Non-Squamous Cell Malignancies of the Larynx
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Non-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) malignancies are rare, but well described laryngeal pathologies. However, the epidemiology and clinical behavior of these tumors is not well studied. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:Patients diagnosed with non-squamous cell larynx cancer from 2004 to 2017 in the National Cancer Database were selected. Demographic, clinicopathologic factors, treatments, and survival were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable cox regression were performed. Survival was compared with a propensity score-matched (PSM) population of laryngeal SCC patients. RESULTS:A total of 136,235 cases of larynx cancer were identified. After excluding SCC variants, 2,172 (1.6%) patients met inclusion criteria. The most common histology was chondrosarcoma (374, 17.2%), followed by small cell (345, 15.9%), and spindle cell carcinoma (268, 12.3%). The most common treatment was surgery (683, 31.4%) followed by chemoradiation (409, 18.8%) and surgery and adjuvant radiation (288, 13.3%). Overall, 3- and 5-year survival was 67.9% and 59.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis controlling for age, stage, comorbidity, histology, and treatment modality; chondrosarcoma had the best survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.11, confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.19, Pâ€‰<â€‰.001). In a PSM population, matched for age, stage, comorbidity, and treatments; non-SCC patients had significantly lower survival (51.5% vs. 59.9%, Pâ€‰<â€‰.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A diverse range of non-squamous cell malignancies occur in the larynx. In general, these tumors have poor survival, with few exceptions such as chondrosarcoma. While the majority of these histologies undergo surgical-based treatments in other sites, only 53% of patients underwent surgical-based treatment in the larynx. These data could guide clinicians in determining the outcome of treatment in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:4 Laryngoscope, 2022.
Patterns of Care and Outcomes of Carcinosarcoma of the Major Salivary Glands
OBJECTIVE:Carcinosarcoma of the salivary gland is a rare malignant biphasic tumor. The present study investigates the epidemiology and clinical behavior of carcinosarcoma of the major salivary glands using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:NCDB. METHODS:All tumors were selected between 2004 and 2018. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatments, and survival were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was performed in surgically treated patients. RESULTS:= .008) remained significant. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Carcinosarcoma is a rare salivary gland tumor that frequently presents at a locally advanced stage. Despite multimodality treatments, the outcomes are poor. In the absence of clinical trial data, these data from the NCDB could guide clinicians in the management of this rare disease.
Double-Barrel Versus Single-Barrel Fibula Flaps for Mandibular Reconstruction: Safety and Outcomes
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Fibula flaps are routinely used for osseous reconstruction of head and neck defects. However, single-barrel fibula flaps may result in a height discrepancy between native mandible and grafted bone, limiting outcomes from both an aesthetic and dental standpoint. The double-barrel fibula flap aims to resolve this. We present our institution's outcomes comparing both flap designs. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing free fibula flap mandibular reconstruction at our institution between October 2008 and October 2020. Patients were grouped based on whether they underwent single-barrel or double-barrel reconstruction. Postoperative outcomes data were collected and compared between groups. Differences in categorical and continuous variables were assessed using a Chi-square test or Student's t-test, respectively. RESULTS:Out of 168 patients, 126 underwent single-barrel and 42 underwent double-barrel reconstruction. There was no significant difference in postoperative morbidity between approaches, including total complications (PÂ =Â .37), flap-related complications (PÂ =Â .62), takeback to the operating room (PÂ =Â .75), flap salvage (PÂ =Â .66), flap failure (PÂ =Â .45), and mortality (PÂ =Â .19). In addition, there was no significant difference in operative time (PÂ =Â .86) or duration of hospital stay (PÂ =Â .17). After adjusting for confounders, primary dental implantation was significantly higher in the double-barrel group (odds ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.6; PÂ =Â .019). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Double-barrel fibula flap mandibular reconstruction can be performed safely without increased postoperative morbidity or duration of hospital stay relative to single-barrel reconstruction. Moreover, the double-barrel approach is associated with higher odds of primary dental implantation and may warrant further consideration as part of an expanded toolkit for achieving early dental rehabilitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III Laryngoscope, 2021.
Single Versus Double Venous Anastomosis Microvascular Free Flaps for Head and Neck Reconstruction
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Venous congestion accounts for most microvascular free tissue flaps failures. Given the lack of consensus on the use of single versus dual venous outflow, the authors present our institutional experience with 1 versus 2 vein anastomoses in microvascular free flap for head and neck reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients undergoing free flaps for head and neck reconstruction at our institution between 2008 and 2020. The authors included patients who underwent anterolateral thigh, radial forearm free flap, or fibula free flaps. The authors classified patients based on the number of venous anastomoses used and compared complication rates. A total of 279 patients with a mean age of 55.11â€Šyears (standard deviation 19.31) were included. One hundred sixty-eight patients (60.2%) underwent fibula free flaps, 59 (21.1%) anterolateral thigh, and 52 (18.6%) radial forearm free flap. The majority of patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists classification III or higher (Nâ€Š=â€Š158, 56.6%) and had history of radiation (Nâ€Š=â€Š156, 55.9%). Most flaps were performed using a single venous anastomosis (83.8%). Univariate analysis of postoperative outcomes demonstrated no significant differences in overall complications (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.788), flap failure (Pâ€Š=â€Š1.0), return to the Operating Room (OR) (Pâ€Š=â€Š1.0), hematoma (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.225), length of hospital stay (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.725), or venous congestion (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.479). In our cohort, the rate of venous congestion was not statistically different between flaps with 1 and 2 venous anastomoses. Decision to perform a second venous anastomoses should be guided by anatomical location, vessel lie, flap size, and intraoperative visual assessment.
Repeat Fine-Needle Aspiration With Molecular Analysis in Management of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules
OBJECTIVE:To analyze clinical outcomes in a series of indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs) with repeat fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy and results of genomic classifier. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical chart review. SETTING/METHODS:Tertiary care center. METHODS:We reviewed FNA samples from subjects with Bethesda III or IV diagnoses from January 2015 to December 2018 at a single institution and selected those with repeat FNA and ThyroSeq testing of the same nodule. Patient demographics, Bethesda classifications, ThyroSeq results, treatment detail, and surgical pathology, when available, were analyzed. RESULTS:< .0001). In excised nodules, the prevalence of malignancy and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features was 28% (n = 10) and 22% (n = 8), respectively, and all malignancies were low risk. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this case series, repeat FNA helped patients with ITNs avoid diagnostic surgery through reclassification to benign cytology. The risk of high-risk malignancy in ThyroSeq-positive nodules with repeat indeterminate cytology was low.
Nodal Metastases in Pediatric and Adult Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Major Salivary Glands
OBJECTIVE:Acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) is a rare, usually low-grade salivary malignancy. Evidence on rates of lymph node metastases (LNMs) is limited in pediatric patients and varies significantly (4%-45%) in adults. We set out to determine and compare rates of LNMs in pediatric and adult AciCC and to analyze their impact on survival, using the National Cancer Database. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database. METHODS:All AciCCs of the major salivary glands with complete clinical and pathologic nodal staging were selected between 2010 and 2016. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable regression were performed to determine factors associated with LNMs and survival. RESULTS:< .001) were associated with LNM in adult patients. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:LNMs in AciCC of the major salivary glands are rare in children and adults. However, high-grade and T3-T4 tumors are associated with an increased risk of LNM. LNM is associated with worse survival.
Osteoradionecrosis following radiation to reconstructedÂ mandibleÂ with titanium plate and osseointegrated dental implants
Predictive Value of a Genomic Classifier in Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules Based on Nodule Size
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Genomic classifiers were developed to better guide clinicians in the treatment of indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs). To our knowledge, whether there is variation in the diagnostic accuracy of these tests depending on ITN size has not been previously studied. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To analyze the diagnostic performance of a genomic classifier in relation to ITN size. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A case series study with medical records review was conducted including all patients with a cytologic diagnosis of ITN managed with genomic classifier testing and surgery from January 2015 to December 2018 at NYU Langone Health. Demographics, ITN characteristics, genomic profiles, treatment, and final pathologic findings were recorded. Data analysis was conducted from March to April 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary aim was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, and specificity of a genomic classifier test (ThyroSeq) in relation to ITN size (<2, 2-4, and >4 cm). The secondary aim was to investigate the risk of cancer associated with genetic signatures. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 212 patients with 218 ITNs, 158 (74.5%) were women; median (SD) age was 49 (15.6) years. Genomic classifier results were positive in 173 ITNs (79.4%) treated with surgery. In this group of 173 positive ITNs, 46 (26.6%) were malignant on final pathologic testing. Overall, the observed cancer prevalence in the population was 23.9% (52 ITNs). In 45 ITNs that underwent surgery despite a negative genomic classifier interpretation, 6 (13.3%) were malignant. The PPV of a positive test was 27% and the NPV was 87%. The PPV and NPV findings improved as the ITN size increased (<2 cm [nâ€‰=â€‰98]: PPV, 25%; NPV, 79% vs >4 cm [nâ€‰=â€‰33]: PPV, 50%; NPV, 89%). Test specificity was higher in larger ITNs (<2 cm: 15% vs >4 cm: 40%; Pâ€‰=â€‰.01). Isolated RAS sequence variations were the most common variant identified in malignant nodules (11 [21.1%] of all ITNs), followed by BRAF variants (7 [13.5%] of all ITNs). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this case series, the performance of the ThyroSeq test improved for larger ITNs. The risk of cancer in large ITNs with negative test results was low. These data suggest that, in genomic classifier-negative ITNs larger than 4 cm, initial management of thyroid lobectomy may be sufficient.
Including Surgical Resection in the Multimodal Management of Very Locally Advanced Sinonasal Cancer
OBJECTIVE:Sinonasal cancer often presents as locoregionally advanced disease. National guidelines recommend management of stage T4b tumors with systemic therapy and radiotherapy, but recent studies suggest that including surgical resection in the multimodal treatment of these tumors may improve local control and survival. We queried the National Cancer Database to examine patterns of care and outcomes in T4b sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Prospectively gathered data. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database. METHODS:Patients with T4b N0-3 M0 sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in 2004 to 2016 were stratified between those who received chemoradiotherapy and those who underwent surgical resection with neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. The overall survival of each cohort was assessed via Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models, with repeat analysis after reweighting of data via inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS:= .004]). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgical treatment with neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment for stage T4b sinonasal SCC was associated with promising survival outcomes, suggesting a role for incorporating surgery in treatment of select T4b SCC, particularly when removal of all macroscopic disease is feasible.
Concordance of Initial and Repeat Molecular Analysis in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Molecular tests such as ThyroSeq are recommended in the workup of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN). While repeat molecular testing is often performed after repeat fine needle aspiration (FNA) yields persistently indeterminate cytology, ThyroSeq's inter-test reliability is unclear. We assessed consistency of initial and repeat ThyroSeq analyses performed on samples from the same thyroid nodules.
Method(s): All thyroid nodules diagnosed as ITN on consecutive FNAs that received ThyroSeq with both biopsies from 2014-2018 at our institution, were reviewed. Initial analysis was ThyroSeq v2 while repeat was v2 or v3. Nodules with gene mutations, fusions, or copy number alterations (CNA) were considered ThyroSeq-positive.
Result(s): During the study period, 30 patients underwent ThyroSeq analysis on initial and repeat FNA samples (median interval=21 months). On initial testing, 27 (90%) nodules were ThyroSeq-negative and 3 (10%) low-risk mutations (RAS, EIF1AX, TSHR) were identified. Repeat ThyroSeq re-identified these 3 nodules and also interpreted 9 initially ThyroSeq-negative nodules as positive (kappa=0.286). All 9 molecular alterations were low-risk, most were identified on v3 (7, 77.8%), and CNA was the most common change (6, 66.7%). Of 12 patients with ThyroSeq-positive nodules, 8 underwent lobectomy. Final pathology identified low-risk malignancy in 3 nodules; the remainder were benign.
Conclusion(s): New findings on repeat ThyroSeq are possible. Whether these findings were detected by expanded panel or are the result of de-novo changes is unknown. The risk of missing high-risk changes appears to be low. More studies are needed to characterize the concordance of ThyroSeq analyses and natural evolution of ITNs.