; Feingold, Randall S
An attractive umbilicus is an essential component of the abdominal wall. It defines the midline abdominal sulcus and adds to a shapely abdominal curvature. Certain procedures place the umbilicus at risk thus providing a need for a neoumbilicus. Three-hundred and twenty cases of abdominoplasties, panniculetomies, and TRAM flaps for breast reconstruction were reviewed. Five patients underwent an umbilical reconstruction after loss of the native umbilicus. A crescent-shaped incision was used to create an inferiorly based skin flap. The flap was inset to the abdominal fascia. A small full-thickness skin graft was used to form the superior hood. All patients attained an esthetically pleasing umbilicus with minimal scarring. No contracture, flap necrosis, or graft loss were noted. We present a novel, simple, and reliable technique of umbilical restoration. It circumvents the need for external scars and allows for achieving a naturally appearing umbilicus.